Solar system & constellation(g 4)Presentation Transcript
Solar System & Constellation
Solar system refers to the sun (our star) and all objects that travel around its.
Components of the solar system divided into planets, satellites, asteroids, and comets.
Planets in Solar System are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto.
Planets in Solar System named after figures from Greek and Roman mythology.
Nine planets can classified or grouped different ways:
By size :
Small planet – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars and Pluto.
Giant planet – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
By position from Sun :
Inner planet – Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
Outer planet – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and
By composition :
Terrestrial or rocky planet – Mercury, Venus, Earth and
Gas planet – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
A gigantic ball of very hot gases.
Converts 6 million tons of hydrogen into helium every second.
Diameter : 1.4 million km (870,000 miles), which is 109 Earth diameters
Mass : 330,000 times the mass of the Earth
Time to rotate (at equator) : 25 Earth days
Temperature in central core : 14 million
Distance from center of our galaxy : 26,000 light years
Age : 4.5 billion years
Mercury – at the edge of the Sun
A dense, rocky planet with a core made of iron and nickel.
The planet closet to the Sun.
Size bigger than Pluto, about the size of Earth.
Surface is scarred by ancient craters.
Temperatures soar to 370 day and night -185.
Orbit around the Sun, travels 50km/s(30 mile/s) faster than other planet.
Average distance from the Sun: 58 million km
Diameter: 4880 km(3032 miles)
Mass: 0.06 times the Earth’s mass
Time to orbit the Sun: 88 Earth days
Rotation time (a day): 59 Earth days
Number of Moons: None
Venus – cloud-covered inferno
Called Earth’s sister planet.
Hottest world in the Solar system.
Second planet from the Sun.
The size and masses same as the Earth.
Temperature on surface 480 (896 )
Venus shrouded under a thick blanket of clouds, containing carbon dioxide and sulfuric acid.
Average distance from the Sun: 108 million km (67 million miles)
Diameter: 12,102 km (7520 miles)
Mass: 0.82 times the Earth’s mass
Time to orbit the Sun: 225 Earth days
Rotation time (a day):243 Earth Days
Number of Moon: None
Earth – the oasis
The only planet that can support human.
The only planet has oceans of liquid water, plenty of oxygen in its atmosphere.
Third planet from the Sun.
Pretty planet with swirling white clouds, blue oceans and mostly brown continents.
Earth’s core mostly made up of nickel and iron.
Average distance from the Sun: 150 million km (93 million miles)
Diameter: 12,756 km (7926 miles)
Mass: 6 x 10 24 kilograms
Time to orbit the Sun: 365 Earth days
Rotation time (a day): 23 hours 56 minutes 4 second
Number of Moon: One
Moon – our traveling companion
Has no atmosphere and no oceans of water.
Surface of Moon is pitted by numerous craters produced by series of impact about 4 billion years ago.
Surface was strewn with loose rocks, ranging in the size from pebbles to boulders as big as houses.
Average distance from the Sun: 384,400 km (238,855 miles)
Diameter: 3475 km (2160 miles)
Mass: Almost 1/100 th of the mass of the Earth
Rotation time (a day): 27 Earth days, 7 hours and 45 minutes, with respect to the stars
Mars – the red world
The red planet.
A small rocky planet.
Fourth planet from the Sun.
Has inspired numerous science fiction tales as a source of hostile alien beings and underground colonies.
Smaller and colder than the Earth.
Rock looks red because iron in its surface soil has combined with oxygen to make rust.
Has two tiny moon called Phobos and Deimos.
Temperatures as low as -140 (-220 )
Average distance from the Sun: 228 million km (142 million miles)
Diameter: 6794 km (4221 miles )
Mass: 0.11 times the Earth’s mass
Time to orbit the Sun: 687 Earth days (or 1.88 years)
Rotation time (a day): 24 Earth hours and 43 minutes
Number of Moon: two
Jupiter – king of planet
The largest planet in the Solar system.
Fifth planet from the Sun.
Is a gas planet and does not have a solid surface like the Earth.
Atmosphere bristles with lightning and huge storm systems.
Top layers of Jupiter form swirling patterns of cloud, with bands of different color.
Temperatures change rapidly., from much hotter to much colder than any other places on Earth.
Average distance from the Sun: 778 million km (483 million miles)
Diameter: 142,984 km (88,846 miles)
Mass: 317 times the Earth’s mass
Time to orbit the Sun: 11.9 Earth yaers
Rotation time (a day): 9 Earth hours and 51 minutes
Number of Moon: at least 28
Saturn – jewel of the Solar System
Sixth planet from the Sun.
Famous for its dazzling and complicated rings.
Saturn’s ring span about 270,000 km(168,000 miles) from edge to edge.
The rings are very thin, only a few tens of meters thick.
Saturn composed of hydrogen and helium.
No solid surface.
Has more moon than others planet.
Average distance from the Sun: 1430 million km (889 million miles)
Diameter: 120,536 km (74,898 miles)
Mass: 95 times the Earth’s mass
Time to orbit the Sun: 29.5 Earth years
Rotation time (a day): 10 Earth hours and 48 minutes
Number of Moon: at least 30
Uranus – rolling on its side
A giant gas planet.
Seventh planet from the Sun.
Has cloudy atmosphere made up of hydrogen and helium.
Spins on its axis in the opposite direction (known as retrograde) to most of the other planet.
The atmosphere has streaking bands and dark spot.
Circled by very thin rings which composed of centimeter-sized particles.
