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The troubles
 

The troubles

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    The troubles The troubles Presentation Transcript

    • “ The Troubles” The Northern Ireland Conflict The history of Northern Ireland is a tortured one. The conflict, which today is known as “The Troubles”, began some thirty years ago but has its roots going back to the seventeenth century. Since 1969, more than 3,225 people have died in the armed conflict, making it Europe’s second-deadliest encounter since World War II (behind Yugoslavia). While the conflict is typically described in religious terms – Protestant vs. Catholic – it really does not focus on religion. Rather, the disagreement is one involving questions of NATIONALITY , SOVEREIGNTY and COLONIALISM .
    • Getting Your Bearings The community in Northern Ireland is divided into roughly two groups: Unionists , who are mainly Protestants and have traditionally wanted Northern Ireland to stay part of the UK. Nationalists , who are mainly Catholics and have wanted the area to join the Republic of Ireland (the rest of Ireland) and form a united Ireland
    • What is the conflict in Northern Ireland about?
      • Easter Rising 1916 led by Irish nationalist Michael Collins - years of guerrilla war led to partition of Ireland by the British government in 1922.
      • An independent state, the Republic of Ireland, created in the island’s predominantly Catholic south.
      • The six Ulster counties in the north, with a Protestant majority, remained part of the United Kingdom.
      • The conflict is both political and religious: many Catholic “republicans” in Ulster complain of being treated as second-class citizens, and seek to unite Northern Ireland with the Republic of Ireland.
      • Most Protestants want Northern Ireland to remain part of the United Kingdom.
      • Almost 3,500 people on both sides have died since the Troubles began in 1969.
    • In the Name of the Father The Guildford Four were Paul Hill , Gerry Conlon , Patrick (Paddy) Armstrong and Carole Richardson , who were wrongly convicted in the United Kingdom in October 1975 for the Provisional IRA's Guildford pub bombing in 1975 which killed five and injured over one hundred people. They were imprisoned for over 15 years. On February 9, 2005, British Prime Minister Tony Blair issued an apology to the families and those still alive of the eleven imprisoned for the bombings in Guildford and Woolwich, saying in part that "I am very sorry that they were subject to such an ordeal and injustice (…) they deserve to be completely and publicly exonerated."
    • Northern Ireland – The Facts POPULATION AND RELIGION
    • Northern Ireland – The Facts Cont. Economy
    • Northern Ireland – The Facts Cont. Security
    • Northern Ireland – The Facts Cont. Deaths Loyalist paramilitaries – 871 (95.7% of victims) Republican paramilitaries – 829 (43.1% of victims) British forces – 203 (56.9% of victims)
    • Northern Ireland – The Facts Cont. Discrimination
    • The Who’s Who of Northern Ireland
        • Before getting started on the causes, events and effects of the Northern Ireland conflict it is important that you can identify and understand the KEY INDIVIDUALS and GROUPS involved in the conflict.
      • TASK:
      • Using the Internet you are to research the key Individuals and groups listed in the two boxes below.
      • Outline the following:
          • period they existed (formed/born/died)
          • nationality/political affiliation
          • if an individual, which group they support. If a group, who is/was their leader or founder
          • their importance and a notable quote (if possible).
      • Make sure you make connections between each, to identify any relationships which may exist.
      Key Individuals Gerry Adams, Bertie Ahern, Tony Blair, Denis Bradley, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, Michael Colllins, Oliver Cromwell, Mark Durkan, Brian Faulkner, Pat Finucane, Edward Heath, John Hume, John Major, Martin McGuinness, Ian Paisley. Key Groups Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), Ulster Unionist Party (UUP), Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP), Sinn Fein (SF), British Army, Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC), Ulster Defence Association (UDA), Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF), Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA), Orange Order, Real Irish Republican Army (RIRA), Free Presbyterian Church
    • The Origins of the Northern Ireland Conflict (Long Term Causes) The Plantation of Ulster The Williamite Wars The 1798 Rebellion The Home Rule Crisis War and Partition The Easter Rising 1916
    • Episode - Northern Ireland Conflict Duration:____ Place:_______ Time_______ Key Persons/Groups Key Person//Groups Key Person//Groups Time Sequence EFFECTS CAUSES Key Persons/Groups Key Person//Groups Key Person//Groups
    • Do the Roots of the present-day conflict in Northern Ireland lie in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries?
