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Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
Topic 2.3   Eukaryotes
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Topic 2.3 Eukaryotes

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For IB Diploma Biology

For IB Diploma Biology

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  • 1. 2.3 Eukaryotes Scien cebitz. com Scien cebitz. com
  • 2. With a nucleus 2.3: Eukaryotic cells Scien cebitz. com Plants and Animals Contain: “true” nucleus Membrane bound organelles ! http://www.flickr.com/photos/ethanhein/3004518176/
  • 3. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Generalised Plant and Animal Cells 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 4. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Generalised Plant and Animal Cells 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 5. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Ultrastructure of Plant and Animal Cells 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 6. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 7. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Cytoplasm This is the solution within the cell membrane. It contains enzymes for glycolysis (part of respiration) and other metabolic reactions together with sugars, salts, amino acids, nucleotides and everything else needed for the cell to function 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 8. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 9. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Nucleus This is the largest organelle. Surrounded by a nuclear envelope, which is a double membrane with nuclear pores - large holes containing proteins that control the exit of substances such as RNA and ribosomes from the nucleus.The interior is called the nucleoplasm, which is full of chromatin 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 10. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 11. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Mitochondrion (pl. Mitochondria) 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 12. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 13. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Ribosomes These are the smallest and most numerous of the cell organelles, and are the sites of protein synthesis.They are composed of protein and RNA, and are manufactured in the nucleolus of the nucleus. Ribosomes are either found free in the cytoplasm, where they make proteins for the cell's own use, or they are found attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum, where they make proteins for export from the cell. 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 14. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 15. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER) Series of membrane channels involved in synthesising and transporting materials, mainly lipids, needed by the cell 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 16. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 17. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER) Similar to the SER, but studded with numerous ribosomes, which give it its rough appearance.The ribosomes synthesise proteins, which are processed in the RER (e.g. by enzymatically modifying the polypeptide chain, or adding carbohydrates), before being exported from the cell via the Golgi Body. 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 18. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 19. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Golgi Body (or Golgi Apparatus). Another series of flattened membrane vesicles, formed from the endoplasmic reticulum. Its job is to transport proteins from the RER to the cell membrane for export. 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 20. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 21. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Lysosomes These are small membrane-bound vesicles formed from the RER containing a cocktail of digestive enzymes.They are used to break down unwanted chemicals, toxins, organelles or even whole cells, so that the materials may be recycled.They can also fuse with a feeding vacuole to digest its contents 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 22. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 23. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Plant cells: Chloroplast Bigger and fatter than mitochondria, chloroplasts are where photosynthesis takes place, so are only found in photosynthetic organisms (plants and algae). 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 24. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 25. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com What do the parts do? Plant cells:Vacuole These are membrane-bound sacs containing water or dilute solutions of salts and other solutes. Plant cells usually have one very large permanent vacuole that fills most of the cell, so that the cytoplasm (and everything else) forms a thin layer round the outside. Plant cell vacuoles are filled with cell sap, and are very important in keeping the cell rigid, or turgid. 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 26. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Endosymbiont theory Development of nucleus Development of organelles © 2010 Nature Education 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 27. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Endosymbiont theory It is thought that eukaryotic cell organelles like nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts are derived from prokaryotic cells that became incorporated inside larger prokaryotic cells. Development of nucleus Development of organelles © 2010 Nature Education 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 28. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Endosymbiont theory It is thought that eukaryotic cell organelles like nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts are derived from prokaryotic cells that became incorporated inside larger prokaryotic cells. This idea is called endosymbiosis, and is supported by these observations: Development of nucleus Development of organelles © 2010 Nature Education 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 29. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Endosymbiont theory Development of nucleus Development of organelles © 2010 Nature Education 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 30. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Endosymbiont theory organelles contain circular DNA, like bacteria cells.Development of nucleus Development of organelles © 2010 Nature Education 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 31. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Endosymbiont theory organelles contain circular DNA, like bacteria cells. organelles contain 70S ribosomes, like bacteria cells. Development of nucleus Development of organelles © 2010 Nature Education 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 32. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Endosymbiont theory organelles contain circular DNA, like bacteria cells. organelles contain 70S ribosomes, like bacteria cells. organelles have double membranes, as though a single-membrane cell had been engulfed and surrounded by a larger cell. Development of nucleus Development of organelles © 2010 Nature Education 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 33. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Endosymbiont theory organelles contain circular DNA, like bacteria cells. organelles contain 70S ribosomes, like bacteria cells. organelles have double membranes, as though a single-membrane cell had been engulfed and surrounded by a larger cell. organelles reproduce by binary fission, like bacteria. Development of nucleus Development of organelles © 2010 Nature Education 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 34. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Endosymbiont theory organelles contain circular DNA, like bacteria cells. organelles contain 70S ribosomes, like bacteria cells. organelles have double membranes, as though a single-membrane cell had been engulfed and surrounded by a larger cell. organelles reproduce by binary fission, like bacteria. organelles are very like some bacteria that are alive today. Development of nucleus Development of organelles © 2010 Nature Education 2.3: Eukaryotic cells
  • 35. With a nucleus Scien cebitz. com Differences Between Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic 2.3: Eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic cells small cells (< 5 µm) larger cells (> 10 µm) always unicellular often multicellular no nucleus or any membrane-bound organelles always have nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles DNA is circular, without proteins DNA is linear and associated with proteins to form chromatin ribosomes are small (70S) ribosomes are large (80S) no mitochondria always has mitochondria motility by rigid rotating flagellum made of flagellin motility by flexible waving undulipodium, made of tubulin cell division is by binary fission cell division is by mitosis or meiosis reproduction is always asexual reproduction is asexual or sexual huge variety of metabolic pathways common metabolic pathways

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