Introduction to Commas, Part 1

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Learn to use commas to separate a series of nouns, verbs, adjectives, phrases, or clauses.

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Introduction to Commas, Part 1

  1. 1. Conquering the Confusion
  2. 2. A comma is a punctuation mark <ul><li>It indicates a need for a pause in a sentence. </li></ul><ul><li>It helps to clarify the meaning of a sentence. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Commas in a series <ul><li>Place commas between a series of three or more nouns , adjectives , or verbs . </li></ul><ul><li>The sentence above contains a series of three nouns . There is a comma after each noun in the series. </li></ul><ul><li>Place commas between a series of phrases or clauses . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Practice 1 <ul><li>Where would you place commas in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lions tigers and bears growled loudly at Dorothy. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Practice 1 <ul><li>Where would you place commas in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The lions , tigers , and bears growled loudly at Dorothy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comma after each noun in the series. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Practice 2 <ul><li>Where would you place commas in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorothy stopped looked and ran. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Practice 2 <ul><li>Where would you place commas in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorothy stopped , looked , and ran. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comma after each verb in the series. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Practice 3 <ul><li>Where would you place commas in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vicious desperate but starving animals gave up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comma after each adjective in the series. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Practice 3 <ul><li>Where would you place commas in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vicious , desperate , but starving animals gave up. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comma after each adjective in the series. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Commas with Two Adjectives Special cases! <ul><li>Use commas to separate adjectives that provide </li></ul><ul><li>an equal description of a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>The Test: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can the adjectives be reversed without changing meaning? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you put “and” between the adjectives? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If so, use a comma. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Practice with Adjectives 1 <ul><li>Would you use a comma in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the three little pigs built a house. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Practice with Adjectives 1 <ul><li>Would you use a comma in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the three little pigs built a house. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We would not say, “little three pigs.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed – not okay </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Practice with Adjectives 1 <ul><li>Would you use a comma in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>Each of the three little pigs built a house. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We would not say, “little three pigs.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed – not okay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We would not say, “three and little pigs.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add “and” – not okay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO COMMA </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Practice with Adjectives 2 <ul><li>Would you use a comma in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>The big bad wolf came to the door. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Practice with Adjectives 2 <ul><li>Would you use a comma in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>The big bad wolf came to the door. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We would not say, “bad big wolf.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed – not okay </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Practice with Adjectives 2 <ul><li>Would you use a comma in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>The big bad wolf came to the door. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We would not say, “bad big wolf.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed – not okay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We would not say, “big and bad wolf.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add “and” – not okay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO COMMA </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Practice with Adjectives 3 <ul><li>Would you use a comma in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>The frightened shivering pig asked, “Who’s there?” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Practice with Adjectives 3 <ul><li>Would you use a comma in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>The frightened shivering pig asked, “Who’s there?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We could say, “shivering, frightened pig.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed - OKAY </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Practice with Adjectives 3 <ul><li>Would you use a comma in this sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>The frightened shivering pig asked, “Who’s there?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We could say, “shivering, frightened pig.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reversed - OKAY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We could say, “frightened and shivering pig.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add “and” – OKAY </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USE A COMMA </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Order of adjectives <ul><li>Sometimes, the ORDER of the adjectives is important. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NUMBER comes first. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three little pink pigs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIZE comes next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three little pink pigs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COLOR comes next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three little pink pigs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Order of adjectives <ul><li>Because the ORDER should not be changed, they cannot be reversed. NO COMMA. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NUMBER comes first. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three little pink pigs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIZE comes next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three little pink pigs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COLOR comes next </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three little pink pigs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Order of adjectives <ul><li>Memorize the order! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NUMBER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIZE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AGE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>COLOR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MATERIAL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These should not be reversed. NO COMMA </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Use commas to separate a series of nouns, adjectives, or verbs. </li></ul><ul><li>Remember – sometimes adjectives do NOT take a comma! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you place an “and” between them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you reverse them? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If so – no comma! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Use commas to separate a series of phrases or clauses, too. </li></ul>

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