What is a molecule?A group of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds Ex: H2O, Glucose, CH3, Cy clohexaneWhat is amacromolecule?A very large molecule made up of repeating molecules or subunits (monomers) linked (polymerized) together to make a polymer.
What are the 4 major macromolecules that make upall cells?Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates - sugarsCarbohydrates are made up of monomers call monosaccharide (one sugar)carbo-: sounds like carbon-hydrate: means something combined with water General formula for carbohydrates: CnH2nOn
Carbohydrates - sugars Carbohydrates are made by a dehydration reaction1 monosaccharide + 1 monosaccharide 1disaccharide + 1 H2O
Polysaccharide sugars- made of 100’s to1000’s of glucose (a type of monosaccharide)monomer units linked by dehydrationreactions ex: starchFunction of a carbohydrate is usually to be anenergy source for cells
Lipids - FatsLipids are made of a monomer of 1 glycerol molecule and 3 fatty acids (triglyceride) Not Really a Polymer!!
Proteins Proteins are made of a monomer of amino acids The R-group makes each amino acid different
Proteins Amino acids are linked together by a dehydration reaction A long chain of amino acids linked together is called a polypeptide chain or polypeptide
Proteins When a polypeptide chain folds together it makes protein. Proteins perform the cells functions and gives a cell structure
Nucleic Acids – DNA/RNA Nucleic acids are made of monomers called nucleotides Nucleotides link together by dehydration reactions
Nucleic Acids – DNA/RNA Each Nucleotide has 3 main parts