Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth
Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth
Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth
Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth
Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth
Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth
Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth
Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth
Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Makkah is-the-center-of-the-earth

1,320

Published on

Published in: Automotive, Technology
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,320
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
15
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Makkah is the Center of the EarthDr. Salih Muhammad AwadhIraq , Baghdad university , faculty of science ,Geology DeptTranslated by : Magdy Abd Al-ShafyThe layers of the earthIn this short study , when contemplating about the miracles of God in this universe , I will show the miracles in the creation of the earth though manypeople go unmindful of them . God says in the Holy Quran what means " And in theearth are portents for those whose faith is sure " (Al-Zaryat :20) According toseismology , the earth , from the surface to its center , is composed of three layersand these with the secondary ones form seven layers ( figure 1) , God refers to thiswel-established fact in the Holy Quran , God says in the Holy Quran in this regardwhat means ( Allah it is who hath created seven heavens, and of the earth the likethereof. The commandment cometh down among them slowly, that ye may know thatAllah is Able to do all things, and that Allah surroundeth all things in knowledge ."(56:12)These layers are:1-The earth Crust It the solid part that we live on , it varies in thickness , the maximum thickness isunder the mountain while thickness is relatively smaller under oceans ; the earthcrust can be scientifically categorized into two parts :(a) The continental crust :It is a rocky mass varying in thickness , the rate of thickness varies between 30Km-40Km in the continental areas while it reaches 70km under mountains(b) The oceanic layer : it is a rocky structure encompassing the earth under oceansand the crust ; it is not harmonious structure with relatively thickness of 6kmThe mantle : it is higher in dense than all the masses of the crust , it is complex instructure ; because of the high temperature and pressure , it is semi-rigid , it is thesource of magma , it can be divided into three parts (a)The upper mantle which goes deep to a depth of 400km under the crust . (b) The transformation zone which extends from 400km to 1000km © The lower mantle which extends from 1000 km to 2900km3-The core of the earth , it is mainly composed of iron and Nickel and it can bedivided into layersa) The outer core which is in a liquid state , it extends from a depth of 2900km to5080km
  • 2. (b) The interior core : it is a rigid substance and it extends from a depth of 5080 to 6371 , it is believed that the internal core is the centre of the earth .The rock layer of the earth on which we live has never been one mass but it iscomposed of what scientifically known as ( plates ) . God refers to this fact in theHoly Quran , ( And in the Earth are neighboring tracts, vineyards and ploughed lands,and date palms, like and unlike, which are watered with one water. And We havemade some of them to excel others in fruit. Lo! herein verily are portents for peoplewho have sense . ) (13-4)These adjacent plates , that are mentioned in the Holy Quran , are that which arescientifically approved ( figure 2) , this is , now , the most well-established and themost scientifically well-supported fact , it is taught everywhere in the worlduniversities , Geology department . The most well-known earth plates are : 1. Eurasian plate covering Asia and Europe2.African plate covering Africa3.The Arabian plate4.Antarctic plate covering Antarctic5. Australian plate, covering Australia (fused with Indian plate between 50 and 55million years ago)6. North American Plate covering North America and north-east Siberia7. South American plate covering South America8. Pacific Plate covering the Pacific Plate9. The Indian Plate10. The Caribbean plate11. The Philippine plate12. ScotiaFigure (1) The scientifically- knownplates nowadays ( mentioned in theHoly Quran as the neighboring plates The plates motionthe earth plates relatively moves slowly and constantly , it cant be seen directly butcan be recoded with highly advanced technology ; (1M a year was reported by thistechnology as regard the movement of one of these plates)and can be experienced
