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Regulating populations
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This presentation was originally rendered as an Apple Keynote presentation designed for use with IB Environmental Systems - For the new IB Environmental Systems and Societies course the topic numbers ...

This presentation was originally rendered as an Apple Keynote presentation designed for use with IB Environmental Systems - For the new IB Environmental Systems and Societies course the topic numbers are incorrect but the content still applies. The presentation is also suitable for use with Ecology and Environmental science Courses. Copyright of sciencebitz.com

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Regulating populations Regulating populations Presentation Transcript

  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density dependent factors tend to act as direct regulators of populations • Negative Feedback
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Population Time
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Population Time View slide
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Resource limit reached Population Resources Plentiful Time View slide
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Equilibrium Point Resource limit reached Population Resources Plentiful Time
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Equilibrium Point Steady State Equilibrium Resource limit reached Population Resources Plentiful Time
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Falco pereginus
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Until the 1940’s the British population of Peregrine falcons had remained fairly constant - about 820 breeding pairs Falco pereginus
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Until the 1940’s the British population of Peregrine falcons had remained fairly constant - about 820 breeding pairs • Limited by available nest sites (same places each year) Falco pereginus
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Until the 1940’s the British population of Peregrine falcons had remained fairly constant - about 820 breeding pairs • Limited by available nest sites (same places each year) • Average brood size was about 2.5 fledged young each summer Falco pereginus
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Until the 1940’s the British population of Peregrine falcons had remained fairly constant - about 820 breeding pairs • Limited by available nest sites (same places each year) • Average brood size was about 2.5 fledged young each summer • Come the next breeding season the population Falco pereginus was back to about 820 pairs
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms • Mosquitos are plentiful in the summer months
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms • Mosquitos are plentiful in the summer months • When autumn sets in the populations crash
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms • Mosquitos are plentiful in the summer months • When autumn sets in the populations crash • Boom or bust
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Density independent factors also regulate population size for many organisms • Mosquitos are plentiful in the summer months Summer Population • When autumn sets in the populations crash Winter • Boom or bust Time
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Boom or bust may also be driven by density dependent factors
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Boom or bust may also be driven by density dependent factors • Some species are very good at taking full advantage of any opportunity
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Boom or bust may also be driven by density dependent factors • Some species are very good at taking full advantage of any opportunity • Locust populations can explode
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Boom or bust may also be driven by density dependent factors • Some species are very good at taking full advantage of any opportunity • Locust populations can explode • They swarm in thousands eat everything in their path and eventually totally outstrip their food supply
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Factors that regulate population size can be categorized as INTERNAL or EXTERNAL
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Factors that regulate population size can be categorized as INTERNAL or EXTERNAL • INTERNAL - fertility rates, territory size
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Factors that regulate population size can be categorized as INTERNAL or EXTERNAL • INTERNAL - fertility rates, territory size • EXTERNAL - predation pressure, parasitism, disease
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified • Equilibrium or K strategy species
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified • Equilibrium or K strategy species • Opportunist or r strategy species
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified • Equilibrium or K strategy species
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations • Equilibrium or Boom and bust • Two types of life strategies can be identified • Equilibrium or K strategy species • Opportunist or r strategy species
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations What are K and r
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations What are K and r • The two variables that define a population curve
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations What are K and r • The two variables that define a population curve • K = carrying capacity
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations Population What are K and r 120 • The two variables that 100 define a population curve 80 • K = carrying capacity Growth 60 • r = growth rate 40 20 0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Time
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K Population What are K and r 120 • The two variables that 100 define a population curve 80 • K = carrying capacity Growth 60 • r = growth rate 40 20 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Time
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity • Slow growth
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Late successional species • Low reproductive rate • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Late successional species • Low reproductive rate • Niche specialist • Large investment in parental care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Late successional species • Low reproductive rate • Niche specialist • Large investment in parental • Require stable environment care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations K strategists • Late successional species • Low reproductive rate • Niche specialist • Large investment in parental • Require stable environment care • Late maturity • Slow growth • Large organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity • Rapid growth
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity • Rapid growth • Small organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • Pioneer species species • High reproductive rate • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity • Rapid growth • Small organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • Pioneer species species • High reproductive rate • Generalists • Low investment in parental care • Early maturity • Rapid growth • Small organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations r strategists • Pioneer species species • High reproductive rate • Generalists • Low investment in parental care • Rapidly adapt to environmental variation • Early maturity • Rapid growth • Small organisms
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations The reality is more of a continuum
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations The reality is more of a continuum Zebra Rabbit Bacteria r K
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations If life Tables (Survivorship) is plotted for different species three generalised types of life curve form
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations If life Tables (Survivorship) is plotted for different species three generalised types of life curve form Type 1 - Survivorship is high, most mortality later in life span
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations If life Tables (Survivorship) is plotted for different species three generalised types of life curve form Type 1 - Survivorship is high, most mortality later in life span Type II - Constant mortality throughout life span
  • Topic 2: Ecosystems 2.6 Changes 2.6.3 What regulates populations If life Tables (Survivorship) is plotted for different species three generalised types of life curve form Type 1 - Survivorship is high, most mortality later in life span Type II - Constant mortality throughout life span Type III - High mortality early in life, low survivorship into late life span