Political ideologies and beliefsPresentation Transcript
Ideologies and Beliefs of the Twentieth Century Activities and content in this PowerPoint may have been adapted from a variety of sources.
We Didn’t Start the Fire The words of this song and the accompanying imagery highlight a large number of events, people, ideas and beliefs from the twentieth century. While listening to the song and watching the images write down as many ideas and beliefs that you can identify. For Example: Ho Chi Minh = Communism/Nationalism http://www.flashplayer.com/music/fire.html http://www.its.caltech.edu/~yel/Fire.html
Ideology Brainstorm!!!!! Stop for 3 minutes and think about the word ideology. Write down all the things that you know, or think you know about the word.
An ideology is a collection of ideas. There exists many different kinds – political , social , epistemological, ethical and more…
The term was coined by Count Destutt de Tracy in the late 18th century to define a ‘science of ideas’.
A political ideology is a set of ideas and principles that explain how the society should work and offer the blueprint for a certain social order. It largely concerns itself with how to allocate power and to what ends it should be used.
For example, Communism (based on the ideas and writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels)
Every society has an ideology that forms the basis of the ‘public opinion’ – the dominant ideology .
This dominant ideology appears to be neutral, while all others that differ from the norm are often seen as somewhat radical .
Organisations (political organisations, lobbyists) striving for power influence the ideology of a society to become what they want it to be – therefore, that is why people in a society seem to think alike.
Its just a Jump to the Left, and then a Step to the Right…. (Defining the Ideological Spectrum – as found in modern Western Countries)
Historical Origins of Left and Right
Originated early in the French Revolutionary era.
Referred to seating arrangements in Parliament. Aristocracy sat on the right of the Speaker and the commoners sat on the Left (hence, terms Right-wing politics and Left-wing politics.
Liberal Conservative Left associated with Socialism, Feminism, Communism (advocate change) Right associated with theocracy, fascism, totalitarianism (do not advocate change) An Ideological Spectrum is a way of comparing or visualizing different political positions, ideas and beliefs, by placing them upon one or more geometric axes. Moderate Classical Liberalism however, was based on the idea of a laissez-faire approach (“hands off”) to both economic and social policy.
Refining the Ideological Spectrum The Economic Spectrum Liberal Conservative Economic Liberals Favour broad government involvement in economic policymaking and regulation of business. Left Right Economic Conservatives Favour limited government involvement in economic policymaking and regulation of business.
Refining the Ideological Spectrum The Social/Political Spectrum Liberal Conservative Social/Political Liberals Favour limited government regulation of individual behaviour. For example: support gay rights, Pro-choice about abortion. Left Right Social/Political Conservatives Favour broad government regulation of individual behaviour. For example: oppose gay rights and are Pro-life about abortion.
Using the information that you have learnt this lesson write definitions for the following terms: Left to the Right ( Definitions ) Liberal Liberals believe that the government should be actively involved in the promotion of social welfare of a nation’s citizens. Liberals usually can stand change within the existing political system. Hence, they are considered to be to the Left of the political spectrum and support big government, economic regulation, progressive taxation and progressive social policy, such as support for gay rights, unlimited free speech and Affirmation Action. Conservative Conservatives are people who hold conservative ideals and favour keeping things as they are, or maintaining the status-quo if it is what they desire. Hence, they are considered to be to the Right of the political spectrum and are usually hesitant or cautious about adopting new policies, especially if they increase government activism in some way. They feel that less government is better. In the words of Jefferson, “the best governments govern least”.
Left-Wing Left-wing refers to a range of radical political views and to those holding them. The term came into being due to the seating plan of the French Estates General where the nobility sat on the King’s right and the Third Estate on his left (in parliament). The Left is representative of ‘Change’. However, after World War I political attitudes no longer clustered so consistently around the old left-right division. For example, Socialism and Communism do not necessarily equate with ‘Change’. Right-wing Right-wing refers to a range of conservative political views and to those holding them. The Right is representative of continuing the ‘Status quo’. For example Fascism, Neo-Nazism, Totalitarianism.