      • Military Invasions
      • 1171 Henry II led a military expedition into Ireland and made the Irish people subject to himself and future English monarchs.
      • Political colonization
      • Henry VIII – worried about Ireland could be a launching site for an invasion of England by France or Spain.
      • Force Irish to speak English and observe English law
      • Initiated a policy of ‘surrender and regrant’
      • 1541 – Irish parliament declared him their country’s king.
      • Queen Elizabeth1558 – suppressed resistance by sending own subjects to settle in rebellious parts of the north of Ireland (Ulster) – these areas had been regions of Irish Catholic resistance. By the time of her death in 1603 most of Ireland was under English control.
      • Religious colonisation
      • Before 1533 (24 th year of Henry’s reign) England like Ireland was a Catholic country. But Henry, partly because the Pope refused to sanction his divorce from his second wife, severed ties with the Roman Catholic Church and established the Church of England.
      • Religious colonisation
      • Before 1533 (24 th year of Henry’s reign) England like Ireland was a Catholic country. But Henry, partly because the Pope refused to sanction his divorce from his second wife, severed ties with the Roman Catholic Church and established the Church of England and declared himself head of the Church of Ireland.
      • From that point England’s political conquest of Ireland was inextricably linked with a religious conquest. Many Protestants sent to settle in Ireland were also Puritans (viewed Catholicism as a backward and devilish religion).
      • Ulster Plantation
      • Flight of the Earls (hundred Catholic earls leave Ireland for Rome). English Crown seized large tracts and English and Scottish Protestants settled in 1610.
      • This was a sort of ethnic cleansing – the aim was to get rid of the Irish. Catholic priests banned and catholic peasants could only attend Protestant worship services.
      • Cromwellian Plantation
      • 1641 Irish rebelled against English rule.
      • OliverCromwell led a force of 12,000 soldiers and massacred thousands of Irish Catholics.
      • After Ulster and Cromwell Plantations, 78% of Ireland was owned by foreigners, while 85% of the Irish people lived in abject poverty.
      Cont.
      • Battle of Boyne
      • William of Orange and Mary (Protestant) succeed James II (Catholic)
      • Fight between James and William of Orange – WO wins and Penal Code introduced (anti-Catholic laws) – Catholics could not vote, hold political office, receive higher education, buy land, own weapons, or a horse worth more than ₤5. If protested they would be expelled from their homes.
      • Act of Union 1801
      • Abolished Irish parliament and made Ireland an official part of a new entity known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (UK).
      • Home Rule
      • 1845 Potato famine – when disease lifted in 1850 more than a million people had died of starvation or sickness, and double that number had emigrated abroad.
      • This led to a push by Catholics for land reform which they gained in 1881.
      • This led to the belief that Irish self-government or Home Rule was inevitable
      • 1914 WWI British government hurried legislation through Parliament that granted Ireland the right to govern itself. But two catches:
      • Law not effective till after WWI
      • Protestant-dominated Ulster counties could opt out and remain part of the UK.
      Cont.
      • Easter Rising
      • Protestants and Catholics were unhappy with the Home Rule conditions.
      • Protestants - Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF)/ Catholics (Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) formed.
      • Easter Monday 1916 IRB members took over buildings in Dublin and declared Ireland state and themselves its provisional government.
      • British troops ended the rebellion, but their heavy-handed tactics deepened resentment among Irish Catholics, turning the IRB dead into martyrs and the survivors into heroes.
      Cont.
    • Partition
      • Jan 1919 Sinn Fein MPs set up Dail (Assembly of Ireland) to run Ireland – but not recognised by British government. Armed force used to suppress Republican government.
