“The principle goal of education is to createmen who are capable of doing new things, not simplyof repeating what other generations have done- menwho are creative, inventive and discoverers.” - Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget(1896-1980), Swisspsychologist, best knownfor his pioneering work onthe development ofintelligence in children. Hisstudies have had a majorimpact on the fields ofpsychology andeducation.
The first stage corresponds from birth to infancy or at the age of 2 years old.Object permanence. This is the ability of thechild to know that an object still exists evenwhen out of sight.
From Birth to 6 weeks.Three primary reflexes described by Piaget:sucking of objects in the mouth, following themoving and interesting objects with the eyesand closing of the hand when an object makescontact with the palm (palmar grasp).
This covers from 6 weeks – 4 months Primary reaction because the action is focused on the infant’s body. Circular reaction because it is a repetition of an action that initially occurred by chance. Ex. Infants might repeat the motion of passing their hand before their face.
This comprises from 4-8 months There are three new abilities occur at this stage: Infants will intentionally grasp the air in the direction of desired object. Secondary circular reactions or repetition of an action involving an external object. (Ex. Switching the flashlight on and offrepeatedly.) and; The differentiation between means and ends.
This includes 8-12 months This stage is associated primarily with the development of logic and the coordination between means and ends. Piaget calls this as “first proper intelligence.” Also this stage marks the beginningof goal orientation, the deliberate planning ofsteps to meet an objective/goal.
This covers 12-18 months This stage is associated primarily with the discovery of new means to meet goals. Piaget describes the child at this point in time as the “young scientist” because they are discoverers of new methods of meeting challenges.
Ex. When a baby seems to enjoy dropping the spoon over and over again in many different ways, a proof of the creation of novel of variations in events. Baby then discovers a pattern that “objects fall down – not up.”
This covers 18-24 months Infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form mental representations. This stage is associated primarily with the true creativity. This marks the passage into the pre-operational stage.
The preoperational stage covers from about two to seven years old or the preschool years. This stage is highlighted by the following: *Symbolic Function *Irreversibility *Egocentrism *Animism *Centration *Transductive Reasoning
This covers the ages approximately between 8-11 years old or the elementary school years. The concrete operational stage is marked by the following: *Decentering *Conservation *Reversibility *Seriation
This stage covers ages between 12 and 15 years old where thinking becomes more logical. This stage is characterized by the following: *Hypothetical Reasoning *Deductive Reasoning *Analogical Reasoning