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introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
introduction to concrete design
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introduction to concrete design

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  • 1. BASIC STRUCTURAL DESIGN ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 2. Learning out-comes ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
    • At the end of this lecture, the student should be able to:
    • List out the relevant codes of practice used in concrete design (CO1)
    • Explain the concept of SLS and ULS (CO1)
    • Explain a basic concept of concrete design (CO1).
  • 3. 1.0 Design in Reinforced Concrete
    • 1.0 Introduction
    • Importance of RC, it being one of the principal materials used in structural design.
    • Composite material consisting of steel reinforcing bars embedded in concrete.
    • Complimentary properties and cost consequences.
    • Overall economy with the advantages of corrosion and fire resistance.
    • Type of application: Structural Frames Retaining Walls Water Retaining structures. Highways Bridges
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 4.
    • These structures are normally designed in accordance
    • with a variety of CODES:
    • BS 5400:
    • Code of Practice for the Design of Steel, Concrete and Composite Bridges.
    • BS 8007:
    • Code of Practice for the Design of Concrete structures for Retaining Aqueous Liquids.
    • BS 8110: (Which is to be the basis of the work for this semester)
    • Code of Practice for the Structural use of Concrete
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 5.
    • BS8110 is divided into 3 parts;
    • Part 1: Code of Practice for Design and Construction.
    • Covers material commonly required for everyday design.
    • Part 2: Code of Practice for Special Circumstances.
    • Torsion, Deflection and Elastic Deformation
    • Part 3: Design Charts for Singly Reinforced Beams, Doubly Reinforced and Rectangular Columns.
    • Charts for the design of singly reinforced beams, doubly reinforced beams and rectangular columns
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 6.
    • Irrespective of the element being designed a designer
    • will need an understanding of :
    • The symbols used
    • The Basis of Design
    • Material Properties
    • Loading
    • Stress Strain Relationships
    • Durability and
    • Fire Resistance Symbols
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 7.
    • Basis of Design
    • Limit State method - with two principal states normally
    • covered.
    • 1. The Ultimate Limit State - ULS.
    • Behaviour at failure In a variety of modes
    • 2. Serviceability Limit State - SLS.
    • Behaviour at working loads and principally the limit states of Deflection and cracking.
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 8.
    • Material Properties:
    • Characteristic Strength of Concrete f cu
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM Concrete Grade Characteristic Strength (N/mm2) f cu C25 25 C30 30 C35 35 C40 40 C45 45 C50 50
  • 9.
    • Characteristic Strength of reinforcement f y
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM Reinforcement Type Characteristic Strength (N/mm2) f y Hot Rolled Mild steel 250 High Yield Steel 460
  • 10.
    • Design Strength
    • In order to take account of the difference between actual and laboratory values, local weaknesses and inaccuracies in the assessment of the resistance of sections, the Characteristic Strengths, f k are divided by an appropriate partial safety factor for strength, γ m .
    • Design Strength = f k / γ m
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 11.
    • Partial safety factors for Strength of Material
    •  
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM Material and Stress type Partial Safety Factor, γ m Reinforcement 1.15 Concrete - Flexure or Axial Load 1.5 Concrete - Shear, unreinforced 1.25 Concrete - bond 1.4 Concrete - other e.g. bearing >1.5
  • 12.
    • Loading:
    • Characteristic Loads
    • G k - Dead load
    • Q k - Imposed Load
    • W k - Wind Load
    • BS 648: Schedule of Weights for Building Materials
    • BS 6399: Design Loadings for Buildings, Part 1: Code of Practice for Dead and Imposed loads
    • are useful documents in which to find values to be used
    • in calculations.
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 13.
    • Design Loads
    • In order to account for Variation in Loads due to:
    • Errors in the analysis and Design
    • Constructional inaccuracies
    • Possible load increases
    • The Characteristic Loads F k are multiplied by the
    • appropriate partial safety factor for loads, γ f to give the
    • Design Loads acting on the structure
    • Design Load = F k . γ f
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 14. Generally the adverse factors are used to determine the design loads acting on a structure. Elastic analyses then allow the determination of maximum BM’s and Shears for which sections must be capable of sustaining ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM Load Combination Load Type   Dead Load, Gk Imposed Load, Qk Wind Load, Wk Adverse Beneficial Adverse Beneficial   Dead + Imposed 1.4 1 1.6 0   - Dead + Wind 1.4 1   -   - 1.4 Dead + Wind + Imposed 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.2
  • 15.
    • Stress-Strain Curves
    • Stress-Strain Curve for Concrete
    • A typical curve for concrete is shown below:
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 16.
    • BS 8110 makes use of a modified stress-strain curve as
    • shown
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 17.
    • DURABILITY & FIRE RESISTANCE
    • As well as the need to design structures to withstand the
    • applied loads due consideration must be given to both
    • durability and fire resistance. In fact it can be seen that the
    • design of an element can not begin without considering
    • these factors in some way
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 18.
    • Durability
    • Signs of concrete deterioration are nowadays far too
    • common. Ex’s..... Repair can be very costly and difficult.
    • Improved durability is therefore paramount.
    • How can this be achieved:
    • cover to reinforcement
    • minimum cement content
    • maximum water/cement ratio
    • maximum crack widths
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 19.
    • The table gives nominal (min+5) depths of cover
    • to be used for a variety of exposure conditions. Note
    • linkage with Max. water/cement ratio, Min. cement
    • content and concrete grade
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 20.
    • Fire Protection
    • Fire protection of reinforced concrete members is
    • largely achieved by specifying limits for:
    • Cover to reinforcement
    • minimum dimensions for section
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 21.
    • This table shows the nominal cover to ALL
    • reinforcement to meet the specified period of fire
    • resistance
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 22.
    • In addition to cover
    • we must also
    • consider minimum
    • section dimensions
    • which vary
    • depending upon the
    • element considered
    • and it’s location as
    • indicated(BS8110):
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM
  • 23.
    • Minimum dimensions of reinforced concrete members
    • for fire resistance
    ARUAN EFENDY BIN MOHD GHAZALI FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN AWAM

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