      • Government of Ireland Act 1920 established parliaments and limited sovereignty in both the north and south of Ireland.
      • July 1921 truce between IRA (Michael Collins) and British army.
      • Dec 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty leads to most of Ireland becoming a free state (independent dominion), and the six Ulster counties forming Northern Ireland and coming under direct rule of the UK. Disagreement lead to Civil War which lasted a year.
      • April 1922 Special Powers Act gives extensive power of RUC and armed B-Special Reserves – detention without trial.
      • Proportional Representation abolished for local elections (Sept 1922); abolished for parliamentary elections 1929. Unionists use this control in Northern Irish Parliament and local government to discriminate against Catholics. Civil service posts, local government jobs and housing offered to Protestants. Protestant businesses refuse to employ Catholics and new industries set up in Protestant areas.
      • May 1923 Ireland officially partitioned.
      • Partition solidified 1949 with laws in:
        • Irish parliament that officially severed ties with Great Britain – Head of State Irish President.
        • UK parliament that guaranteed Northern Ireland would remain part of UK – only way this could change was if a majority of residents voted to do so.
    • Taking Sides: Unionism and Nationalism
      • Economic development held back by British control.
      • Treated like a colony
      • Catholics treated like second class citizens in NI.
      • Constitution protects all religions so Protestants having nothing to fear.
      • Catholics consider selves as Irish citizens and British have stifled their identity (language, sports, music)
      • Native population who lived in Ulster before plantation.
      • United Ireland using peaceful methods
      • Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP)
      • Formed 1970 lead by John Hume
      • Opposes IRA violence
      • Hopes to share power with all NI parties.
      • Descended Scotland and England – Ulster plantations in 17 th century.
      • Majority population in NI – Act of Union 1800.
      • Links lost with Britain would lead to loss of prosperity in Industry.
      • British respons for SS and eco dev.
      • Catholic domination in all-Ireland state would lead to erosion of beliefs.
      • Evident in decline in Protestant numbers in south after partition.
      • Protestants proud British citizens and different to others in Ireland.
      • Evident in Orange Order Marches
      • Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) – largest, moderate, willing to share power with Nats and Republicans.
      • Democratic Unionist Party (DUP) – Ian Paisley – oppose the sharing of power, esp Sinn Fein.
      • Orange Order – 1975 to defend Prot
      Nationalists Unionist Beliefs/ Desires Arguments for a United Ireland: Prosperity: Religion Culture Political Parities
    • Taking Sides: Republicans and Loyalists
      • Irish Republican Army (IRA) formed 1919. 1969 street violence unprepared and poorly equipped and lead to split – Official IRA (abandoned violence); Provisional IRA (continued with bombings and violence)
      • Irish National Liberation Army (INLA)
      • Real IRA and Continuity IRA, split from Rep mvmt in opposition to ceasefires – Omagh bombing 1998
      • Independent Ireland prepared to use violence to force British army to withdraw.
      • Regard selves as descendents of the leaders of Easter Rising and their struggle a continuance of the war of independence.
      • Sinn Fein – legal political party with close links to IRA.
      • Has attempted to encourage gains through politics rather than violence. Agreed to ceasefire in 1995.
      • Gerry Adams
      • Paramilitary groups emerged 1960-70s to defend Protestant areas.
      • Believe army and RUC unable to deal with IRA violence.
      • Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) set up 1960 and smaller of main 2. Agreed to ceasefire 1995 but some disagreed and broke away to form Loyalist Volunteer Force (LVF) and continued violence till 1998.
      • Ulster Defence Association (UDA) is largest and formed 1971. Remained legal till 1980s but carried out acts of violence under Ulster Freedom Fighters (UFF). Agreed with ceasefire in 1995.