Take a Stand
The words Liberal and Conservative have been posted at opposite ends of the room, and Moderate in the middle of the room.
You are going to be given a quote.
Read the quote and decide if the quote is reflective of a Liberal, Moderate or Conservative point of view.
Now move to the ideology the quote most nearly represents.
You may be called upon to read your quote to the class and explain why you feel that it most nearly represents that ideology.
You will now hear one more quote. Decide where a person like this would best fit on the spectrum. Be prepared to explain your decision.
The I deolo gical Grid Govt. control Freedom Social/Political Economic Govt. control Conservative Totalitarian Complete government control of economic and social issues Libertarian Minimal government control of both economic and social issues Liberal
Identifying Ideology Read each of the quotes below. For each quote decide if the speaker is likely a liberal, conservative, libertarian, or totalitarian. When you have made your decision, put the letter of the quote where you feel it belongs on the ideology grid. Voter A: “ I worked my way up from poverty to become the successful business owner I am today. I get frustrated when I think that my tax money goes to support people who won’t help themselves. I think part of the blame belongs with the media – they promote all the wrong values.” Voter B: “ I really don’t care what other people do in their free time, as long as they don’t bother me. I sure don’t like it when the government tells me what to do with my money or in my own home – I’m certainly not going to turn around and do the same thing to my neighbours.”
Identifying Ideology Voter C: “ I really worry about the state of the world today. It seems like more and more kids are growing up in poverty and there’s no one there to help them. I think we need to do more toward providing healthcare and education programs for our young people.” Voter D : “ These days, you can’t be too careful. I think we need to spend a lot more money on the national defence. I wish there was a police officer on every corner? The police could search my car all they want, since I don’t break the law. I also think the government should crack down on the media – their reporting gives our enemies an inside look at all our military preparations.
Extension – Try if you want
Think about the issues of immigration, stem cell research, euthanasia and abortion.
Write an imaginary dialogue about the issue between four characters, a liberal, a conservative, a libertarian and a totalitarian.
Your dialogue should demonstrate areas of difference and areas of similarity between the ideologies.
The Feminist Perspective During the 1950s and 1960s stereotypes for women existed in the home, workforce and as mothers. For example in the workforce much of the resistance to women being paid the same as men was based on the assumption that a women’s real place was in the home, not the workforce. Feminists challenged this stereotype. Many advertisements found in women’s magazines pre 1960s demonstrate these stereotypes.
Advertisement Critical Analysis
Identify the kinds of jobs these advertisements portray as being ‘women’s work’.
According to advertisement A, explain how marriage is seen:
from a woman’s point of view
from a man’s point of view.
Explain how the messages of each advertisement would be different if:
the man and woman in advertisement A were reversed
the girl in advertisement B was replaced by a boy.
The Feminist Mystique
An Introduction to Feminism
1960s and 70s saw the traditional roles of men and women changed dramatically.
With the rise in feminism it was not longer generally assumed that women should:
receive less pay than men for doing the same thing
stay at home to look after children
be restricted to certain careers
As the gay liberation movement supported the feminist movement through the 1990s a ‘ Backlash ’ began – a coalition of individuals opposed to feminism and gay liberation.
Voices from the Past Sarah Gillman, 19, reflecting on her 1970’s childhood While I was at primary school and the women’s movement was at its peak in the mid-70s, my home life complemented learning and vice versa. In fourth grade, I wanted to be a judge, my friends the prime minister, doctors and astronauts. Assisted by teachers, girls and boys were encouraged to express themselves as individuals and to try everything as equals. This situation, however, changed drastically when I went to high school. Females and males were segregated for sport and craft, and in subjects like maths and science, the males dominated the classes and the teachers’ attention. Worse, and the most devastating aspect in my eyes, was the change that occurred in my female friends. They began to suppress themselves, and increasingly their action and thoughts were dictated by the eternal question: ‘But what will the others think?’, ‘the others’ primarily being male. In English, they abandoned science fiction, producing instead bad sonnets pondering love and roses. The astronauts decided to become secretaries and hairdressers, and hours were spent consuming romantic fiction and discussing children’s names. (Quoted in Jocelyn A. Scutt 1985, Growing Up Feminist: A New Generation of Australian Women, p32)
Interrogating Sarah’s account
Do you think Sarah’s views would be representative of all girls growing up in the 1960s and 1970s? Explain why or why not.
