Ib biology g1 communities

1,580 views

Published on

Adapted ESS presentation to support IB Biology Option G

Published in: Education, Technology
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,580
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
168
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
24
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ib biology g1 communities

  1. 1. G1: Community ecology Option G: Ecology Scien cebitz. com
  2. 2. Biotic Factors = A living, biological factor that may influence an organism or ecosystem, eg predation, parasitism, disease, competition. Abiotic Factor = A non-living, physical factor that may influence an organism or ecosystem, eg temperature, sunlight, pH, salinity, precipitation. Biotic Factors Producers Consumers Detrivores Decomposers Interactions Competitors Parasites Pathogens Symbionts Predators Herbivores Atmosphere Wind speed Humidity Light intensity Precipitation Temperature Water ph and salinity Dissolved Nutrients Dissolved Oxygen Disolved nutrients Soil Available nutrients Moisture pH Structure Temperature G1: Community Ecology G.1.1-2: Factors that affect the distribution of animal and plant species Scien cebitz. com
  3. 3. Abiotic Factors affect animal and plant species, but also interact and change with time themselves E.g. Temperature depends upon: solar radiation, wind speed, time of year, time of day, altitude and aspect Temperature affects: water loss, respiration, photosynthesis Changes in temperature affect: relative humidity and evaporation from soils and water surfaces G1: Community Ecology G.1.1-2: Factors that affect the distribution of animal and plant species Scien cebitz. com
  4. 4. Biotic and Abiotic factors vary both between and within ecosyetems G1: Community Ecology G.1.1-2: Factors that affect the distribution of animal and plant species Scien cebitz. com
  5. 5. Tropical Rain Forests Dominant Species Trees and Vines Floral community Highest Biodiversity of all Biomes Faunal community Very High biodiversity, mammals, bird, amphibians and arthropods Soil Community Very rich in decomposer species The Biotic Part 0 6.5 13.0 19.5 26.0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Temperature 0 75 150 225 300 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Rainfall G1: Community Ecology G.1.1-2: Factors that affect the distribution of animal and plant species Scien cebitz. com
  6. 6. Abiotic conditions within an ecosystem Humidity: 67% Light: 70% Humidity: 75% Light: 50% Humidity: 80% Light: 12% Humidity: 85% Light: 6% Humidity: 90% Light: 1% Humidity: 98% Light: 0% G1: Community Ecology G.1.1-2: Factors that affect the distribution of animal and plant species Scien cebitz. com
  7. 7. What about these two ecosystems? G1: Community Ecology G.1.1-2: Factors that affect the distribution of animal and plant species Scien cebitz. com
  8. 8. Niche A species’ share of a habitat and the resources in it. An organism’s ecological niche depends not only on where it lives but on what it does. G.1.5:The Niche concept G1: Community Ecology Scien cebitz. com
  9. 9. Niche the niche is defined by where the species lives in the ecosystem/ habitat how the species obtains its food/ nutrition the interactions with other species in the ecosystem/ relationships G.1.5:The Niche concept G1: Community Ecology Scien cebitz. com
  10. 10. Competition All the organisms in any ecosystem have some effect on every other organism in that ecosystem. Also any resource in any ecosystem exists only in a limited supply. When these two conditions apply jointly, competition takes place. Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  11. 11. Competition Competition between members of the same species: INTRASPECIFIC COMPETITION Just like a boxing match? Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  12. 12. Competition In a Gannet colony on an oceanic outcrop, as the population grows, so the pressure for good nesting sites increases This can affect the number of eggs that each female can successfully hatch, and so affects the birth rate of the population as a whole. Scien cebitz. com Density Dependent G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  13. 13. Competition Some species deal with intraspecific competition by being territorial. Red Deer stags fight to hold a territory Some birds sing to hold one Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  14. 14. Competition Or through display such as in this bird of paradise or peacocks all of which use bright feather displays to attract a mate. Energy investment in a large tail feather is a trade off against reproductive success Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  15. 15. Competition Intraspecific competition leads to logistic population growth 0 175 350 525 700 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Population growth over time Population Time Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  16. 16. Competition Competition between members of different species: INTERSPECIFIC COMPETITION Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  17. 17. The balance between the population size of a prey species and that of its predator. Populations of predators and prey are linked. Include both carnivore and herbivore relationships. Predator Prey relationships Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  18. 18. When the interaction involves animals preying on other animals, then this is termed - PREDATION Predator Prey relationships Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  19. 19. When the interaction involves animals preying plants, then this is termed - HERBIVORY Predator Prey relationships Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  20. 20. Predator Prey relationships 0 20 40 60 80 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Snowshoe Hare Lynx Year Numberofpelts(1000s) Prey population grows Prey population falls Predator population falls Predator population grows More food More huntingLess hunting Less foodMore food More huntingLess hunting Less food G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  21. 21. Special case of predation; the main difference being that the predator (parasite) coexists with the prey (host), rather than killing it. Parasitism Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  22. 22. Endoparasite - lives inside the body of the host Parasitism Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  23. 23. Ectoparasite - live on the body of the host. Parasitism Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.6: Interactions between species
  24. 24. Competition The amount of competition depends on how much each species need for the resource overlaps: Species 2Species 1 Resource Overlap Species 2Species 1 Resource Overlap Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.7: Competitive exclusion
  25. 25. Competition Interspecific competition may result in a balance, in which both species share the resource. But with the population size of each species reduced compared to without competition 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Species1 Species2 Carrying Capacity -Theoretical Maximum Population Size Intraspecific Competition Greater than Interspecific Competition Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.7: Competitive exclusion
  26. 26. Competition The other outcome is that one species may totally out compete the other. This is the principal of competitive exclusion 0 150 300 450 600 750 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Species1 Species2 Carrying Capacity -Theoretical Maximum Population Size Interspecific Competition Greater than Intraspecific Competition Scien cebitz. com G.1.7: Competitive exclusion G1: Community Ecology
  27. 27. Competition In a woodland plant species compete for light Trees should be able to out compete any smaller plants Scien cebitz. com G1: Community Ecology G.1.7: Competitive exclusion
  28. 28. Competition In deciduous woodland snowdrops, primroses and bluebells get around this problem They cary out their life cycle when the bigger trees and shrubs have no or few leaves In spring Scien cebitz. com G.1.7: Competitive exclusion G1: Community Ecology

×