Leadership Issues In Implementing Change
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Leadership Issues In Implementing Change Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Leadership Issues In Implementing Change BSN 2005 Jacksonville, Florida October 5, 2005 Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 2. Presented By… Ann W. Pinney MA, MBA Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 3. Presented By… Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 4. “Behavioral Safety—it’s an employee-driven process, isn’t it? What’s that have to do with me?” Quote From A Leader: a. Has his hands full with other tasks. b. Was hoping he could finally park safety in some other area besides his lot. c. Has conflicting accountabilities. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 5. “The days in which we could come to work, do our jobs and not think consciously about safety are over… Get aboard or you will miss the train.” Bob Brennan, President of Manitoba Hydro Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 6. Our History • Safety Improvement Initiatives – Some organizations struggled more than others • Took longer to implement • Had greater difficulty getting employee participation – Resistance highly correlated with assessment findings • Poor morale • Low trust • Conflict Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 7. Our Own Studies • In behavioral safety, the participation of leadership is critical – During first year (correlation = .42) – During second year • Formal leaders (correlation = .76) • Informal leaders (correlation = .68) Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 8. 1999 Leadership & Employee Participation (10 Locations) 80 70 60 50 % Employee Particiption 40 30 20 10 0 > 80% 60-70% < 40% Leadership Observations Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 9. Our History • Leadership practices seemed to be the best predictor • Leaders made two types of errors: – They were too ‘hands off’ - or - – They were too directive Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 10. A Values-Based Culture Mission/Vision “Walk the talk” Process Values Practices Results Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 11. “Nothing undermines the communication of a visionary change more than behavior on the part of key players that seems inconsistent with the vision.” John Kotter, Leading Change Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 12. We want to address 3 questions: • Why we need leaders on board when implementing Behavioral Safety? • What actions do leaders need to take? • How can we help them to do it? Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 13. What are the effective leaders doing? • Interest caused us to go back to the research literature and our clients • Included studies that directly examined behavior and performance • Involved interviews of – 9 CEO and General Managers – 12 Safety Managers/Change Agents Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 14. Recent Research on Leadership • 19 studies (field & experimental studies) • Examined the differences between effective and mediocre leadership • Effective leaders had followers who – Perform better and – Had more positive attitudes • More importantly it showed – What leaders should do and – What they should avoid Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 15. Consistent Results Literature and Interviews • Research Data • Interview Data – Manufacturing – Manufacturing – Financial institutions – Logging/Sawmills – US Army – Oil & Gas – 38 ft racing sail boats – Software Design – Theater groups – Utilities • Across different • Across different cultures cultures (US, Sweden,& Israel) (US, Canada & Germany) Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 16. Sample Study • Komaki, Desselles, & Schepman (1988) • US Postal Service • Independent variable - Supervisor trained to: – Provide non-specific positive feedback – Monitor activities without comment – Monitor activities with specific feedback • Dependent variable – Quality of performance – Employee attitudes Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 17. Quality Performance 100 % Accuracy 95 90 85 80 75 Monitoring & Monitoring Positive Fdbk Fdbk * Komaki, Desselles, & Schepman, 1988. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 18. Improving Attitudes COMMENTS ABOUT MANAGERS* 20 % Time spent 15 10 5 0 Monitoring & Monitoring Positive Fdbk Fdbk Positive Negative Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 19. What do effective leaders do? • Begin monitoring early in social interaction • Spend more time monitoring –Directly observing –Discussing performance • Prompt followers to talk about their own performance • Give significantly more feedback Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 20. Less Effective Leaders • Engage in solitary activities and avoid interactions with followers • Talk more about expectations, without monitoring • Talk about work, rather than performance • Provide less feedback Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 21. What do we need for our leaders to do? (Interviews) 1. Speak about the safety improvement process everywhere in meetings and out in the field 2. Model visibly the desired actions—conduct a observation, make a decision in defense of safety, “monitor and give feedback”, etc. 3. Develop measures of accountability for successful adoption of the safety improvement process 4. Hold supervisors accountable for active participation. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 22. Desired Management Actions Weekly Had 3 “hallway” talks about Behavioral Safety SUPPORT INSTEAD… Covered implementation progress with direct reports Conducted at least one observation Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 23. Date: SUPERVISOR’S/CHARGEHAND’S SAFETY INDEX BEHAVIORS YES NO N/A Right Now: 1. Pull over to dial cell phone 2. Wearing seat belt 3. Driving the speed limit 4. Wearing portable radio when outside vehicle 5. Wearing the proper PPE 6. Notified operator/crew upon entering work area Today: 7. Instructed someone on a safety procedure 8. R+ a safe act 9. Gave feedback on someone’s performance Weekly: 10. Conducted an observation with checklist 11. Held one-on-one discussion with employee about Behavioral Safety 12. Corrected an unsafe condition this week # YES = % Safe Behaviors TOTAL YES + NO = TOTAL Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 24. Safety Index for Manager of Managers Example of Behaviors w/Different Levels of Importance Requirements Weight Yes No Score Discuss/establish safety index w/direct report 10 Approve and fund a safety modification 20 Create a R+ plan 15 Post up-to-date feedback graph 10 Reduce supervisor’s task load by one item to create time for conducting an observation 20 R+ supervisor for conducting and index 10 Help a peer with their PIP or safety plan 5 Talk about safety progress w/supervisor weekly 5 Hold a hallway “chat” with employee about safety 10 TOTAL POINTS 100 Pts. possible Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 25. How do we get the leader to buy-in? 1. Speak their language. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 26. WORKER LOST DAYS* 200 180 183 Total 1999 207 160 2000 111 140 120 100 90 80 60 40 20 15 9 12 0 3 5 1 1999Q1 1999Q2 1999Q3 1999Q4 2000Q1 2000Q2 2000Q3 2000Q4 *Almost equivalent to losing one person for entire year Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 27. WORKER LIGHT DAYS* 500 468 450 Total 400 1999 540 350 2000 636 300 250 215 200 150 147 116 100 83 50 62 63 22 0 1999Q1 1999Q2 1999Q3 1999Q4 2000Q1 2000Q2 2000Q3 2000Q4 Equivalent to more than 2 people not “on task” for entire year Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 28. INDIRECT COSTS* Variability = Safety System Out $250,000 Of Control $200,000 Total Range 1999 $116 - 289K 2000 $135 - 337K $150,000 $100,000 $50,000 $0 1999Q1 1999Q2 1999Q3 1999Q4 2000Q1 2000Q2 2000Q3 2000Q4 Average employee costs $55K – Cost of 2 – 7 people a year *Using 5 to 12 times direct costs based on NSC & DOL statistics Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 29. SALES TO RECOUP COSTS* 2500 2272 Annual Range 1999 1.8M - 4.0M 2000 2000 2.1M - 4.6M 1633 Dollars in 1000’s 1500 1337 1364 746 1000 1033 591 742 255 402 500 620 608 339 269 116 183 0 1999Q1 1999Q2 1999Q3 1999Q4 2000Q1 2000Q2 2000Q3 2000Q4 *Assuming a 10% Profit Margin, i.e., company keeps 10% of every dollar in sales. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 30. Resources for Calculating $’s • Occupational Resources Council www.orc-dc.com • www.osha.gov e-tools, download $afety Pays Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 31. How do we get the leader to buy-in? 1. Speak their language. 2. Understand what are their consequences. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 32. Pinch Points for Leadership (Interview data) • “Too many initiatives to support at once = dilution” Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 33. Communication for Change • Over 3 months- Total 2,300,000 words or Change numbers • Kick-off meeting = 13,400 words • 13,400/2,300,000 Total words = .0058 Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 34. “Help…I can’t keep up!” Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 35. Pinch Points for Leadership (Interview data) •“Too many initiatives to support at once = dilution” • Limit competing programs during the Safety Improvement implementation. •Talk about the safety initiative everywhere—meetings, shop floor, informal hallway chats. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 36. Pinch Points for Leadership (Interview data) • “I’m being squeezed daily for production performance from corporate” Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 37. Site Manager Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 38. Frontline Supervisor Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 39. Pinch Points for Leadership (Interview data) • “I’m being squeezed daily for production performance from corporate” • Educate all those who carry consequences for the leader on what to expect in outcome measures during the implementation process. • Have corporate management use the “tell me about it” approach. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 40. Pinch Points, cont. • “No matter how much we point out what the leader needs to do, he/she won’t do it.” Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 41. Pinch Points, cont. • “No matter how much we point out what the leader needs to do, he/she won’t do it.” • Determine whether it is a “CAN’T DO or WON’T DO problem. Won’t Do----Change the consequences. Can’t Do----Change out the person. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 42. Pinch Points, cont. • “I don’t have enough time.” Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 43. It’s amazing what a little water and sunshine can do! Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 44. Pinch Points, cont. • “I don’t have enough time.” • Help create the accountability measures, write the speeches, help create the management checklists, and whenever possible orchestrate reinforcement for the manager. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 45. CEO’s To Do List • Communicate, communicate, communicate. • Check the pulse weekly (monitor/feedback). • Be willing to go out on a limb. • Look for champions. • Don’t wait for people to “feel comfortable.” • Model visibly that safety is the priority every day. • Have metrics to reflect short-term gains. Leadership Issues in Implementing Change
  • 46. “A bad leader can kill a good process.” Rixio Medina Corporate Safety Manager Citgo Petroleum Leadership Issues in Implementing Change