      Republicans Loyalists Beliefs/ Desires Private Armies Political Parities
    • More Peaceful Relations 1940s/50s Co-operation during WWII Wartime Prosperity The Welfare State - Labour 1945 - Educational Reforms
      • Conditions in the Republic of Ireland
      • Poverty
      • Catholic Church
      • Attitudes to the IRA
      • IRA Response
      Increased prosperity and wealth
    • Captain Terrence O’Neill Leader of the Unionist Party and Northern Ireland PM from 1963
      • Economic Improvements
      • Investment £900 million
      • Modernisation railway
      • Co-op with Dublin Trades Union Congress
      • Est Eco Council under Faulkner
      • Ministry of Development
      • Est of new city called Craigavon
      • New University in Coleraine
      Political Changes Improved relations with Republic – Taoisearch Sean Lemass
      • Hand of friendship to the Nationalists in NI
      • Visiting Cardinals, Archbishops and Catholic leaders.
      • Condolences to C Church on death of Pope John XXIII in June 1963
      • Visiting Catholic run schools
      • Increasing financial support to Catholic schools and hospitals.
      • Positives
      • Multinationals opened new factories (Michelin)
      • Construction of motorway
      • Oil refinery opened
      • New airport development
      • Agreement on supply of electricity from South
      • Negatives
      • 20 000 jobs lost in ailing traditional industries
      • Financial assistance needed to major ship builder – Harland and Wolfe
      • Unemployment 7-8% but over 12% in West Belfast
      • Bias in govt policy
      • Unionist Reaction
      • Division in OUP
      • Rev Ian Paisley (Free Pres Church) objected to influence of C Church in Repub but more so Repub constitution in Act II and III that laid claim to whole of Ireland
      • Nationalist Reaction
      • Better future failed to appear
      • Craigavon named after first PM
      • O’Neill’s eco policies favoured Protestant East
      • Except Derry/Londonderry eco dev in Protest areas
      • Unemployment higher in Catholic west
      • Second uni in mainly Prot town
      • No sign increase of Catholic mship of health and ed bodies
    • Captain Terrence O’Neill Leader of the Unionist Party and Northern Ireland PM from 1963
      • Economic Improvements
      • Investment £900 million
      • Modernisation railway
      • Co-op with Dublin Trades Union Congress
      • Est Eco Council under Faulkner
      Political Changes Improved relations with Republic – Taoisearch Sean Lemass Hand of friendship to the Nationalists in NI Positives
      • Negatives
      • 20 000 jobs lost in ailing traditional industries
      • Financial assistance needed to major ship builder – Harland and Wolfe
      • Unemployment 7-8% but over 12% in West Belfast
      • Bias in govt policy
      • Unionist Reaction
      • Division in OUP
      • Rev Ian Paisley (Free Pres Church) objected to influence of C Church in Repub but more so Repub constitution in Act II and III that laid claim to whole of Ireland
      • Nationalist Reaction
      • Better future failed to appear
      • Craigavon named after first PM
      • O’Neill’s eco policies favoured Protestant East
    • Growing concerns about Civil Rights and the NICRA Your teacher will give you a handout that outlines why concern about civil rights was increasing. Read this handout before continuing. Who were the NICRA
      • By the late 1960s, there was a generation of well-educated and ambitious middle-class Catholics in Northern Ireland. They were fully aware of their rights, were frustrated by the STATUS QUO, and wanted to expose discrimination.
      • They did not want to end Partition or overthrow the Northern Ireland states, but instead, they wanted to play a role in it (government or professions). They wanted to sweep away the prejudices and discrimination that stood in their way.
      • The passing of the Civil Rights Acts in 1964 and 1965 in the USA encouraged them.
      • The Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) was formed in February 1967 and consisted of trade unions, members of political parties, individuals, and not just discontented Catholics. Catholics/Republicans supported it because they suffered the worst discrimination, but Protestants/Unionists also wanted an end to discrimination. Socialists also supported because their main aim was to build a society where wealth was shared out equally among all people.
      • Catholic and Protestant students from the universities and colleges were heavily involved (socialist and conservatives).
