WARM UP• What is photosynthesis?• What is general equation for photosynthesis?• What are the 2 steps or phases of photosynthesis? • What step is light independent? • Where do these steps occur? • What is produced in each step?
Cellular RespirationCellular respiration is a process that uses sugar to makechemical energy in the form of ATPWhy Care?• Needed in Exercise• Needed to make bread, beer, and rootbeer• Cell Respiration occurs in all cells! • Including plant cells!• General Equation for Cell Respiration
Where does Cell Respiration Happen?
General Steps of Cell Respiration1. Glycolysis2. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex (PDC)3. Citric Acid Cycle4. Oxidative Phosphorylation or Electron Transport Chain
Glycolysis• Glycolysis is the breaking of sugar or glucose to produce ATP and NADH• Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm and does not require oxygen. • 2 Phases of Glycolysis • Preparatory Phase • Energy Pay Off Phase
Glycolysis – Preparatory Phase• Preparatory Phase – 2 ATP molecules get used up to break glucose into two G3P molecules.
Glycolysis – Energy Pay-off Phase• Energy Pay-off Phase – Each G3P molecule helps produce 1 NADH and 2 ATP. G3P is modified into pyruvate
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex• The PDC prepares pyruvate to enter the citric acid cycle by changing pyruvate into Acetyl CoA• The PDC occurs in the cytoplasm.
Citric Acid Cycle aka Krebs Cycle• The citric acid cycle takes one Acetyl CoA molecule to make 1 ATP, 3 NADH and 1FADH2.• The citric acid cycle occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria
Oxidative Phosphorylation aka ElectronTransport Chain• Oxidative phosphorylation takes all the electron carriers (NADH and FADH2) made in the previous steps to make ATP• Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane
Oxidative Phosphorylation aka ElectronTransport Chain• See White Board for Diagram• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KGjCm566-MY
Fermentation• Fermentation occurs when not all cells get enough oxygen• 2 Types of Fermentation 1. Lactic Acid 2. Alcohol Fermentation
Fermentation – Lactic AcidLactic acid fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of cells.
Fermentation – AlcoholAlcohol fermentation occurs in the cytoplasm of somebacteria and yeasts that live in very oxygen limited areas
Fermentation• The main difference between alcohol and lactic acid fermentation is the byproduct. • Lactic Acid Fermentation produces lactate • Alcohol Fermentation produces ethanol