LTE Advanced—Leading in Chipsets and Evolution


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LTE Advanced is the next major milestone in the evolution of LTE and is a crucial solution for addressing the anticipated 1000x increase in mobile data. It incorporates multiple dimensions of enhancements including the aggregation of carriers, advanced antenna techniques. But most of the gain comes from optimizing HetNets, resulting in better performance from small cells. Qualcomm Technologies has prototyped and demonstrated the benefits of LTE Advanced HetNets at many global events. The first step of LTE Advanced—Carrier Aggregation, was commercially launched in June 2013. It was powered by Qualcomm Technologies' third generation Gobi LTE modems, integrated into Snapdragon 800 solutions.

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LTE Advanced—Leading in Chipsets and Evolution

  1. 1. 1 LTE Advanced— Leading in chipsets and evolution August 2013
  2. 2. 2 LTE Advanced: Leading in chipsets and evolution A key enabler to the 1000x mobile data challenge1 Brings more capacityout of small cells and enables hyper-dense HetNets 2 Brings carrier aggregation—first launch powered by Qualcomm SnapdragonTM 3 Continues to evolve and expand into new areas Device to device,backhaul, broadcast, higher bands and more 4
  3. 3. 3 Different dimensions of improvements—most gain from HetNets Leverage HetNets With advanced interference management (eICIC/IC) Leverage more antennas Downlink MIMO up to 8x8, enhanced Multi User MIMO and uplink MIMO up to 4x4. Coordinated multipoint (CoMP) Higherspectral efficiency (bps/Hz) Higherspectral efficiencyper coverage area (bps/Hz/km2) Leverage wider bandwidth Carrier aggregation across multiple carriers and multiple bands Primarily higher data rates (bps) MIMO LTE Advanced Small Cell Aggregated Data Pipe Up to 100 MHz LTE Carrier #3 LTE Carrier #1 LTE Carrier #4 LTE Carrier #2 LTE Carrier #5
  4. 4. 4 First Carrier Aggregation launched June 2013—powered by SnapdragonTM 800 Qualcomm Snapdragon is a product of Qualcomm Technologies Inc.
  5. 5. 5 Carrier aggregation launched—key to enabling 150 Mbps Carrier aggregationis the first step of LTE Advanced Enables 150 Mbpspeak datarates for typical 10MHz + 10MHz deployments World’sfirst launchpowered by Qualcomm Technologies’ 3rd generationGobi modem 8974 LTE Advanced MDM9x25 LTE Advanced Downlink (Interband) 10 MHz + 10 MHz Uplink 10 MHz Band XBand X Band Y Snapdragon 800 Note: Snapdragon 800 includes 8974, which integrates our third generation Gobi LTE modem, but Gobi modems are also offered as a standalone modem product DL LTE Carrier DL LTE Carrier UL LTE Carrier World’s first mobile device with LTE Advanced Carrier Aggregation poweredby Qualcomm® Snapdragon™ 800 June 2013 Aggregated Data Pipe Qualcomm Snapdragon and Qualcomm Gobi are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
  6. 6. 6 Carrier Aggregation—fatter pipe to enhance user experience Aggregated Data Pipe Up to 100 MHzUp to 20 MHz Up to 20 MHz Up to 20 MHz Up to 20 MHz Up to 20 MHz LTE Carrier #3 LTE Carrier #1 LTE Carrier #4 LTE Carrier #2 LTE Carrier #5 Higherpeak data rates 1 Thetypical bursty nature ofusage, such as web browsing, means that aggregated carriers can support moreusers at the same response (user experience) compared to two individual carriers, given that the for carriers are partiallyloaded which is typical in real networks. Thegain depends on the load and can exceed 100% for fewer users (less loaded carrier) but less for many users. For completely loaded carrier, there is limited capacity gain between individal carriers and aggregated carriers, Higheruser data rates andlower latencies for all users More capacity for typical ‘bursty’ usage1 Leveragesall spectrum assets
  7. 7. 7 Carrier aggregation leverages all spectrum assets Aggregatefragmented LTE spectrumwithina band or acrossbands to createa fatter datapipe Better use of lower spectrumband’s wider coverage Aggregateunpaired spectrumfor more downlink capacity—supplemental downlink Example: Carrier 1 used for wide area macro coverage, butalso by small cell, carrier 2 usedby all nodes, butwithlower poweraround macrocell. Frequency domain interference management(carrier aggregation) canbe combinedwith eICIC(time domain coordination) interference mgnt 1Aggregation of either FDD or TDD from 3GPP R10, aggregationof FDD and TDD withinthe same node and differentnodes (multiflow) are 3GPPR12 candidates Enhances HetNets with multiple carriers 7 LTECarrier#3 LTECarrier#1 LTECarrier#4 LTECarrier#2 LTECarrier#5 Macro Carrier2 Smal cell Small cell Carrier1 Aggregate within or acrossbands (FDD or/and TDD)1 e.g. 10MHze.g. 10MHz SupplementalDownlink (FDD) e.g. 2.6 GHz e.g. 800 MHz e.g. 700MHz Balances loadacross carriers Aggregated Data Pipe e.g. 10MHz
