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Hypodermic Needle Theory This theory suggests that the information from a media text passes through to the audiences minds. This can get them to take control of something. (e.g. Playing Call of Duty and using the same effects in real life) The theory connects with MORAL PANICS such as gaming addiction.
Two-Step Flow Explains the relationship between the audience and the media text.Information from the media moves into two different stages:- First - Individuals who pay attention to the mass media and its messages receive the information. Second – Opinion leaders pass on their own interpretations in addition to the actual media content
Uses and Gratification Blumler and Katz (1974) argued that audience needs have social and psychological origins which generate certain expectations about the mass media, leading to differential patterns of media exposure which result in both the gratification of needs and in other (often unintended) consequences. This does assume an active audience making motivated choices.Social Uses of Television Environmental: background noise; companionship; entertainment Regulative: punctuation of time and activity; talk patterns Communication Facilitation: Experience illustration; common ground; conversational entrance; anxiety reduction; agenda for talk; value clarification Affiliation/Avoidance: Physical, verbal contact/neglect; family solidarity; family relaxant; conflict reduction; relationship maintenance Social Learning: Decision-making; behaviour modelling; problem-solving; value transmission; legitimization; information dissemination; substitute schooling Competence/Dominance: Role enactment; role reinforcement; substitute role portrayal; intellectual validation; authority exercise; gatekeeping; argument facilitation
Reception Theory Created by Stuart Hall Encoding/Decoding Model A media text is encoded by the producer and then decoded by the reader. The audience can recognise the codes and conventions within a media text. (e.g.- the audience can tell why certain colours have been used on a magazine front cover.)
Tvzetan Todorov Todorov has a 5 part theory which consists of the Equilibrium.The 5 part Equilibrium consists of :- Equilibrium Disruption of the Equilibrium Recognition of the Equilibrium Repair of the Equilibrium Return to the Equilibrium
Claude Levi-Strauss Using Narrative to find oppositions within a media text. Binary Oppositions Oppositions can be visual. Such as light/darkness, movement/stillness, man vs. woman, boy vs. girl, love/hate)
Vladimir Propp Theory consists of character types. Suggests that there are 31 functions within a story. Such as a villain that gains information about the victim.He has spread these into 7 categories and they are:- The Villain The Donor The Helper The Princess The Dispatcher The Hero The False Hero
Charles Leadbeater We Think Theory This theory suggests that there is an open access knowledge which allows building communities on the web to allow ideas to be shared and tested much more quickly and effectively. Ultimately this leads to us becoming more creative and innovative, as we are liberated from the usual institutional constraints on how things are invented and changed by scientists and academics. For example – Lily Allen and Ed Sheeran have used social network websites such as MySpace and YouTube to upload their music so that the audience can listen to it. This had led to them being internet and worldwide sensations. They are now well-known professional singers.
Chris Anderson: The Long Tail How the Internet has transformed economics, commerce and consumption. Revenue from the niche products now adds up to the same as blockbuster products. The internet allows the people to share and look around for a wider variety of products. (e.g. Google Shopping and eBay) Range of filtering services on the internet. (e.g. Google and Yahoo)
David Buckingham Specializes in the study of media and its effect on children. In 2009, he was made chairman of Advertising Association and published a report saying that there is no reason to suspect that changes in the media in the past 15 years has had a damaging effect on children. Applied cultural studies which approached to analysing children’s experiences with TV and electronic media.
David Gauntlett- Web 2.0 Web 2.0 invites users to play. Tim Berner’s Lee had invented the internet so that people can be creative and connected. ‘He imagined that browsing the web would be a matter of writing and editing, not just searching and reading’ (David Gauntlett Quote) We are seeing a shift away from a ‘sit back and be told’ to a culture towards more of a ‘making and doing’ culture.
Henry Jenkins Has researched into video games and their effects such as investigating how boys and girls are affected by video games. “Games represent a new lively art, one as appropriate for the digital age as those earlier media aesthetic experiences and transform the computer screen into a realm of experimentation and innovation that is broadly accessible”(Jenkins Quote) “Everyone is a producer of media as well as a consumer”
Media Regulation Byron Report SOPA (Stop Online Privacy Act) vs. PIPA (Protection of Intellectual Property Act) Silicon Valley vs. Hollywood - debated between each other about protection of intellectual property and the rights of freedom of speech. Hard to regulate everything on the internet as there is too much going on within the internet . (e.g. Twitters use of the super-injunction)
Wikinomics Theory created by Don Tapscott and Anthony D. Williams.Had 5 ideas to do with the media and the internet:- Peering – The free sharing of material on the internet is good for business when it cuts distribution costs to almost zero but its bad for those who are trying to protect their ideas. Free Creativity – Is a natural and positive outcome of the free market. Democratised – The media is democratised by peering, free creativity and the We Media journalism produced by ordinary people. Thinking Globally – Web 2.0 makes thinking globally inevitable. The internet is a virtual space in which a new blog is created every second. In this instantly global communication sphere, national and global boundaries are inevitably reduced. Perfect Storm – The combination of three things, technology (Web 2.0), demographics and economics creates a perfect storm.
Web 2.0 The term ‘web 2.0’ officially came in 2004 by Dale Doherty.There were 6 key ideas on how the internet is used :- Individual And User Generated Content (e.g. YouTube) Harness The Power Of The Crowd (e.g. Twitter) Data On An Epic Scale (e.g. Wikipedia) Architecture Of Participation (e.g. World of Warcraft) Network Effects (e.g. Flash Player) Openness (e.g. Dominos)