Identify which level of schooling you think gives young people more freedom to be who they want to be – primary or high school. Justify your answer.
Sarah listed several different types of people and occupations. Choose three and then imagine you had to interview these people at some time during the 1960s or 1970s. Prepare five questions to ask each person.
Feminism Brainstorm!!!!! Stop for 3 minutes. Think about what you have just heard and discussed. Now think about what the word Feminism means. Brainstorm and write down all the things that you know, or think you know about the Feminism.
Feminism IS????? Feminism is a political ideology that gives recognition that women have less structural power than men and the consequent advocacy of equal rights and opportunities for women, especially in the economic and political spheres. Feminism is considered to be a Left-wing ideology. Do you agree? Justify your response. Do you think all women would agree with definition? Again Justify your response.
The First Wave (Origins)
Liberal feminism first formed and grew out of liberal ideals about individual rights and equality.
Concentrates on achieving legal rights within existing democratic systems.
Believes women can achieve justice and equity in a capitalist democratic state.
Equity is not the same as equality. It means that everyone has the same chances and opportunities to succeed on their merits. Therefore, removes the barriers based on such categories as gender, race, class, age, religion, or sexual preference. It compensates people for disadvantages and disabilities that reduce their chances of success through no fault of their own.
‘ First Wave Feminism’ first appeared in liberal democracies at the end of 19th century.
First Wave Feminism demanded women be given the right to vote (suffrage movements):
Right to vote in NZ 1893; South Australia 1894 (all women 1902); Britain 1918 for women over 30 (1928 for remainder); USA 1920.
The Second Wave Women believed the system was a Patriarchy (rule by father). That the political and social system benefited men at the expense of women. Affirmative Action is actively recruiting women and giving them preference in appointment to positions previously dominated by men.
Began in USA following the black civil rights movement.
The Bill of Rights drawn up by the American National Organisation for Women (NOW) in 1967 sums up the demands:
equal rights, maternity leave, child care provisions, equal and unsegregated education, equal job training opportunities, allowances for women in poverty, removing sex discrimination in employment, the right of women to control their sex lives and fertility (including abortion) and equal pay (achieved in 1972).
Also focused on the so-called ‘hidden curriculum’ and ‘glass ceiling’, which means the ways in which education and employment systems favour boys and men in spite of apparent equality.
You will be given a handout that discusses gender and education.
You are to interview a person, male or female, who attended a mixed (co-ed) school during the 1960s or 1970s. Ask the person if he or she agrees/disagrees with the points made in the extract, and why.
Outline your views on the discussion.
Gathered pace (mainly by white middle class women) from the 1960s and pushed economic, social and political rights, such as equal opportunity and affirmative action.
I am Woman In 1972 the hit song ‘I Am Woman’ co-written and performed by Australian singer Helen Reddy became the undeclared ‘anthem’ for second-wave feminism. The song’s lyrics were simple but powerful.
Activity: Analysing the song
Take time to carefully read the song (you may also be able to listen to the song).
Select one stanza from this song and in your own words explain what it means.
Imagine that you are a DJ in 1972, and you are about to play this song on the radio for the first time. Prepare and deliver a one-minute introduction to the song.
(adapted from Global Voices p 198)
The Feminist Spectrum
Internet Research Activity
You are to form groups of 2 or 3 (depending on the number of computers available).
One of the following kinds of feminism will be assigned to you:
Marxist and Socialist Feminism
Your group is to research the origins and major characteristics/beliefs of this kind of feminism. You will then write a comprehensive definition.