    • Aims of the NICRA
      • Elections
      • Introduction of ‘one-man-one-vote’ principle for elections (at time only property owners could vote in local govt elections – mainly wealthier Protestants)
      • End of gerrymandering which allowed Unionists to control Catholic areas by fixing electoral boundaries.
      • Jobs and Housing
      • Fair play for Catholics in public housing allocation
      • An end to discrimination in government jobs
      • A complaints procedure against local government
      • Law and Order
      • Disbandment of the B-Specials (almost entirely Protestant)
      • Abolition of Special Powers Act which allowed the police wide-ranging powers
      NICRA did raise awareness of discrimination, especially amongst many middle-class Protestants (usually Unionist) and were dismayed at the situation. An opinion poll in December 1967 showed that 43% of the population favoured new laws outlawing discrimination.
    • Were the Troubles Inevitable? An Overview of Northern Ireland 1968-71
      • Task:
      • Working in pairs. Read through the handout, Overview: Northern Ireland 1968-71 , and try to agree on the following:
      • Why civil rights protests led to violence
      • The point when you think the conflict we generally call the ‘Troubles’ began (there is a lot of debate as to the precise point at which the conflict started).
      • At this point you are only using an outline of the events which will be
      • described in more detail as we progress through the unit.
      • When you have finished this unit you can see whether your views have
      • changed.
    • How did the Civil Rights marches of 1968 lead to violence? Northern Ireland slide into violence because of the civil rights campaigns of 1968 but this was never their intention. If they had thought that it would lead to 30 years of conflict they would never have carried on with it. From Peace to Violence? Read the handout, How did the Civil Rights marches of 1968 lead to Violence , to gain an understanding of the period 1968 to 1969. It is important that you understand the events of this period before attempting to analyse the reasons for the violent reaction to the civil rights movement.
    • Why was the reaction to the Civil Rights Movement so Violent? Media attention The entire saga took place under the gaze of the television cameras. This raised the stakes and heightened confrontation. Fear of the IRA Many Protestants and govt saw civil rights movement as plot to destabilise NI, little more than a front for an IRA attack backed up by the Republic. But the IRA was basically non-existent at the time. This strengthened their fears that the Catholics in NI were a secret Republican army. O’Neill’s Failings O’Neill was a moderate politician, who found it very difficult to deal with extremists. His reforms were hurried. They were too radical for his Unionist critics, but not radical enough for his Republican critics. Marching and confrontation Marching has a long tradition in NI. It has often led to confrontation. The People’s Democracy march in January 1969 deliberately took a route through sensitive areas, which would be sure to stir up Protestant hostility. Radicalism in the Civil Rights Movt The NICRA was concerned first and foremost with the issue of civil rights, and many Protestants supported this. However, some of the leading figures in the civil rights movement were Republican Nationalists. Many others believed in socialist principles, especially the leaders of the People’s Democracy movement. NI was a very conservative society, and socialist ideas were still treated with suspicion. Sectarian Prejudice Clearly, long-standing sectarian prejudice played a major part in explaining the long-term civil rights abuses. It was also one reason for the violence in 1969. The government’s own report (by the Cameron Commission) went out of its way to criticise the sectarian bias in the actions of some RUC officers and B-Specials. It made it clear that the marchers were not violent. Working-class Protestant resentment Many working-class Loyalists were angry at the demands of the ‘civil righters’. They resented the impression given in the media that only Catholics suffered hardships while a privileged Protestant community looked down on them. They also had to deal with poor living conditions and hardship.
    • Effects of the Events of 1969-72
      • British Troops in NI because:
      • Increased violence between Nationalists and RUC and B-Specials
      • Battle of Bogside 12 August 1969
      • 15 August PM Harold Wilson ordered British troops as a temporary measure
      • Catholic population first welcomed as protection from Protestant RUC but the situation soon changed.
      • Re-emergence of the IRA
      • 1970 split into Provisional and Official. Provisional declared selves defenders of nationalist areas (Sean MacStiofain).
      • Received money and weapons from USA and Republic.
      • Good relations between British army and nationalist community collapsed eg Falls Road, Belfast 35 hours curfew and search (July 1970).