Average distance from the Sun: 2877 million km (1788 million miles)
Diameter: 51,118 km (31,763 miles)
Mass: 14.5 times the Earth’s mass
Time to orbit the Sun: 84 Earth years
Rotation time (a day): 17 Erath hours and 17 minutes
Number of Moon: at least 21
Neptune – blue world of the deep
The fourth and last giant gas planet.
Eighth planet from the Sun.
Atmosphere made up of hydrogen.
Streaks of white cloud, ranging in width from 50-200km (30-120 miles) cross the atmosphere.
Average distance from the Sun: 4498 million km (2795 million miles)
Diameter: 49,528 km (30,775 miles)
Mass: 16.7 times the Earth’s mass
Time to orbit the Sun: 165 Earth years
Rotation time (a day): 16 Earth hours and 5 minutes
Number of Moon: at least eight
Pluto – baby of the family
Smallest planet in Solar System.
Is icy and rocky, with frozen surface layers of methane.
Smaller than Earth’s Moon.
Temperature at the surface is about -220 (-365 )
Orbit around the Sun is highly elongated (or elliptical) and more tilted than other planet.
Average distance from the Sun: 5919 million km (3675 million miles)
Diameter: 2274 km (1413 miles)
Mass: 0.002 times the Earth’s mass
Time to orbit the Sun: 249 Earth years
Rotation time (a day): 6 Earth days and 9 hours
Number of Moon: One
Solar System Uranus Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Neptune Pluto Mercury
The constellations near the north celestial pole are visible all year long
Its phase and brightness affect the number of stars you see even on the most cloud-free, haze-free nights.
One special, moderately bright star stays fixed in the sky all the time, day and night, season after season, and year after year.
Polaris always defines the points of the compass.
One of the largest circumpolar constellations, obscure to casual observers on account of its long, winding shape, is Draco , the dragon.
Perseus is another circumpolar constellation with an elongated, rather complicated shape.
Constellations Of Spring
There are certain star groups that are Characteristic of the evening sky in spring in the northern hemisphere.
The season of spring is 3 month long.
The virgin, is fairly high in the southeastern sky.
It has an irregular shape, something like a letter Y with a hooked tail.
Cancer And Canis Minor
Cancer, the crab, stands high in the southwestern sky.
If you stand facing southwest and look up at an elevation about 70 degrees, you’ll see a group of stars that resembles an upside-down Y.
Next to cancer is Canis Minor , the little dog, which contains the prominent star Procyon.
Gemini is moderately in the western sky.
This constellation has the general shape of a tail, thin, squared-off letter U.
At the top of the U are prominent castor and pollux.
Just to right of Gemini is the constellation Auriga.
It has the shape of an irregular pentagon.
Auriga contains the bright star Capella.
A complex of star, none of them bright, forming a trapezoid with limbs.
Representing a man of legendary strength and endurance.
Constellations Of Summer
Appear in the sky in the middle of July.
New star groups have risen at the east, and old ones have set in the west.
In the east-southeast sky, to the right and above Capricornus.
Outline resembles a teapot.
Lies in the direction of the densest part of the Milky Way.
Sits in the southen sky.
Resemblance to the animal or object it represents.
The eye of scorpion is the red giant star Antares, which the brightness.
In the southen sky, centered at the celestial equator.
Has a meaningless job.
About halfway between the horizon and the zenith in the west-northwest sky, you will see a fuzzy blob.
With binoculars, this resolves into a cluster of stars known as Coma Berenices ( the hair of Berenice ).
Constellations Of Autumn
An evening in the middle of October, a couple of hours of sunset.
The sky looked after by new custodians as the night grow longer.
High in the southeast you will see Pisces, the two fish.
Legend has it that Pisces were joined or tied together at their long tails ago, and to this day they are flailing about in that unfortunate condition.
Nearly at the zenith there is a square consisting of four medium- bright stars.
This is a body of Pegasus, the winged horse.
Toward the northeast, Andromeda, representing a princess, rides the horse alongside the Milky Way.
The Ethiopian princess who married Perseus.
Constellations Of Winter
They appear from the latitude of Lake Tahoe, Indianapolis, or Washington, D.C. a few hour after suppertime.
The southern portion of winter evening sky is dominated by Canis Major, the big dog.
Canis Major is easy to spot because of brilliant white star, that appears in the south-southeast
This is the brightest star in the whole sky, and its name in fact means “scorching” because it is contained in Canis Major, Sirius is often called the dog star.
Somewhat above and to the right of Sirius you will see another winter landmark, Orion, the hunter.
Orion contains two bright stars of its own, Betelgeuse, a red giant, and Rigel, a blue-white star.
A few degrees from the zenith in the southern sky on winter evenings, is Taurus, the Bull.
This constellation contains the bright star Aldebaran, which represents the eye of the bull.
Constellations Constellations Of Spring Circumpolar Constellations Constellations Of Summer Constellation of Winter Constellations of Autumn - Polaris, Ursa Minor, Ursa Major , Cassiopeia, Cepheus, Draco , Perseus -Libra, Virgo, Leo, Cancer And Canis Minor , Gemini, Auriga, Hercules, Corona Borealis , Bootes, Canes Venatici, Corvus, Crater, And Hydra - Capricornus, Sagittarius, Scorpius, The Summer Triangle, Ophiuchus And Serpens, Coma Berenices - Pisces And Aries, Cetus, Pegasus And Andromeda, Aquarius, Piscis Austrinus And Grus -Canis Major And Lepus, Orion, Taurus And The Pleiades, Eridanus