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IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems
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IB Biology 5.1 communites and ecosystems

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Adapted version supporting the IB Diploma Biology Course

Adapted version supporting the IB Diploma Biology Course

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  1. 5.1: Communities and EcosystemsIB BiologyTopic 5: Ecology and evolutionSciencebitz.com
  2. Topic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  3. SpeciesTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  4. SpeciesTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystemsA group oforganisms thatinterbreed andproduce fertileoffspring.5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  5. SpeciesTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystemsA group oforganisms thatinterbreed andproduce fertileoffspring.5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  6. SpeciesTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystemsA group oforganisms thatinterbreed andproduce fertileoffspring.5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  7. SpeciesTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystemsA group oforganisms thatinterbreed andproduce fertileoffspring.5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  8. SpeciesTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystemsA group oforganisms thatinterbreed andproduce fertileoffspring.5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  9. SpeciesTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystemsA group oforganisms thatinterbreed andproduce fertileoffspring.Different genus5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  10. Topic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  11. HabitatTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  12. HabitatThe environment inwhich a speciesnormally lives orthe location of aliving organismTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  13. HabitatThe environment inwhich a speciesnormally lives orthe location of aliving organismTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  14. Topic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  15. PopulationTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  16. PopulationA group of organismsof the same speciesliving in the samearea at the same time,and which are capableof interbreedingTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  17. PopulationA group of organismsof the same speciesliving in the samearea at the same time,and which are capableof interbreedingElephants in Kakouma NP,Chad.Population about 3500Topic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  18. Topic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  19. CommunityTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  20. CommunityA group ofpopulations living andinteracting with eachother in a commonhabitatTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  21. CommunityA group ofpopulations living andinteracting with eachother in a commonhabitatTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  22. CommunityTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  23. Topic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  24. EcosystemTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  25. Ecosystema community and itsabiotic environment.Biotic FactorsProducersConsumersDetrivoresDecomposersInteractionsCompetitorsParasitesPathogensSymbiontsPredatorsHerbivoresAtmosphereWind speedHumidityLight intensityPrecipitationTemperatureWaterph and salinityDissolved NutrientsDissolved OxygenDisolved nutrientsSoilAvailable nutrientsMoisturepHStructureTemperatureTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  26. Topic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  27. EcologyTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  28. Ecologythe study ofrelationships betweenliving organisms andbetween organismsand their environment.Biotic FactorsProducersConsumersDetrivoresDecomposersInteractionsCompetitorsParasitesPathogensSymbiontsPredatorsHerbivoresAtmosphereWind speedHumidityLight intensityPrecipitationTemperatureWaterph and salinityDissolved NutrientsDissolved OxygenDisolved nutrientsSoilAvailable nutrientsMoisturepHStructureTemperatureTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.1: Species, , Habitat, Population, Community,Ecosystem and EcologySciencebitz.com
  29. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.2:Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
  30. It is possible to classify the way organisms obtain energy intotwo categories.Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.2:Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
  31. It is possible to classify the way organisms obtain energy intotwo categories.Producers or Autotrophs: These manufacture their ownfood from simple inorganic substances (plants)Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.2:Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
  32. It is possible to classify the way organisms obtain energy intotwo categories.Producers or Autotrophs: These manufacture their ownfood from simple inorganic substances (plants)Consumers or Heterotrophs: Feed on autotrophs or other heterotrophs toobtain energySciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.2:Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
  33. It is possible to classify the way organisms obtain energy intotwo categories.Producers or Autotrophs: These manufacture their ownfood from simple inorganic substances (plants)Consumers or Heterotrophs: Feed on autotrophs or other heterotrophs toobtain energyBut within the consumers their is a feeding hierarchy of feedingSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.2:Autotrophs and Heterotrophs
  34. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.3: Consumers, Detrivores and Saprotrophs
  35. Consumers: an organism that ingests other organic matterthat is living or recently killed.Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.3: Consumers, Detrivores and Saprotrophs
  36. Consumers: an organism that ingests other organic matterthat is living or recently killed.Detrivores: an organism that ingests non-living organic matter.Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.3: Consumers, Detrivores and Saprotrophs
  37. Consumers: an organism that ingests other organic matterthat is living or recently killed.Detrivores: an organism that ingests non-living organic matter.Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.3: Consumers, Detrivores and SaprotrophsSaprotrophs: an organism that lives on or in non- living organic matter,secreting digestive enzymes into it and absorbing the products of digestion.
  38. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucose,herbivores eat plants and carnivores eat herbivores - differentfeeding levels (Greek for food is trophe)Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  39. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucose,herbivores eat plants and carnivores eat herbivores - differentfeeding levels (Greek for food is trophe)Trophic level 1 - producerSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  40. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucose,herbivores eat plants and carnivores eat herbivores - differentfeeding levels (Greek for food is trophe)Trophic level 1 - producerTrophic level 2 - herbivore (primary consumers)Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  41. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucose,herbivores eat plants and carnivores eat herbivores - differentfeeding levels (Greek for food is trophe)Trophic level 1 - producerTrophic level 2 - herbivore (primary consumers)Trophic level 3 - carnivore (secondary consumers)Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  42. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucose,herbivores eat plants and carnivores eat herbivores - differentfeeding levels (Greek for food is trophe)Trophic level 1 - producerTrophic level 2 - herbivore (primary consumers)Trophic level 3 - carnivore (secondary consumers)Trophic level 4 - carnivore (tertiary consumer)Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  43. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucose,herbivores eat plants and carnivores eat herbivores - differentfeeding levels (Greek for food is trophe)Trophic level 1 - producerTrophic level 2 - herbivore (primary consumers)Trophic level 3 - carnivore (secondary consumers)Trophic level 4 - carnivore (tertiary consumer)The first trophic level, the autotrophs supports theenergy requirements of all the other trophic levelsabove.Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  44. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucose,herbivores eat plants and carnivores eat herbivores - differentfeeding levels (Greek for food is trophe)Trophic level 1 - producerTrophic level 2 - herbivore (primary consumers)Trophic level 3 - carnivore (secondary consumers)Trophic level 4 - carnivore (tertiary consumer)The first trophic level, the autotrophs supports theenergy requirements of all the other trophic levelsabove.Trophic level 1Trophic level 2Trophic level 3Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  45. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  46. ProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerTertiary ConsumerTrophic Level 1Trophic Level 3Trophic Level 4Trophic Level 2Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  47. Ecosystems have an hierarchy offeeding relationships .ProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerTertiary ConsumerTrophic Level 1Trophic Level 3Trophic Level 4Trophic Level 2Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  48. Ecosystems have an hierarchy offeeding relationships .The energy flow in the ecosystemcan be illustrated as a Food chain.ProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerTertiary ConsumerTrophic Level 1Trophic Level 3Trophic Level 4Trophic Level 2Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  49. Ecosystems have an hierarchy offeeding relationships .The energy flow in the ecosystemcan be illustrated as a Food chain.The arrows show the directionthat energy flowsProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerTertiary ConsumerTrophic Level 1Trophic Level 3Trophic Level 4Trophic Level 2Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  50. Ecosystems have an hierarchy offeeding relationships .The energy flow in the ecosystemcan be illustrated as a Food chain.The arrows show the directionthat energy flowsProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerTertiary ConsumerTrophic Level 1Trophic Level 3Trophic Level 4Trophic Level 2Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  51. Ecosystems have an hierarchy offeeding relationships .The energy flow in the ecosystemcan be illustrated as a Food chain.The arrows show the directionthat energy flowsProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerTertiary ConsumerTrophic Level 1Trophic Level 3Trophic Level 4Trophic Level 2Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  52. Ecosystems have an hierarchy offeeding relationships .The energy flow in the ecosystemcan be illustrated as a Food chain.The arrows show the directionthat energy flowsProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerTertiary ConsumerTrophic Level 1Trophic Level 3Trophic Level 4Trophic Level 2Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  53. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  54. Food chains are anoversimplificationSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  55. Food chains are anoversimplificationThey only show direct feedingrelationships within onehierarchySciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  56. Food chains are anoversimplificationThey only show direct feedingrelationships within onehierarchySome organisms can be atdifferent trophic levels indifferent food chainsSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  57. Food chains are anoversimplificationThey only show direct feedingrelationships within onehierarchySome organisms can be atdifferent trophic levels indifferent food chainsSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  58. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  59. Some organisms appear in morethan one food chainsSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  60. Some organisms can be atdifferent trophic levels indifferent food chainsSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  61. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  62. The reality is that there isa complex network ofinterrelated food chainswhich create a food webSimplified Boreal Forest Food WebSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  63. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.4-6:Trophic levels, food chains and food webs
  64. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  65. The starting point of all energy in ecosystems is thesun.The big ideaSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  66. The starting point of all energy in ecosystems is thesun.But only organisms which photosynthesize can obtainenergy directly from the sun.The big ideaSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  67. The starting point of all energy in ecosystems is thesun.But only organisms which photosynthesize can obtainenergy directly from the sun.All other organisms obtain energy by eatingThe big ideaSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  68. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  69. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  70. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucoseSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  71. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucoseHerbivores eat plantsSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  72. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucoseHerbivores eat plantsCarnivores eat herbivoresSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  73. Plants capture the suns energy and convert it to glucoseHerbivores eat plantsCarnivores eat herbivoresThis creates different feeding levels or Trophic levels(Greek for food is trophe)Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  74. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  75. Food chains contain bothtransfers andtransformationsSolar energy (light) istransformed into storedchemical energy byphotosynthesisSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  76. This transformation isnot very efficient. Onlyabout 2% of the solarenergy is converted tosugars (chemical store ofenergy)Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  77. This transformation isnot very efficient. Onlyabout 2% of the solarenergy is converted tosugars (chemical store ofenergy)Light energyfrom the sun2% convertedto sugars98% used duringphotosynthesisSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  78. Sciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  79. When the zebra eats grassmatter is transferred. Not allthe available matter istransferred. E.g. FibreTo make use of the storedenergy, respiration has totransform the matter toenergy. The total efficiency isonly about 10%.Transfer ofmaterialSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  80. When the zebra eats grassmatter is transferred. Not allthe available matter istransferred. E.g. FibreTo make use of the storedenergy, respiration has totransform the matter toenergy. The total efficiency isonly about 10%.Transfer ofmaterialSome passesstraight throughSome gets transformed straightto usable energy and lost as heatSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  81. The transfers andtransformations carryon up the food chain withless energy and materialbeing passed from onelevel to the nextSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  82. The transfers andtransformations carryon up the food chain withless energy and materialbeing passed from onelevel to the nextSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems
  83. Because of theinefficiency of energytransfer food chains arerarely longer than fourconnectionsProducerPrimary ConsumerSecondary ConsumerTertiary ConsumerTrophic Level 1Trophic Level 3Trophic Level 4Trophic Level 2DandelionBanded snailHouse SparrowSparrow HawkSciencebitz.comTopic 5.1: Communities andEcosystems5.1.9-11: Energy in Ecosystems

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