  8. 8. 8 Load (Mbps) Userexperience Bursty data applications Carrier aggregation increases capacity for typical network load 1Carrier aggregationdoubles burstrate for all users inthe cell, whichreducesover-the-air latency ~50%, butif the user experience is keptthe same (same burstrate), multicarrier caninstead supportmore usersfor partially loaded carriers.The gaindependsonthe load and canexceed 100% for fewer users (less loaded carrier) butlessfor many users(starting to resemble full buffer withlimited gain). Source: Qualcomm simulations, 3GPPsimulationframework, FTP traffic model with1MB file size, 57 macro cells wrap-around, 500mISD (D1), 2x2 MIMO, TU3, NLOS, 15 degree downtilt 2GHz spectrum., Carrier aggregation capacity gain Data bursts Idle time 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 3 6 9 12 15 2 10MHz Single Carriers 10MHz + 10MHz Carrier Aggregation Partially loaded carriers Burst Rate (normalized) 6 12 18 24 30 Capacity gain can exceed 2x (for same user experience)1
  9. 9. 9 Qualcomm positioned to lead in LTE carrier aggregation Q2 2012 Q1 2013 Future 33 CA combinations 45 CA combinations 60+ CA combinations? More spectrum > 20 MHz aggregation 3 carrier DL aggregation 2 carrier UL aggregation TDD + FDD aggregation 24 9 Inter-band Intra-band 34 11 Inter-band Intra-band Key to high data rates while maximizing use of fragmented spectrum 45+ band combinations are being identified in 3GPP Components/configurations of the type(s) mentioned in this slide are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. and/or its subsidiaries..
  10. 10. 10 Advanced multiple antenna techniques for more capacity
  11. 11. 11 More antennas—large gain from receive diversity Downlink Diversity, MIMO 4 Way Receive Diversity (+ 2 x 2 MIMO) Note: LTE Advanced R10 and beyond adds up to 8x8 Downlink MIMO (MultipleInput MultipleOutput), enhanced Multi User MIMO and uplink MIMO up to 4x4. Simulations: 3GPPframework, 21 macro cells wrap-around, 500m ISD (D1), 10MHz FDD, carrier freq 2GHz, 25 UEs per cell, TU 3km/h, full-buffer traffic, no imbalanceor correlation among antennas. 2x4 MIMO used for receive diversity gain of1.7x compared to 2x2 MIMO, similarly2x3 diversityprovides a 1.3xgain over 2x2 MIMO MAINSTREAM COMMERCIAL LARGE GAIN, NO STANDARDS OR NETWORK IMPACT Device 1.7x 1x 2 x 2 MIMO Relative spectral efficiencyNodeB
  12. 12. 12 Coordinated scheduling Coordinated beamforming Joint transmission Leverage multiple antennas with fiber installations Coordinated Multipoint (CoMP) progression for more capacity and better user experience Remote Radio Head (RRH) Macro Remote Radio Head (RRH) Note: CoMP enabled by TM9 or TM10 transmissionmodesinthe device and network. Picture focuses ondownlink CoMP techniques, CoMP also appliesto the uplink Central processing/scheduling (requireslow latencyfiber) Same or different cell identity across multiple cells Remote Radio Head (RRH)
  13. 13. 13 It’s not just about adding small cells — LTE Advanced brings even more capacity and enables hyper-dense HetNets1 1By applying advancedinterference managementto HetNets, a.k.a eICIC/IC Higher capacity, network load balancing, enhanced user experience,user fairness Small cell Range Expansion
  14. 14. 14 Increased network capacity and enhanced user experience Macro+ 4 Picos Macro Only Data rate improvement2 2.8X Macro+ 4 Picos 1.4X 1X LTER8 LTER8 LTEAdvanced withRangeExpansion Small cell Range Expansion (eICIC/IC) 1By applying advancedinterference managementto HetNets. 2Median downlink data rate. Assumptions: 4 Picos addedper macro and 33% of users dropped inclusterscloserto picos (hotspots): 10 MHz FDD, 2x2 MIMO, 25 users and500m ISD. Advancedinterference management: enhanced time-domainadaptive resource partitioning, advancedreceiver deviceswithenhanced RRM and RLM1Similargainfor the uplink
