Topic 2.2 prokaryotes

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  • 1. 2.2: Prokaryotes Scien cebitz. com Scien cebitz. com
  • 2. Pro = before karyote = nucleus From the Greek κάρυον = nut so prokaryotes do not have “membrane bound nuclei” Bacteria and Archaea The First Cells Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells http://www.ecoliblog.com/2007/04/ Scien cebitz. com
  • 3. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 4. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 5. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 6. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 7. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 8. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 9. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane FlagellumCapsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 10. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane Flagellum Pili Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 11. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane Flagellum Pili Cytoplasm Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 12. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane Flagellum Pili Cytoplasm Capsule Plasmid http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  • 13. What’s it really look like Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Scien cebitz. com
  • 14. What’s it really look like Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Scien cebitz. com
  • 15. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Scien cebitz. com
  • 16. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Scien cebitz. com
  • 17. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles Cytoplasm Scien cebitz. com
  • 18. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles The smaller (70 S) type. Cytoplasm Ribosomes Scien cebitz. com
  • 19. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles The smaller (70 S) type. The region of the cytoplasm that contains DNA. It is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid Scien cebitz. com
  • 20. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles The smaller (70 S) type. The region of the cytoplasm that contains DNA. It is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Always circular, and not associated with any proteins to form chromatin Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Scien cebitz. com
  • 21. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles The smaller (70 S) type. The region of the cytoplasm that contains DNA. It is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Always circular, and not associated with any proteins to form chromatin Small circles of DNA, used to exchange DNA between bacterial cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Scien cebitz. com
  • 22. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Scien cebitz. com
  • 23. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteinsCell Membrane Scien cebitz. com
  • 24. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteins Made of murein (not cellulose), which is a glycoprotein (i.e. a protein/carbohydrate complex, also called peptidoglycan). Cell Membrane Cell Wall Scien cebitz. com
  • 25. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteins Made of murein (not cellulose), which is a glycoprotein (i.e. a protein/carbohydrate complex, also called peptidoglycan). A thick polysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall, like the glycocalyx of eukaryotes Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Scien cebitz. com
  • 26. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteins Made of murein (not cellulose), which is a glycoprotein (i.e. a protein/carbohydrate complex, also called peptidoglycan). A thick polysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall, like the glycocalyx of eukaryotes A rigid rotating helical-shaped tail used for propulsion Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Scien cebitz. com
  • 27. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteins Made of murein (not cellulose), which is a glycoprotein (i.e. a protein/carbohydrate complex, also called peptidoglycan). A thick polysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall, like the glycocalyx of eukaryotes A rigid rotating helical-shaped tail used for propulsion Used to exchange genetic material between cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Scien cebitz. com
  • 28. Cell shapes Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Bacili SpirilliCocci Scien cebitz. com