      • Internment
      • Introduced by PM Faulkner to relieve pressure on army and RUC and target IRA.
      • Gave police power to arrest and detain without trial anyone suspected of terrorist activity.
      • Failed because intelligence out of date eg 452 men arrested not one was a leading member of Prov IRA.
      • All targeted were Nats or CRights supporters and no loyalists, despite their violent activities.
      • Lead to increased violence eg Bloody Sunday.
      • Direct Rule
      • Introduced March 1972 by British government in response to increasing violence.
      • Northern Ireland was to be ruled directly from Westminster and not by its own local parliament.
      Brendan Hughes, a future IRA commander, describes the Provisionals in action in 1970. He was being interviewed for a television series “ My old school was being attacked by loyalist crowds with petrol bombs. One of the IRA men who were there at the time had a Thompson submachine gun and asked if anybody knew the layout of the school. I did and I went with this fella. Petrol bombs were coming in all over… He fired a Thompson submachine gun over the heads of the crowd and it stopped the school from being burnt down. That was my first contact with the IRA.” Interviewer: What impression did the IRA man with a Thompson submachine gun have on you? “ It gave me a sense of pride and a feeling that we had something to protect ourselves with. I wanted to be involved in that too, because our whole community felt that we were under attack. I wanted to be part of that defence. From then on in, I got involved with the Movement.”
    • Brendan Hughes, a future IRA commander, describes the Provisionals in action in 1970. He was being interviewed for a television series “ My old school was being attacked by loyalist crowds with petrol bombs. One of the IRA men who were there at the time had a Thompson submachine gun and asked if anybody knew the layout of the school. I did and I went with this fella. Petrol bombs were coming in all over… He fired a Thompson submachine gun over the heads of the crowd and it stopped the school from being burnt down. That was my first contact with the IRA.” Interviewer: What impression did the IRA man with a Thompson submachine gun have on you? “ It gave me a sense of pride and a feeling that we had something to protect ourselves with. I wanted to be involved in that too, because our whole community felt that we were under attack. I wanted to be part of that defence. From then on in, I got involved with the Movement.”
    • Effects of the Events of 1969-72
      • British Troops in NI because:
      • Increased violence between Nationalists and RUC and B-Specials
      • Battle of Bogside 12 August 1969
      • 15 August PM Harold Wilson ordered British troops as a temporary measure
      • Catholic population first welcomed as protection from Protestant RUC but the situation soon changed.
      • Re-emergence of the IRA
      • 1970 split into Provisional and Official. Provisional declared selves defenders of nationalist areas (Sean MacStiofain).
      • Received money and weapons from USA and Republic.
      • Good relations between British army and nationalist community collapsed eg Falls Road, Belfast 35 hours curfew and search (July 1970).
      • Internment
      • Introduced by PM Faulkner to relieve pressure on army and RUC and target IRA.
      • Gave police power to arrest and detain without trial anyone suspected of terrorist activity.
      • Failed because intelligence out of date eg 452 men arrested not one was a leading member of Prov IRA.
      • All targeted were Nats or CRights supporters and no loyalists, despite their violent activities.
      • Lead to increased violence eg Bloody Sunday.
      • Direct Rule
      • Introduced March 1972 by British government in response to increasing violence.
      • Northern Ireland was to be ruled directly from Westminster and not by its own local parliament.
    • Timeline 1970-1993 1971 Internment 1972 Bloody Sunday 1972 Direct Rule 1973/74 Sunningdale Conference 1976 Brit govt removes political prisoner status for paramilitary prisoners 1980 Hunger strike by republican prisoners 1981 Bobby Sands elected as MP, but dies soon after 1981 Republican ‘ballot and bullet’ policy begins 1983 New Ireland Forum meets 1985 Anglo-Irish Agreement 1988-1992 Talks between all Northern Ireland political parties, British, Republic of Ireland govts to establish peace process
    • What made the Paramilitaries so Powerful 1970-1993?
