Facilitating learning 1
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  • 1. “The principle goal of education is to createmen who are capable of doing new things, not simplyof repeating what other generations have done- menwho are creative, inventive and discoverers.” - Jean Piaget
  • 2. Jean Piaget(1896-1980), Swisspsychologist, best knownfor his pioneering work onthe development ofintelligence in children. Hisstudies have had a majorimpact on the fields ofpsychology andeducation.
  • 3. Stage 1. Stage 2. Sensory-motor Stage Pre-Operational Stage Stage 3. Stage 4.Concrete- Operational Stage Formal Operational Stage Back
  • 4.  The first stage corresponds from birth to infancy or at the age of 2 years old.Object permanence. This is the ability of thechild to know that an object still exists evenwhen out of sight.
  • 5.  From Birth to 6 weeks.Three primary reflexes described by Piaget:sucking of objects in the mouth, following themoving and interesting objects with the eyesand closing of the hand when an object makescontact with the palm (palmar grasp).
  • 6.  This covers from 6 weeks – 4 months Primary reaction because the action is focused on the infant’s body. Circular reaction because it is a repetition of an action that initially occurred by chance. Ex. Infants might repeat the motion of passing their hand before their face.
  • 7.  This comprises from 4-8 months There are three new abilities occur at this stage: Infants will intentionally grasp the air in the direction of desired object. Secondary circular reactions or repetition of an action involving an external object. (Ex. Switching the flashlight on and offrepeatedly.) and; The differentiation between means and ends.
  • 8.  This includes 8-12 months This stage is associated primarily with the development of logic and the coordination between means and ends. Piaget calls this as “first proper intelligence.” Also this stage marks the beginningof goal orientation, the deliberate planning ofsteps to meet an objective/goal.
  • 9.  This covers 12-18 months This stage is associated primarily with the discovery of new means to meet goals. Piaget describes the child at this point in time as the “young scientist” because they are discoverers of new methods of meeting challenges.
  • 10.  Ex. When a baby seems to enjoy dropping the spoon over and over again in many different ways, a proof of the creation of novel of variations in events. Baby then discovers a pattern that “objects fall down – not up.”
  • 11.  This covers 18-24 months Infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form mental representations. This stage is associated primarily with the true creativity. This marks the passage into the pre-operational stage.
  • 12.  The preoperational stage covers from about two to seven years old or the preschool years. This stage is highlighted by the following: *Symbolic Function *Irreversibility *Egocentrism *Animism *Centration *Transductive Reasoning
  • 13.  This covers the ages approximately between 8-11 years old or the elementary school years. The concrete operational stage is marked by the following: *Decentering *Conservation *Reversibility *Seriation
  • 14.  This stage covers ages between 12 and 15 years old where thinking becomes more logical. This stage is characterized by the following: *Hypothetical Reasoning *Deductive Reasoning *Analogical Reasoning