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The ABCs: Critical Factors for Success - 2006
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The ABCs: Critical Factors for Success - 2006

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The ABCs: Critical Factors for Success by Grainne A. Matthews, Ph.D.

The ABCs: Critical Factors for Success by Grainne A. Matthews, Ph.D.

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  • 1. The ABC’s: Critical Factors for Success Grainne A. Matthews, Ph.D. Quality Safety Edge Behavioural Safety Now Conference 2006 Basic Concepts
  • 2. Wanda Myers This presentation is dedicated to Wanda Myers, M.A., of Quality Safety Edge and Behavioral Consultant Services, Inc. Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 2
  • 3. Agenda  Introduce ABC concepts  Add PICNIC concepts  Mix in pinpointing  Practice analyzing behavior Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 3
  • 4. Basic ABC Model Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 4
  • 5. Examples of Behavior  Son asks for $20 to buy a new video game  Daughter does her homework before calling friends  Wife picks up dry cleaning on way home from long day at work  Husband mows grass and edges lawn Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 5
  • 6. YES NO Behavior  “B” in the ABC Model stands for “bad”.  Behavior includes anything a person does, says, thinks, or feels.  In improving performance, it is most effective to focus on observable behavior (does or says).  To focus on behavior, we must first carefully identify it. Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 6
  • 7. Pinpoint Performance  A pinpoint is a measurable description of desired performance, either behavior or results.  Behavior – action  Ex. Son cooks dinner for the whole family  Results – what’s left behind  Ex. Dinner is on the table Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 7
  • 8. Four Criteria for Pinpoint  Observable See the action or the result  Specific Enough that two people can agree  Objective Without interpretation or judgment  Active If a dead man can do it, it isn’t a good pinpoint. Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 8
  • 9. Pinpoints are not…  Labels and interpretations  Safe  Good  Careful  Aggressive  Angry  Bad Attitude  Dangerous  Ex. Son cares (interpretation) or is caring (label) Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 9
  • 10. YES NO Pinpoints  Pinpoints are interpretations & judgments  Two of the characteristics of good pinpoints are “observable” and “specific”  “Avoids criticizing children in public” is a good pinpoint  “Does not clean up after self” is a good pinpoint Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 10
  • 11. YES NO Are These Good Pinpoints?  Arriving on time to school  Being a team player  Vacuuming carefully  Hanging up clothes  Asking permission to visit friends  Communicating clearly Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 11
  • 12. YES NO Are These Good Pinpoints?  Joe asks his mother to wash his uniform.  Sally avoids responsibility for taking care of her dog.  Freddie offers to set the table without having to be asked. Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 12
  • 13. Which part is a Pinpoint and which is a Label?  Sam wastes time because he listens to the neighbor chatting about the weather.  Mary doesn't trust her husband because she asks for details about his expenses.  Sally is careless because she turns in her report without checking her spelling. Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 13
  • 14. Basic ABC Model  Establish a need Exercising on a hot day  Indicate presence of consequences Soda machine Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 14
  • 15. Antecedents  Gain power from past association with consequences  Dad’s instructions versus Mom’s  Lose power if no longer associated with consequences  Empty soda machine  Only function if impact performer  Profits for company  Are necessary, but not sufficient, to ensure performance  Wouldn’t know how to do task without training, but training doesn’t guarantee will do task Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 15
  • 16. Examples of Antecedents Antecedents Behaviors  He saw it on TV & Mom  Son asks for $20 to buy a has $20 new video game  Mom called her from  Daughter does her work to remind her homework before calling friends  Had to wear least favorite outfit that  Wife picks up dry morning cleaning on way home from long day at work  Neighbor made comment about how  Husband mows grass fast grass grows and edges lawn Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 16
  • 17. YES NO Antecedents  “A” in the ABC Model stands for “active”.  Examples of Antecedents are:  Sticky note on fridge (Son buys milk)  Mom gives son $20 (Son buys video game)  Antecedents are sometimes enough to prompt desired behavior. Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 17