      • Total death toll during the Troubles was over 3500 (Republicans 60%; Loyalists 30%; Security Forces 10%).
      • Over half the victims were innocent civilians with no connections to the paramilitaries.
    • Reasons for accumulation of Power
      • Both believed in what they were doing – prepared to kill or be killed for their cause.
      • Both had political parties:
        • IRA – Sinn Fein (by 1980s)
        • Loyalists – Progressive Unionist Party (by 1990s)
        • But most people still supported the democratic parties eg
        • Catholics – SDLP; Protestants – UUP.
      • Internment which led to incidents such as Bloody Sunday
      • Loyalist Paramilitaries (UDA, UDF, UFF)
        • Reacted to IRA initially but by late 70s and early 80s responded by killing Catholics.
        • By 1990s vicious cycle:
            • IRA threat and continued violence lead to support of Loyalists
            • Loyalist attacks reinforced role of IRA as defenders of Catholics.
      • Economic Factors
        • By 1970s NI in economic trouble (businesses wrecked by bombs; firms reluctant to set up factories or offices) and continued well into 80/90s.
        • Therefore the young became easy targets for recruitment.
      How did the Paramilitaries keep control? Ruled through fear – intimidation and threat An extract from a novel, Lies of Silence , by the Northern Ireland writer Brian Moore. In the novel, a married couple are held hostage by the IRA. The husband is forced to drive his car through security checks with a bomb in the boot, or his wife will be killed. Eventually he is killed by the IRA. This extract shows the woman clashing with the IRA activists. “ If there was a vote tomorrow among the Catholics of Northern Ireland you wouldn’t get five percent of it. You’re just a bunch of crooks, IRA or UDA, Protestants or Catholics, you’re all in the same business. Racketeers, the bunch of you. There isn’t a building site in this city or a pub that you or the UDA don’t hold up for protection money… You’ve made this place into a shambles and if it was handed over to your crowd tomorrow you wouldn’t have the first notion of what to do with it… You’re not fighting for anybody’s freedom. Not mine, not the people of Northern Ireland, not anybody’s. The only thing you’re doing is making people hate each other worse than ever. Maybe that’s what you want, isn’t it? Because if the Catholics here stopped hating the Prods, where would the IRA be?”
    • Why did Sinn Fein become a significant political force?
      • Sinn Fein is the political wing of the republican movement.
      • Technically separate from the IRA, but the links between them are very close.
      • Until the mid-1990s Sinn Fein was an uncompromising republican party. It believed in a united Ireland with no links to Britain at all. It also believed that the IRA had the right to use armed force to achieve this aim.
      • However, for most of the 1970s, Sinn Fein was a relatively unimportant part of the republican movement. The Provisional IRA leaders believed wholeheartedly in the armed struggle, rather than in fighting election campaigns.
      • Since 1969, Sinn Fein had not even put up candidates for local or national elections. In the early 1980s, this changed.
      Task: Read the handout, Why did Sinn Fein become a significant political force? and complete the activities to gain a greater understanding of this political association.
    • Political Initiatives 1971-93 (Why did they fail?) During the Troubles, the media reports of bombs and shootings gave people outside Northern Ireland that it was a war zone. It seemed to have no normal life and no normal politics either. This was not the case. There were ‘normal’ political parties in Northern Ireland, and most people supported them. All the parties had views and policies relating to a wide range of ‘normal’ issues such as education, health care and housing. However, the key question for all the political parties was clear: how could they bring peace back to Northern Ireland? Part of the problem for the politicians was that they did not agree on how to do this.
    • Anglo-Irish Agreement Harold McCusker UUP MP for Upper Bann Rev Ian Paisley MP Leader of the DUP John Major Prime Minister of United Kingdom Seamus Mallon SDLP MP for Newry and Armagh Rev Ian Paisley MP Leader of the DUP The Downing Street Declaration Gerry Adams MP    
    • 1994: Paramilitary Ceasefires August 1931 IRA announced a complete ceasefire – October 13 loyalist paramilitaries also declare a ceasefire. But much skeptism.