  15. 15. 15 More users benefit from small cells with range expansion Assumptions: TR 36.814, Macro ISD=500m, 100 antenna downtilt 25 UEs per Macro cell, uniform random layout, 10 MHz FDD, 2x2 MIMO. 1And enhanced RRM and RLM to allow handover to weak cells, to maintain reliablelink with weak cells, and to provide accurate feedback with resourcepartitioning. Standards name eICIC: Enhanced inter-cell interference coordination 2 For uniform, random user distribution Range expansion 6% 12% 26% 37% 57% 82% 2 4 10 Number of Picos per Macro Cell Range Expansion LTE R8 More users on small cell2 better macro offload Enabled By: Adaptive Resource Partitioning (eICIC)1 Advanced Receiver Devices with Interference Cancellation (IC) Small cell
  16. 16. 16 The Secret Sauce Advanced Interference Management (eICIC/IC) Advanced receiver devices (IC)2 Fullbackward compatibility (ABS)3 Adaptive resource partitioning (eICIC)1 1 eICIC (R10) and FeICIC (R11) stands for (Further) enhanced Inter Cell Interference Coordination 2 IC (R11) stands for Interference Cancellation 3 ABS (R10) is to continueto transmit overhead channels in ‘Almost Blank Subframes’ to support legacy devices
  17. 17. 17 Adaptive resource partitioning (eICIC): Macro Small Cells Macro Small Cells Macro Small Cells Time eICIC (R10) stands for enhanced Inter Cell Interference Coordination (coordination in thetimedomain). Also need enhanced RRM and RLM to allow handover to weak cells, to maintain reliablelink with weak cells, and to provide accurate feedback with resource partitioning.
  18. 18. 18 To discover Small Cells To enable higher data rates To enable full range expansion Advanced receiver devices with interference cancellation Cancelling overhead channels benefits all deployment scenarios, but most gain together with network interferencecoordination (eICIC) Device interference cancellation cancels overhead channels such as such as synch, broadcast and common reference signal(CRS). Performance requirements part of 3GPP R11
  19. 19. 19 Our Over-The-Air HetNet Macrocells and picocells in a co-channel deployment since March 2011 Demonstrating pico discovery and range expansion with mobility since 2012 Opportunistic Hetnets with full VoIP mobility demonstrated since 2013 Our LTE Advanced testbed today—your network tomorrow Evaluating the design and features to realize the full benefits of heterogeneous networks
  20. 20. 20 LTE Advanced is a key enabler to the 1000x mobile data challenge
  21. 21. 21 LTE Advanced is a key enabler to the 1000x data challenge 1000x Note: neighborhood small cells and ASA are notcovered inthis presentation, see and www.qual; for more details. Hetnets with eICIC/IC interference management New deployment models, e.g. neighborhood small cells Continue to evolve LTE: Multiflow, Hetnets enhancements Opportunistic HetNets LTE Direct for proximity services LTE Broadcast Carrier Aggregation (TDD and FDD) Authorized Shared Access (ASA) Higher spectrum bands (esp. TDD)
  22. 22. 22 1 Assumptions: Pico type of small cell, 10MHz@2GHz + 10MHz@3.6GHz,D1 scenario macro 500m ISD, uniform user distributionscenario. Gainis medianthroughputimprovement, from baseline withmacro only on 10MHz@2GH,partof gainis additionof 10MHz spectrum. Usersuniformly distributed—a hotspotscenario could provide higher gains. Macro and outdoor small cells sharing spectrum (co-channel) Roadmap to 1000x: Capacity scales with small cells deployed thanks to advanced interference management (eICIC/IC) SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL Capacityscaleswith small cells added1 LTE Advanced with2x Spectrum added SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELLSMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL SMALL CELL +4 Small Cells ~6X +16 Small Cells ~21X +32Small Cells ~37X ~11X +8 Small Cells LTE Advanced, showingwhat is possiblenow,addspectrum and improved techniquesfor gradual increase towards 1000x
  23. 23. 23 LTE expanding into new areas LTE Advanced continues to evolve and expand into new areas Further enhancements—3GPP R12 and Beyond M2M enhancements Tighter Wi-Fi interworking Enhanced HetNets Such as Opportunistic HetNets, Multiflow, next gen. advanced receivers
  24. 24. 24 HetNets: combining multiple cells and technologies Improved offload to small cells Efficient network load balancing Improved mobility Macro Small Cell WAN ‘Booster’ Across carriers1, across FDD/TDD2 WAN ‘Anchor’ Across cells —multiflow2 Interworking across technologies3 Wi-Fi ‘Booster’ 1 Carrier aggregation from R10 LTE within FDD or TDD.2 Multiflow is a 3GPPR12 LTEcandidate., aswell as FDDand TDDaggregation. 3 RAN interworkingacross LTE, HSPA+ and Wi-Fi is a 3GPPR12 candidate.