  • 18. Basic ABC Model Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 18
  • 19. Examples of Consequences Antecedents Behaviors Consequences He saw it on TV & Son asks for $20 to Plays video game Mom has $20 buy a new video that night game Mom called her from Daughter does her Her friends are all work to remind her homework before doing their home- calling friends work when she calls Had to wear least Wife picks up dry Has clothes to wear favorite outfit that cleaning on way next morning morning home from long day at work Neighbor made Husband mows Is hot and sticky comment about how grass and edges fast grass grows lawn Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 19
  • 20. YES NO Consequences  Anything that follows a behavior can be a consequence for that behavior.  Consequences are more effective than antecedents in influencing behavior.  Most people don’t care how other people react to them.  Consequences change future behavior. Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 20
  • 21. Understanding Behavior Increase Future Probability Improvement for performer Consequence Worsening for performer Decrease Future Probability Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 21
  • 22. Understanding Behavior Increase Behavior Decrease Behavior Positive Reinforcement  Punishment something  Add something to the  Add something to the environment of performer environment of performer Add  Behavior increases in future  Behavior decreases in future  Ex: Kiss your husband when he takes out the trash  Ex: Snarl at your husband when he asks where his socks are Negative Reinforcement Extinction Remove something from the Remove something from the something environment of performer environment of performer Remove Behavior increases in future Behavior decreases in  Go to action movie Ex: future when your husband washes car  Turn off Monday Night Ex: Football when your husband ignores you Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 22
  • 23. Analyzing Behavior Antecedents Behavior Consequences Wife’s request  Can’t hear anything Mow the grass Has ear plugs  Hot & sweaty ears with ear plugs Mower noise  Risk of future hearing loss decreases slightly Wife’s request  Hears kids in pool Mow the grass Has ear plugs  Comfortable temperature without ear plugs Mower noise  Risk of future hearing loss increases slightly Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 23
  • 24. Effective Consequences Effective Ineffective  PICs  PDUs  Positive  Positive  Delayed  Immediate  Uncertain (infrequent)  Certain (frequent)  Ex. Have clean clothes to wear  Ex. Get $20 if you ask if pick up from cleaners  NICs  NDUs  Negative  Negative  Immediate  Delayed  Certain (frequent)  Uncertain (infrequent)  Ex. Hot and sticky if  Ex. Friends will be unavailable you mow lawn if you call later in evening Large Small Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 24
  • 25. YES NO PIC NIC Analysis  Immediate & Certain (frequent) consequences have the most effect on future behavior.  The size of consequences influences their effectiveness.  There is only one consequence for every behavior.  The PICNIC balance determines future behavior. Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 25
  • 26. Analyzing Behavior  Choose a behavior to analyze  Identify antecedents  Identify consequences  Classify consequences as PICs, NICs, PDUs, or NDUs; large or small  Test your analysis against reality Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 26
  • 27. ABC & PICNIC Analysis Guide  Step 1  Pinpoint target behaviour  List all actual or all possible Antecedents  List actual or all possible Consequences  Mark Consequences as P/N, I/D, C/U (F/I) & rate importance (1 – Very, 3 Not at all)  Step 2  Repeat for opposite behaviour  Step 3  Compare contingencies & test conclusion Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 27
  • 28. Problem: Ineffective Contingencies  Antecedents not reliably associated with consequences  Ex. Lose hearing if you work without ear plugs  Infrequent positive, immediate, certain consequences (PIC) for safe behaviour  Ex. Occasional “good job” from supervisor  Frequent NICs for safe behaviour  Ex. Often take time, energy, comfort, convenience  Infrequent negative, immediate, certain consequences (NIC) for unsafe behaviour  Ex. Discipline if you work without ear plugs  Frequent PICs for unsafe behaviour  Ex. Hear co workers if you work without ear plugs Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 28
  • 29. Solution: Change Contingencies  Add PICs & remove NICs for safe behaviour  Make it as quick, easy, comfortable, and convenient as possible to work safely  Provide evidence of decrease in risk  Provide positive feedback  Remove PICs for unsafe behaviour  Discourage people from praising each other for taking risks  Why not increase NICs for unsafe behaviour? Copyright Quality Safety Edge © 2006 29