      • 1995: The Joint Framework Document February 1995
      • Drawn up by British and Irish Governments – plan for peace and new assembly for NI and North-South Council of Ministers (set agenda for Good Friday Ag).
      • Lowest death toll in the troubles and peace looked possible.
      • UUP (David Trimble) gave full support.
      • Under former US Senator, George Mitchell an international commission set up to work out a process for decommissioning weapons and achieving a settlement everyone could accept.
      • 1996: Decommission and elections
      • January, Mitchell Principles – plan for achieving decommissioning of paramilitary weapons which Sinn Fein agreed to but IRA did not.
      • PM John Major demanded NI elections to see the support paramilitaries had – seen as delay in peace process.
      • Violence breaks out – IRA huge bomb in London’s Docklands February; Manchester in June. Loyalist ceasefire held.
      • Elections took place to the Northern Ireland Forum without violent incidents. Forum was a sounding board body to work out all the issues which would have to be tackled in the peace process.
      • 1997: New governments and deep divisions
      • Tony Blair UK; Bertie Aherne Irish Republic
      • Dr Mo Mowlan appointed by Blair as NI Secretary – negotiator in the peace process.
      • Violence by both IRA and Loyalists. IRA new ceasefire and Sinn Fein part of peace process but no weapons decommissioning. Therefore, Unionist unsure about sitting down with SF; DUP pulled out; UUP participated
      • IRA split as a result – Continuity IRA and Real IRA.
      1998: Good Friday Agreement
    • 1994: Paramilitary Ceasefires August 1931 IRA announced a complete ceasefire – October 13 loyalist paramilitaries also declare a ceasefire. But much skeptism.
      • 1995: The Joint Framework Document February 1995
      • 1996: Decommission and elections
      • January, Mitchell Principles – plan for achieving decommissioning of paramilitary weapons which Sinn Fein agreed to but IRA did not.
      • 1997: New governments and deep divisions
      • Tony Blair UK; Bertie Aherne Irish Republic
      • Dr Mo Mowlan appointed by Blair as NI Secretary – negotiator in the peace process.
      • Violence by both IRA and Loyalists. IRA new ceasefire and Sinn Fein part of peace process but no weapons decommissioning. Therefore, Unionist unsure about sitting down with SF; DUP pulled out; UUP participated
      • IRA split as a result – Continuity IRA and Real IRA.
      1998: Good Friday Agreement
    • Terms of the Good Friday Agreement
      • A new Northern Ireland Assembly with 108 members would be set up to replace direct rule. Using proportional representation, members will reflect the makeup of the population of the province.
      • A North-South Council of Ministers would also be set up, made up of members of the new Assembly and ministers from the Republic.
      • The Irish government would remove Articles 2 and 3 of its constitution, which claimed the North as part of its territory (subject to a referendum of the people of the Republic).
      • There would be a review of policing in Northern Ireland.
      • Early release for paramilitary prisoners was promised.
    • Did the Good Friday Agreement mean Northern Ireland’s troubles were over????
      • Crisis January 1998 when loyalist paramilitary prisoners seemed likely to withdraw their support for the peace process – blow because of their strong influence within their movement. Lead to Trimble and Mowlam visiting them and regaining their support.
      • While most loyalist and republican paramilitaries were willing to end conflict but some splinter groups still opposed the peace process – series of bombings and shootings February and March 1998.
      • Agreement reached 10 April 1998 but referendum was still to be held in May 1998 where the people of the Republic and NI were asked if they agreed with the Good Friday Agreement – in NI 71% agreed.
      • Republic also asked if they were prepared to allow Articles 2 and 3 of the constitution to be removed – 94% agreed.
      Study the timeline of the events and developments since the 1998 Good Friday Agreement to identify the problems which were still being encountered.
    • Northern Ireland, the Present and the Future Read the handouts given to you by your teacher and discuss whether you think peace in Northern Ireland will be lasting.