Present to the class your kind of feminist using one slide of a PowerPoint presentation. Eg comprehensive definition and graphics
When complete email your slide to your teacher at:
“ Religion is…” ‘ is the sigh of the oppressed creature, the feeling of a heartless world, and the soul of soulless circumstances. It is the opium of the people. The abolition of religion as the illusory happiness of the people is the demand for their real happiness. The demand to give up the illusions about their condition is a demand to give up a condition that requires illusion.’ Karl Marx (1818-1883) ‘ what a man does with his solitariness. A.N. Whitehead (1861-1947) ‘ if religion has given birth to all that is essential to society, it is because society is the soul of religion.’ (Emile Durkheim (1858-1917 – founder of modern sociology) ‘ men creating the gods in their own image.’ Xenophanes (590BCE) So, how would you define Religion?
No definition of religion can be entirely adequate.
The Latin religio , from which our English word comes, originally meant reverence for the gods, or simply superstition. But of course it means much more than that.
Therefore, it is helpful to look at any religion in terms of several dimensions, which concern the beliefs of the religion, its practices, and the way it affects the individual and society.
Six Dimensions Doctrine: A belief system which gives a total explanation of reality. Myth: Stories about God and the gods, creation and salvation, and events of historical significance. (Myth is not fiction). Ethics: Values and codes of behaviour. Ritual: Worship, festivals, ‘rites of passage’ and initiations, and customs regulating food and dress. Experience: The individual’s experience of the awe-inspiring and the transcendent, or a sense of belonging and commitment to something greater than the self. Social: The institutional organisation of people to practise their religion.
2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 500 1000 1500 Hinduism Christianity Confucianism Taoism Buddhism Jainism Sikhism Judaism Islam Major Religions of the World Near East Far East India
Major Religions of the World
Hinduism – A Quick Explanation
Hinduism is the major religion of India, practiced by more than 80% of the population. Sanatana dharma (the eternal law).
It has no founder and is considered to be the oldest religion in the world and can be traced back to the ancient Indus River Valley civilisation (3000BCE)
Hindus believe that Brahman is the principle and source of the universe:
This divine intelligence pervades all beings, including the individual soul.
The many Hindu deities are manifestations of the one Brahman.
Based on the concept of reincarnation (Samsara) , in which all living beings, from plants on earth to gods above, are caught in a cosmic cycle of becoming and perishing.
Life is determined by the law of karma – one is reborn to a higher level of existence based on moral behaviour in a previous phase of existence.
Life on earth is regarded as transient and a burden.
The goal of existence is liberation of the cycle of rebirth and death and entrance into the indescribable state of moksha (liberation).
Teachings and Beliefs
In Hinduism, salvation is achieved through a spiritual oneness of the soul, ATMAN , with the ultimate reality of the universe, BRAHMAN .
To achieve this goal, the soul must obtain MOKSHA , or liberation from the SAMSARA , the endless cycle of birth, death, and rebirth.
Hence, Hindus believe in REINCARNATION , which is influenced by KARMA (material actions resulting from the consequences of previous actions).
And DHARMA (fulfilling one’s duty in life).
All forms of animal life possess souls according to Hindus and therefore, all life is sacred. Cow is considered to be sacred. For this reason most Hindus are vegetarians.
The belief in reincarnation, karma and dharma also provide the religious justification for the existence of the rigid social structure known as the CASTE SYSTEM.
Concept of REINCARNATION
When one is born, they are given life by BRAHMA , as they pass through life, they are preserved by VISHNU , until finally SHIVA claims you in death. Then the cycle is repeated over and over again until one finally achieves MOKSHA .
The Caste System The Caste System is a rigid class structure. It is believed that if one leads a good life, following good karma and dharma, then they will be rewarded by being reincarnated as a person belonging to the next highest level in the Caste System. However, if one is wicked during their life, they will be demoted, and possibly even removed from the Caste System altogether. Outcasts, or Untouchables, are members of Hindu society thought to have been removed from the Caste System, with no hope of returning to it, due to their misdeeds in previous lives. Work that is deemed unclean for all other Hindus is reserved for these Outcasts. After winning its independence from Great Britain in 1947, India adopted a national constitution which stated that ‘Untouchability is abolished and its practice in any form is forbidden’. But the Caste System still exists in practice today. Society organised into four VARNAS. A person had the same varna that his or her parents had. And he or she had it from birth to death — there was no way to change it.
