WARM UP1. Think back to Yesterday’s lesson. Period 3: Lab Report Period 4: HIV Transmission and Immunology.2. What did you like and dislike about each period? 1. What do you think was the objective of each period? 2. What did you learn from each period? 3. Do you think this information is of value to you personally? Why or why not? 4. Any additional comments or questions.Announcements:1. Hard Copy of Lab Report Due Tomorrow2. Exam TomorrowAgenda:1. The wonderful world of parasites2. Study Time
ParasitesWhat is a parasite or parasitism?• A non mutual relationship between organisms of different species where the parasite benefits at the expense of the host. • There are many types of parasites! • Animals – Blood Fluke, Leech, Hookworm, toxoplasma gondii, Candiru • Bacterial - Salmonella • Viral – Ebola, HIV• Commensalism – one organism benefits. Other is neutral• Mutualism – Both organisms benefit.
Putting Things in Perspective• 1 trillion human cells in the body.• 10 trillion foreign cells living on and in you. (mostly bacterial)• Making you 1% to 10% human
Parasites on Other Organism
Ampulex compressa – Zombies andNeurosurgerySpecies: Emerald Cockroach WaspType of Parasitism: Egg Laying• Wasp stings venom into cockroach to paralyze cockroach. Sends second sting to brain and turns it into a zombie. Then, brings roach into burrow and lays eggs into head of cockroach. Larvae hatches and eats cockroach.2 min in:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cyd8NmLJwcM&feature=related
Myrmeconema neotropicum – It likesbig butts and it can not lie…. Location: Rain Forest How it Works: Eggs live and develop in the abdomen of ants and increases. Changes behavior of ants to stick butt in air. Big red butt looks like berries to birds. Parasite breeds inside birds and lays eggs feces of bird.
Candiru (By Request)Species: Candiru aka Toothpick Fish or Vampire FishLocation: Amazon riverSize: Up to 16 inches but most are smallerFun Facts:• Has been found in vaginal cavity. Extraction by pushing the hooks in and twisting head off.• Attacks the urethra due to chemical scent of urineType of Parasitism: Blood suckinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QQWgUht-ObI
Schistosoma – The sweetest parasiteSpecies: Schistosoma or Blood FlukeLocation: Asia, Africa, South AmericaType of Parasitism: Hooks and feeds off of blood vessels.Fun Facts: • Have distinct sexual dimorphism: Male and Female • Life Cycle: Eggs passed through urine or feces onto freshwater. Larvae goes into snail, Larvae then infects mammals by penetrating skin in water. Secretes enzyme to dissolve skin and slips into vein. Swims in circulatory system. Finds a mate. Male does courtship and female fits in groove of male (spooning). Male feeds female and stays together for years…40 years, making eggs.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u05x3fSGKC0&feature=topics
Hookworm – The New Allergy Medicine Species: Hookworm Location: Everywhere Type of Parasitism: Hooks and feeds off of blood vessels. Fun Facts: • Crawls up through the foot. Crawls up host to find intestine and sucks on the blood. Lays eggs in fecal matter and whole process starts again. Hookworm History: • 1908 Anemia in the South: John D. Rockafeller wanted to find out why the South’s economy is in the toilet. Economist thought because they were anemic. Sent Doctor down and found that anemia was linked to soil. Good sandy soil = anemia. Hard Clay Soil – no anemia. Checked feces in tree area. Went #2 with no shoes. Scientist set up sandbox to test crawl behavior (1 foot a day). Birth of outhouse 6 ft down • Jasper Lawrence (England): Hookworm and allergies. Started landscaping business. Saw BBC documentary about parasites and allergies. Looked online and found studies that developing nations don’t have allergies. Wanted to find hookworm. Walked in fecal matter in Africa. (30-40) Went home and no allergies • Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44aq2A6NkUw
Toxoplasma – The reason for crazy catladiesSpecies: Toxoplasma Gondii (parasitic protozoa)Location: CatsType of Parasitism: Invades muscle and neural cells and forms a vacuoleto replicate asexually. Can also invade intestines of cats and to reproducesexually.Fun Facts:• Toxoplasmosis – seizure, blindness• The most amazing feat of mind control • Toxo hooks up in cat intestine and poos out eggs • Rats eat cat poo and gets toxo • Toxo wants to be in cat so crawls up amygdala of brain (control center for fear/anxiety) and the part for sexual arousal next door • Toxo makes rats hot for cats but everything else is normal• Toxo and Schizophrenia and other psychosis • Shows small correlation of increase schizophrenia in late 1700s to 1800s with pet cats • Toxo = 2-4x dying in car accidents • 1 of 1000s of different parasites