You have no right to live amongst us as Jews How did an educated and cultured society like Germany come to do what they did? Did German leaders intend for the Holocaust to happen? The intentionalist view. Was it the culmination of milennia of anti-semitism. The Structuralist view.
How did Hitler succeed in making the Germans hate Jews?
ANTI-SEMITISM In its most basic sense the term Anti-Semitism can be defined as hostility towards Jews. For much of the Common Era of history this was based on religion. Look at the picture opposite. It is a typical Christian portrayal. What accusation is the source making against Jews? What is normalised? The Burning of the Jews. 10th Century CE. France. These Jews are being burnt for refusing to acknowledge the Christian Gospel
Anti-Semitism after 1850 After the middle of the 19th Century some new ideas began to influence the nature of Anti-Semitism. Some applied the theory of Natural Selection proposed by Charles Darwin’s work The Origin of the Species to the human race. The call this new idea Social Darwinism and it gained popularity in education societies like Germany. The following examples typical of that presented during the period. They were not limited to Jews.
Examples from Australia Newspaper Editors quoted this Law of Nature which proposes that: “the inferior race is doomed to wither and disappear.” The Age. 13th January, 1881. Many sponsored the idea that: All we can do now is to give an opiate to the dying man.” The Bulletin. 1880. Rounding off the scientific argument was the charge that any attempts to make the Aborigines situation better were: “fighting against nature.” Queensland Parliamentary Debate. 1880
Hitler’s Anti-Semitism Hitler grew up where historical and the new scientific anti-semitism had taken root. He had joined the NAZI party whose platform, their 25 Points included the following: 4. Only members of the nation can be citizens of the state. Only a person of German blood can be a member of the nation. No Jew, therefore, can be a member of the nation. 5. Anyone who is not a citizen of the state may live in Germany only as a guest.
Mein Kemph In 1925 Hitler published a book about his life and ideas called Mein Kemph(My Struggle) He repeated many of the anti-Jewish ideas of the time. He also added his own attacks. He blamed Jews for almost anything that he found wrong in Germany. See some examples following this slide:
Hitler’s Anti-Semitic views in Mein Kamph. 1925. Is there any form of filth or profligacy, particularly in cultural life, without at least one Jew involved in it. With satanic joy in his face … the Jewish youth lurks in wait for the unsuspecting girl whom he defiles with his blood, thus stealing her from her people. The aim is not only the freedom of the peoples oppressed by the Jew, but also the end of this parasite upon the nations.
How did Hitler make German Jews into non-citizens? Once in power Hitler was able to take action that would end this parasite upon the nations. This was done in three ways: The implementation of a vast propaganda campaign The passing of anti-Jewish laws Overt violent attacks upon the Jewish community Poster advertising the propaganda film The Eternal Jew. 1937.
Story time…. A Jewish man to two small children, Hans and Elsa: “Here, children, I have some sweets for you, but you both have to come with me.” An extract for a children's’ book published at the time in Germany called The Poisonous Mushroom. Published in 1938
Propaganda in school… It was a normal curriculum except that biology, history and geography were clearly affected by Nazi ideology. Jews were depicted in biology books as an inferior race who exploited others. In biology we also learned about racial purity and race hygiene. In geography we were told how Germany had suffered and how Germany had lost its colonies while England, for example, was amassing an empire. We were carefully kept from having a broad picture of history. We were not aware of what Germany had done before. Our history lessons started with the First World War and the depressing period after Germany had been beaten down as a result of the treaty of Versailles, disarmed and saddled with reparations. We learned how Hitler came along to lift Germany out of this muck and bring it back to greatness. Peter Beck, a former Hitler Youth recalls his education during the Nazi era.
The Nuremberg laws The campaign against the Jews reached a new height in September 1935 when a series of laws were announced at the annual party rally at Nuremberg. The first was the Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor: Marriage between Jews and citizens of German … blood are forbidden. Sexual relations outside marriage between Jews and Citizens.
The Second was the Reich Citizenship law: A citizen of the Reich is that subject who is of German blood… The right to citizenship is acquired by the granting of citizenship papers Explain what the Nazi’s were seeking to achieve by the Nuremberg laws of 1935. Can you offer a reason why the Nazi’s were determined to deprive Jews of German Citizenship?