Understanding Dharma, Karma and Samsara
By now you should understand that karma, dharma and samsara are three fundamental aspects of the Hindu world view.
Dharma, one’s appropriate role or attributes, gives life its order and predictability. Karma, the measure of how well one performs one’s dharma, explains why one is born where he or she is, why there is suffering and seeming injustices. Samsara, the continuous round of birth, death and rebirth, is the context for all experience.
Many Indians think of life as if it were a lila, a play or game. In a game or a play, each person has an assigned position or role to play, that a dharma. When the game is over, the coach determines how well a person played, whether he or she ‘stayed in character’. That’s karma. If he or she played or acted well, that person earned good karma and will get a better ’part’ in the next play, or get a better position in the next game. If he or she played poorly, then he or she may only be an understudy next time, or the water boy. Playing lots of games over and over again is like samsara.
Through this activity, you should be able to:
Understand the Indian concepts of dharma, karma and samsara
See how violating one’s dharma might lead to becoming an out-caste
Appreciate how these concepts underpin all Indian life.
Understanding Dharma, Karma and Samsara Activity You are going to be involved in a play. You will be assigned a role but if you don’t succeed in your role you will experience the true meaning of being a Hindu.
What did the play illustrate?
Your role is your dharma. Your role changes, but the real you didn’t change. The real you isn’t bad or good, just the role you are playing.
You got assigned your part based on how well you performed your role. That’s like karma. Students who did not stay in character had bad karma, so they got worse parts the second time.
For society to function, everything must do its dharma. If even the pot plant or the dog do not perform their dharma, society cannot function, that is, the play is ruined.
We may tell the student who spilt the coffee and spoiled the play to leave the classroom or go to Dr Britton’s office. For the time being he is out of the cast (out-cast or untouchable).
By going through the play several times is like dying and being reborn, so its like samsara.
Defining Capitalism Capitalism can be defined as a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries. A main feature of capitalism is the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting as "legal persons" (or corporations) to buy and sell capital goods such as land, labour, and money in a free market. This is further assisted by that state enforcing the right to private property rather than feudal obligations.
The first use of the word "capitalism" in English is by:
Thackeray in 1854, by which he meant having ownership of capital
Proudhon in 1867 used the term "capitalist" to refer to owners of capital – “Property is Theft”
Marx and Engels refer to the "Capitalist production system" and in Das Kapital (1867 – English 1887)
Capitalism as an Idea
individual is the centre of capitalist endeavour
Economic freedom of individual (democratic sense) leads to pursuit of individual interests and hence, interests of society as a whole.
Accumulation of the means of production (the capital) into the hands of a few (the capitalists)
human work is necessary to produce goods and distribute them (wage labour)
fundamental purpose and meaning of life could be productive labour
Encourage Economic Growth
purpose of a nation is to grow steadily wealthier
produce wealth and make national economy wealthier and more affluent then it normally would be.
Relies on a Consumer Culture
people define themselves as the objects they consume rather than objects they produce.
How capitalism works Example of Starting a Business When starting a business the initial owners or investors typically provide some money (the Capital) which is used by the business to buy or rent some means of production. For example, the enterprise may buy or rent a piece of land and a building; it may buy machinery and hire workers (labour-power). The commodities produced by the workers become the property of the capitalist ("capitalist" in this context refers to a person who has capital, rather than a person who favours capitalism), and are sold by the workers on behalf of the capitalist. The money from sales also becomes the property of the capitalist. The workers deposit the money into the capitalist's bank account. Once the capitalist receives this money, he or she pays the workers a portion for their labour, pays other overhead costs, and keeps the rest as profit. If more money is needed than the initial owners are willing or able to provide, the business may need to borrow a limited amount of extra money with a promise to pay it back with interest -- in effect it may rent more capital. The business is granted a degree of legal authority, and control, over a set of factors of production (as economists call them). The business can register as a corporate entity, meaning that it can act as a type of virtual person in many matters before the law. The owners can pay themselves some of the income derived from the business (dividends), sell shares of stock in the company, or they can sell all of the equipment, land, and other assets, and split the proceeds between them.