  25. 25. 25 HetNets: next generation advanced receivers 1Performance requirement added to 3GPP for cancellation of common signaling (PSS/SSS/PBCH/CRS) in Rel 10/11. 2Broad study on UE interference suppression with & without network assistancein 3GPPR12 LTE advanced can cancel common signaling1 To mitigate interference—even more beneficial in dense HetNets Next step for LTE advanced: further enhanced LTE receivers2 Interference Cancellation Inter cell interference Serving cell
  26. 26. 26 Dense HetNets: opportunistic small cells Device triggered small cells (on/dormant) Reduces energy consumption Reduces interference to further improve capacity Possible today1 1 Dormantsmall cells triggered by the presence of active devicesinthe vicinity
  27. 27. 27 Tighter Wi-Fi—3G/4G interworking Convergenceof Cellular and Wi-Fi Infrastructure CombineWi-Fi and 3G/4G 1) Seamless Access— Passpoint/Hotspot2.01 2) Operator Deployed Wi-Fi access managed via 3G/4G2 1 Passpointis the WFA certified implementationof hotspot2.0, (supportedby QCA,Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.), which enables a simpler, secure and seamless access to Wi-Fi networks. 2 Such as more dynamic control of whichtraffic to offload to Wi-Fi throughdevice centric and/or network centric solutions. Standards enhancements for RAN network centric interworkingapproaches consideredfor R12 and beyond.
  28. 28. 28 Low data rate Small data size Infrequent transmissions /receptions Limited power source Machine to machine communication enhancements FURTHER3GPP R12 ENHANCEMENTS SUCH AS: New low data-rate device category Bundling and long repetitions New dormant state Reduced signaling Increased batterylife Long range Low cost
  29. 29. 29 LTE evolving and expanding into new areas LTE Direct: integrated device to device discovery & communication for proximity services Backhaul solutions with LTE waveform line of sight, non line of sight, relays Enhancements to support much higher spectrum bands Dynamic LTE broadcast, also going into areas beyond mobile ~3.5GHz First step towards higher bands Same content
  30. 30. 30 Summary: Qualcomm LTE advanced leadership MDM 9x25 LTE Advanced 8974 LTE Advanced Standards Leadership A main contributor to key LTE Advanced features Major contributor for ITU IMT-Advanced submission Instrumental in driving eICIC/IC Industry-firstDemos MWC 2011: Live HetNet Demo MWC 2012: Live Over-The-Air HetNet Demo with Mobility MWC 2013: Live OTA opportunistic HetNet Demo with VoIP Mobility. Authorized Shared Access (ASA) demo Industry-firstChipsets Third generation Gobi LTE modem launched June 13’ with carrier aggregation in Snapdragon 800 Snapdragon 800 Qualcomm Snapdragon and Qualcomm Gobi are products of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.
  31. 31. 31 @Qualcomm_tech Questions? - Connect with Us BLOG
  32. 32. 32 For more informationonQualcomm, visit us at: ©2013 QUALCOMM Incorporated and/or its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved. Qualcomm, Snapdragon, and Gobi, are trademarks of QUALCOMM Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries. References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsidiaries or business units within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s engineering, research and development functions, and substantially all of its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QMC. Thank you Follow us on:
  33. 33. 33 A strong LTE evolution path Note: Estimated commercial dates. LTE LTE Advanced DL: 73– 150 Mbps1 UL: 36 – 75 Mbps1 (10 MHz – 20MHz) DL: 3 Gbps2 UL: 1.5Gbps2 ( Up to 100 MHz) Commercial 20142013 2015 2016+ Rel-12 & BeyondRel-10Rel-9Rel-8 Rel-11 FDD and TDD support Carrier Aggregation, relays, HetNets (eICIC/IC), Adv MIMO LTE Direct, Hetnets enhancements, Multiflow, WiFi interworking, Realizes full benefits of HetNets (FeICIC/IC) Enhanced voice fallback(CSFB), VoLTE, LTE Broadcast (eMBMS) 1Peak rates for 10 MHz or 20 MHz FDD using 2x2 MIMO, standard supports 4x4 MIMO enabling peak rates of 300 Mbps. 2 Peak data rate can exceed 1 Gbps using 4x4 MIMO and at least 80 MHz of spectrum (carrier aggregation), or 3GBps with 8x8 MIMO and 100MHz of spectrum. Similarly, the uplink can reach 1.5Gbps with 4x4 MIMO. Created 7/18/2013