Joining Independent Clauses
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Joining Independent Clauses

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Learn to join two independent clauses properly.

Learn to join two independent clauses properly.

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    Joining Independent Clauses Joining Independent Clauses Presentation Transcript

    • Dependent or independent – that is the question… PART ONE: Joining Independent Clauses
    • Independent Clauses
      • An independent clause:
        • Is a group of words with a subject and verb
        • Forms a complete thought
        • Can stand alone as a sentence
      • Example:
        • the boy runs
        • chocolate candy is my favorite
        • she got a new puppy last week
    • Two Independent Clauses
      • Two independent clauses may stand as two separate sentences.
      • Two independent clauses may be joined
        • With a semicolon
        • With a comma plus a coordinating conjunction
      • Two independent clauses may NOT be joined
        • With only a comma
    • Stand Alone
      • Two independent clauses may stand as two separate sentences.
      • Example:
        • I was hungry. I ate some pizza.
      • Both clauses have a subject and a verb . They both form a complete thought. Each clause may stand as a separate sentence.
    • Joined with Semicolon
      • Two independent clauses may be joined
        • With a semicolon
        • Clauses must be closely related
      • Example:
        • I was hungry ; I ate some pizza.
      • Both clauses have a subject and a verb and form a complete thought. They are closely related , so they may be joined by a semicolon.
    • Coordinating Conjunctions
      • Two independent clauses may be joined:
        • With a comma plus a coordinating conjunction
      • MEMORIZE
      • And
      • But
      • For
      • Or
      • Nor
      • So
      • Yet
    • Comma plus Conjunction
      • Two independent clauses may be joined
        • With a comma plus a coordinating conjunction
      • Examples:
        • I was hungry , so I ate some pizza.
        • I was hungry , and I ate some pizza.
        • I was not hungry , yet I ate some pizza.
      • The conjunction follows the comma.
    • NEVER a comma alone
      • Two independent clauses may NEVER be joined
        • With a comma alone
      • Example:
        • I was hungry , I ate some pizza.
        • INCORRECT
      • This is called a “comma splice.” Add a coordinating conjunction after the comma.
    • Is this correct?
      • It rained all day, Judy could not go play outside.
      • It rained all day, Judy could not go play outside.
      Answer: Two independent clauses may NOT be joined by a comma alone.
    • Is this correct?
      • The rain soon disappeared, for the sun had returned.
    • Answer:
      • The rain soon disappeared, for the sun had returned.
      Two independent clauses MAY be joined with a comma PLUS a coordinating conjunction.
    • Is this correct?
      • Everyone loves Sam; he is always smiling.
    • Answer:
      • Everyone loves Sam; he is always smiling.
      Two independent clauses MAY be joined with a comma PLUS a coordinating conjunction.
    • Summary
      • An independent clause is a group of words that form a complete thought and can stand alone as a complete sentence.
      • You may join two independent clauses in these ways:
        • Use a period between them to allow them to stand as two separate sentences.
        • Use a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction.
        • Use a semicolon.
      • You may NOT use a comma alone when joining two independent clauses.