Environmental Impact Assessment

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  • Environmental Impact Assessment

    1. 1. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment What is an EIA?
    2. 2. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment “process for identifying the likely consequences for the biophysical environment and for man’s health and welfare of implementing particular activities and for conveying information at a stage where it can materially affect the decision, to those for sanctioning the proposals.” (Wathern, 1992)
    3. 3. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment That is a very long way to say The purpose of EIA is to: Helps the decision making process by providing information about the consequences of development Promotes sustainable development by identifying environmentally sound practice and mitigation measures for developments
    4. 4. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Some History In 1969 the US Federal government passed the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Federal Agencies had to consider the natural environment in any land use planning This gave the environment the same status as economic priorities
    5. 5. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Some History Within 20 years other countries had also included EIA’s as part of their planning policy. Canada 1973, Columbia 1974, Netherlands 1981 UK in 1988.
    6. 6. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment So what is an EIA? Confusingly: It is the process of examining the impacts of a development on the environment But it is also used to mean the document that is the result of the examination
    7. 7. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment What are EIA’s used for? Google Earth 2010 Often part of a National planning process for large scale developments Developments that need an EIA differ from country to country Maasvlate Port development, rotterdam, Netherlands - Extending the worlds second largest port needed an EIA
    8. 8. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Which developments? Do wind-farms need an EIA? Google Earth 2010 Major new road networks Airport and port developments Building power stations Building dams and reservoirs Quarrying Large scale housing projects
    9. 9. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment How does an EIA work? The EIA needs to be structured with a set of clear aims It has to occur during the planning, design and authorisation stage of any development. It needs to be comprehensive, addressing all potential impacts
    10. 10. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment How does an EIA work? There needs to focus on the potentially significant issues There needs to be consultation and public participation throughout the EIA process. The findings of the EIA should be part of the final decision process
    11. 11. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment How does an EIA work? While it is often mainly concerned with the natural environment the effect on man should also be considered.
    12. 12. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Stages of an EIA N=dÉåÉê~äáëÉÇ=bf^=éêçÅÉëë=ÑäçïÅÜ~êí Proposal Identification Is an EIA needed and which impacts Screening need to be considered(SCREENING) EIA Requiered Scoping Initial environmental examination No EIA *Public involvement Identifying impacts (SCOPING) Impact analysis *Public involvement typically Mitigation occurs at these point. It may and impact also occur at any other stage managment of the EIA Process Predicting the scale of potential EIA Report Resubmit Review *Public involvement impacts Redesign Decision-making Information from this process Not approved Approved contributes to effective future EIA Limiting the effect of impacts to Implementation and follow up acceptable limits (MITIGATION) båîáêçåãÉåí~ä=fãé~Åí=^ëëÉëëãÉåí
    13. 13. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment What do you need to know? Baseline data - what are the conditions like now What effects do different phases of a project cause Who or what is likely to be affected
    14. 14. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Phases of an EIA Baseline data This can be thought off as a project description What are conditions like now What does the project plan to do
    15. 15. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Phases of an EIA Description of project Physical characteristics - land use both during construction and operation Production process Waste products
    16. 16. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Phases of an EIA Alternatives What different approaches exist? Why choose this one?
    17. 17. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Phases of an EIA Impact identification (scoping and screening) Consider all potential environmental impacts whether good or bad Detail those impacts that are potentially significant Comprehensive but focused
    18. 18. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Phases of an EIA Impact on Ecosystems People Resources and their interactions
    19. 19. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Impact Assessment Techniques Systematic and comprehensive but also flexible enough to respond to changing conditions Be able to arrange large amounts of data often from different sources in a meaningful way Based on quantitative evaluation that is both accurate and objective
    20. 20. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Impact Assessment Techniques Checklists of impacts: General set of criteria Often designed for certain types of project Can be very thorough if designed well
    21. 21. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Impact Assessment Techniques Impact matrices Combine a checklist of environmental conditions and a list activities that may have an effect Cause and effect between the environmental feature and the activity can be individually identified
    22. 22. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Impact Assessment Techniques Cost and benefit analysis This outlines the value both positive and negative of each impact Can be very difficult to add a “cost” value to ecosystems
    23. 23. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Evaluation Techniques Evaluation techniques compare various possible scenarios and analyse the consequences
    24. 24. Topic: 2.7 Measuring changes in the system 2.7.3: Environmental Impact Assessment Evaluation Techniques Magnitude: What scale will the impact have? Extent: How big an area does the impact affect: Site only, Local or regional. Duration: How long will the impact be for: Short, Medium or Long term. Using Magnitude, extent and duration together it is possible to analyse the impacts from various scenarios for most projects.

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