Communism "From each according to his ability, to each according to his need." Communism is a term that can refer to one of several things: a certain social system , an ideology which supports that system , or a political movement that wishes to implement that system . As a theoretical social system, communism would be a type of egalitarian society with no state, no private property and no social classes. In communism, all property is owned by the community as a whole , and all people have equal social and economic status . As a political movement, communism is a branch of the broader socialist movement. The communist movement differentiates itself from other branches of the socialist movement through various things - such as, for example, the communists' desire to establish a communist system after the socialist one, and their commitment to revolutionary strategies for overthrowing capitalism.
Marx’s Materialist Conception of History The best-known form of communism is Marxism and its various derivatives (most notably Marxism-Leninism). Marx’s Materialist Conception of History: Four Stages of Economic Development Slavery The advent of agriculture led to a class-based society. Those who owned the land and those who had to work someone else’s land. Feudalism Continues on the slave relationship between landlord and servant Capitalism Bourgeoisie uses its power and wealth to exploit the proletariat Communism The class struggle within capitalism will eventually lead to the proletariat overthrowing the bourgeoisie and establishing socialism. Socialism, in turn, will result in the gradual fading of social classes (as the means of production are made public property), which will lead to the final stage of human society - communism. These stages are advanced through a dialectical process , refining society as history progresses. This refinement is driven by class struggle. Communism is the final refinement as it will result in one class.
A general view of communist thought towards capitalism
A Totalitarian State
Government in Communist states must have absolute control, hence, they are Totalitarian Dictatorships.
According to the communist, the individual has no ‘rights’ as such, but derives his or her rights from society as a whole; the individual fulfils herself or himself through service to the state.
Democratic centralism as laid down by Lenin was to be followed:
Power was to be concentrated in the hands of a small group which would be able to control the elected bodies below it.
The system would be democratic, in that the population at large would elect by universal suffrage members of committees, unions and other organisations (although the choice of candidate was controlled)
It would be centralist, in that all of these bodies and organisations would be controlled by the Communist Party.
In theory, as the population was drawn further and further into the management of economic and cultural matters, there would come a time when the state apparatus would disappear.
But in a large country such as the USSR this was impossible to implement.
Isms Read the following passage by Dower and Riddell who produced books of political satire during the 1930s and 1940s, and answer the questions that follow.
The fundamental difference between Fascism and Communism is that:
The Fascists worship one unscrupulous but brilliant man, who is called THE TOTALITARIAN STATE , whereas
The Communists worship the Totalitarian State, which is one brilliant but unscrupulous man.
This discrepancy is born our by their methods, for
The Communists have DESTROYED EVERYTHING by abolishing the Bourgeois, the Tzar, the Right of Free Speech and Thought and Action and Nationalising everything and setting up BRUTAL AUTOCRACY , whereas
The Fascists have PRESERVED EVERTHING by abolishing the Jews, the Kaiser, the Right of Free Speech and Thought and Action, and Nationalising everything and setting up a BRUTAL AUTOCRACY.
Communists and Fascists hate each other.
It is easy to see how between these Extremes the British Empire is having some difficulty in finding
the usual MIDDLE PATH .
Identify what Dower and Riddell consider to be the fundamental difference between Fascism and Communism.
Identify what the Communists and the Fascists have abolished. Explain what difference exists between the two lists.
How similar are the Ideas of Communism and Capitalism? In this activity you will be comparing the ideologies of communism and capitalism . On the Comparison Graphic Organiser you have been given the characteristics that you are to use to compare the two ideologies. You may use your notes, the Internet, the handouts supplied by your teacher and any other information that you may have.