Joining Independent Clauses

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Learn to join two independent clauses properly.

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Joining Independent Clauses

  1. 1. Dependent or independent – that is the question… PART ONE: Joining Independent Clauses
  2. 2. Independent Clauses <ul><li>An independent clause: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a group of words with a subject and verb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms a complete thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can stand alone as a sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the boy runs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chocolate candy is my favorite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>she got a new puppy last week </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Two Independent Clauses <ul><li>Two independent clauses may stand as two separate sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Two independent clauses may be joined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a semicolon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With a comma plus a coordinating conjunction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two independent clauses may NOT be joined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With only a comma </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Stand Alone <ul><li>Two independent clauses may stand as two separate sentences. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I was hungry. I ate some pizza. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both clauses have a subject and a verb . They both form a complete thought. Each clause may stand as a separate sentence. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Joined with Semicolon <ul><li>Two independent clauses may be joined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a semicolon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clauses must be closely related </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I was hungry ; I ate some pizza. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both clauses have a subject and a verb and form a complete thought. They are closely related , so they may be joined by a semicolon. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Coordinating Conjunctions <ul><li>Two independent clauses may be joined: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a comma plus a coordinating conjunction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>MEMORIZE </li></ul><ul><li>And </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>For </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Nor </li></ul><ul><li>So </li></ul><ul><li>Yet </li></ul>
  7. 7. Comma plus Conjunction <ul><li>Two independent clauses may be joined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a comma plus a coordinating conjunction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I was hungry , so I ate some pizza. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I was hungry , and I ate some pizza. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I was not hungry , yet I ate some pizza. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The conjunction follows the comma. </li></ul>
  8. 8. NEVER a comma alone <ul><li>Two independent clauses may NEVER be joined </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With a comma alone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I was hungry , I ate some pizza. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>INCORRECT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is called a “comma splice.” Add a coordinating conjunction after the comma. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Is this correct? <ul><li>It rained all day, Judy could not go play outside. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>It rained all day, Judy could not go play outside. </li></ul>Answer: Two independent clauses may NOT be joined by a comma alone.
  11. 11. Is this correct? <ul><li>The rain soon disappeared, for the sun had returned. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Answer: <ul><li>The rain soon disappeared, for the sun had returned. </li></ul>Two independent clauses MAY be joined with a comma PLUS a coordinating conjunction.
  13. 13. Is this correct? <ul><li>Everyone loves Sam; he is always smiling. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Answer: <ul><li>Everyone loves Sam; he is always smiling. </li></ul>Two independent clauses MAY be joined with a comma PLUS a coordinating conjunction.
  15. 15. Summary <ul><li>An independent clause is a group of words that form a complete thought and can stand alone as a complete sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>You may join two independent clauses in these ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a period between them to allow them to stand as two separate sentences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a comma followed by a coordinating conjunction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a semicolon. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You may NOT use a comma alone when joining two independent clauses. </li></ul>

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