India before the british raj

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  • Quote comes from Arthashastra, a manual on politics written by Chandragupta’s advisor Kautilya. Picture is a painting showing Chandragupta receiving his morning salute from his bodyguard of women soldiers. Questions: What can you tell about the nature of Chandragupta’s government from this quote? – Ruled with an iron fist. Secret police force – those whose loyalty was suspected were tortured and killed. Why would Kautilya advise Chandragupta not to disturb the customs of a newly conquered people?
  • Regarding the quote - How do the attitudes of Chandragupta and Ashoka differ?
  • Forced conversions to Islam Akbar married a Hindu and invited debate between the followers of the major religions. He tried to found a new religion that would unite all the religions of India but failed to attract followers. Taj Mahal – 20,000 craftsmen and labourers worked for 22 years to complete the building.
  • India before the british raj

    1. 1. India Before the British Raj
    2. 2. Sixth Century BCE A Patchwork of States <ul><li>Aryan kingdoms in the north – almost constantly at war </li></ul><ul><li>Towards the south, independent Dravidian Kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Far south, Tamil Land </li></ul>
    3. 3. Fourth Century BCE Greek conquest <ul><li>Alexander the Great was the first ruler that we know of who tried to unite all Indians under one government </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander encountered elephants for the first time, he had to change his battle plans </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander crushed one Indian prince after another and encouraged intermarriage between his troops and the Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually Alexander’s men mutinied, they had travelled thousands of kilometres and were afraid of tales of fierce peoples and beasts in unknown lands </li></ul><ul><li>While he did not achieve all his aims, Alexander showed the weakness of a country divided into petty states </li></ul>
    4. 4. 4th Century BCE – 2 nd Century BCE Mauryan Empire <ul><li>Led by Chandraguptya Maurya </li></ul><ul><li>According to legend, he visited Alexander and asked how he could acquire a kingdom of his own </li></ul><ul><li>He attacked some of the garrisons left by Alexander </li></ul><ul><li>He became king of Magadha </li></ul><ul><li>Within a decade he was the master of the Punjab and Indus Valley </li></ul><ul><li>At the height of his power, Chandragupta controlled 80% of India </li></ul><ul><li>He became extremely wealthy </li></ul><ul><li>He developed bureaucracy, irrigation, road networks and standing army </li></ul>
    5. 5. Looking at the evidence <ul><li>“ With increasing strength, make war; when you have a clear advantage over a neighbour, march against him; do not disturb the customs of a newly conquered people… Government is the science of punishment” </li></ul>
    6. 6. Ashoka during the Mauryan Empire <ul><li>Grandson of Chandragupta </li></ul><ul><li>After a bloody invasion into Kalinga, Ashoka became a devout Buddhist </li></ul><ul><li>His edicts were carved into pillars and rocks around India </li></ul><ul><li>“ All men are my children and just as I desire for my children that they may enjoy every kind of prosperity and happiness, both in this world and the next, so also I desire the same for all men” </li></ul><ul><li>He established hospitals and schools, free rest houses, inns, kitchens and wells </li></ul><ul><li>India became fragmented soon after Ashoka’s death </li></ul>
    7. 7. 320-535 CE Gupta Empire <ul><li>Founded by Chandragupta I (not known if he was related to Chandragupta Maurya) </li></ul><ul><li>Height of power under Chandragupta II </li></ul><ul><li>He became a peace loving ruler like Ashoka </li></ul><ul><li>Empire declined when the White Huns invaded – terrorised India </li></ul><ul><li>India was again divided </li></ul>
    8. 8. Muslim conquest <ul><li>After the Huns, Arabs were next invaders </li></ul><ul><li>Fanatically devout – launched a holy war in 632 CE after the death of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly dominated the north-west India, converting many Hindus and Buddhists to Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Several brutal battles with Hindus </li></ul>
    9. 9. 16 th Century CE Mogul India <ul><li>India invaded by Muslim leader Babur – seeking plunder </li></ul><ul><li>Weapons were cannons and superior cavalry </li></ul><ul><li>Akbar (Babur’s grandson) added to conquests – by the time he died his empire rivalled the Mauryan Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Reached greatest extent under Aurangzeb (great-grandson of Akbar) </li></ul><ul><li>Moguls ruled for more than 2 centuries </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced government, administration, language, religion, art and architecture </li></ul><ul><li>Built the Taj Mahal – built to house remains of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of emperor Shah Jahan </li></ul><ul><li>India divided into provinces and administered by a governor </li></ul><ul><li>Declined after death of Aurangzeb </li></ul><ul><li>India again split into small states and provinces </li></ul>

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