  • 3. during earthquakes .There are three main kinds of motions as regard the plate movement :Convergent movement , divergent movement and transform movement, in thedivergent movement , two adjacent plate move in the opposite directions movingaway from each other and this often happens in mid-floor of seas and oceanscausing dint or protuberance and this result in the gushing out of the magma undersea water , being molten and with high pressure , it cause large mass of water toevaporate ; the Holy Quran has referred to this scientific fact in the following verse(And by the sea set on fire ) (81:6)Ocean floor rift typifies a certain kind of earthquakes followed by magma out-break . This magma is composed of complex substance higher in density than therocks of the crust , scientific studies have proved that density of the upper mantle ismuch higher in density than that of the earth crust ( 0.4gramme/ cm3 ) , the morewe go down , the more differences in density . The Holy Quran refers to this scientificfact ( When Earth is shaken with her (final) earthquake and Earth yieldeth up herburdens (99:1-2)These magma forms what is now known as the volcanic mountains which are termedas mid-ocean ridges, which rise over the oceans and seas water forming islands , theearthquake and volcanoes co-occurrence can be illustrated in (figure -3) theconvergence movement means that two adjacent plate approach each other withresult that they collide with each other , as they go on colliding ,one of them or bothslidedown as far as 100Km with the result that they have their structure changedturning into semi-molten state because of the high temperature - this process typifiesthe corrodingfigure 2) the locations where the last recorded quakes took place in the lastcentury dotted in black , these co-occur the locations of opening the mid-oceans(oceans colored blue) and also represent the locations of crust plates collisions( colored green) taken from (Spencer ,2003)(Of the ends of the plates or the ends of the earth as the Holy Quran depicts , thisfact is mentioned in the Holy Quran in the following two Holy verses . God says in theHoly Quran in this regard what means ( See they not how We visit the land, reducing
  • 4. it of its outlying parts? (When) Allah doometh there is none that can postpone Hisdoom, and He is swift at reckoning. " (13:41)Also God says also in the Holy Quran what means "Nay, but We gave these and theirfathers ease until life grew long for them. See they not how we visit the land,reducing it of its outlying parts? Can they then be the victors? " (21:44)A plate might slide over the other forming structural mountains , these moves withthe plates; these means that these mountains moves and that what the Holy Quranrefers to , God says in the Holy Quran what means ( And when the hills aremoved) (81:3)Also God says in the Holy Quran what means " Had it been possible for a Lecture tocause the mountains to move, or the earth to be torn asunder, or the dead to speak,(this Quran would have done so). Nay, but Allahs is the whole command. Do not thosewho believe know that, had Allah willed, He could have guided all mankind? As forthose who disbelieve, disaster ceaseth not to strike them because of what they do, orit dwelleth near their home until the threat of Allah come to pass. Lo! Allah failethnot to keep the tryst."Also God says in the Holy Quran what means "And (bethink you of) the Day when Weremove the hills and ye see the earth emerging, and We gather them together so asto leave not one of them behind.( 18:47) Earth quakes and volcanoes eruptions accompany the collision of the plates , thesame thing happens in the transform movement which cause fissures as long as it goeslengthwise ; this is also a proof that plates are in continuous motion since they werefirst formed up till now .The movement of the earth plate reasonsThe reason for the motion of the plates lies in the mantle under the crust whosethickness reaches 2800 km ,it is composed of rocky complex silicon material ,partially or wholly molten, yet it is not in a liquid state but rather in a very viscousstate with high temperature and pressure , it is well established that the deeper ,the hotter inside the earth ; so the temperature of the lower parts in the mantle ishigher than the upper , because of the variance of temperature between the platesof the earth , the giant convective currents take place moving from the lower partsto the upper parts circularly –because of the difference in density - carrying up thehotter substance and then the less hot substances goes down because of its highdensity and weight , this process is constant and continuous (Figure -4) , theconvective currents press hard on the earth crust over it causing it to move in any ofthe ways already mentioned motions
  • 5. ( Figure -3) the convective currents inthe mantle between the crust and thecore The movement of the earth plate isaccurately calculated and compact; it keeps the mass of the earth and surface area ,in the time when the end of one of the sunken plate wears away (or shrink in size ) anew rocky substance is generated in the facing end (mid-ocean ridges ) . These keepthe gravity among space masses and keep these objects going in their orbits , thishighly perfected accuracy cant be a mere chance –The earth –a simple creatures - isamong the many creatures of The Omnipotent -God omnipotence is infinite, God saysin the Holy Quran what mean " And they esteem not Allah as He hath the right to beesteemed, when the whole earth is His handful on the Day of Resurrection, and theheavens are rolled in His right hand. Glorified is He and High Exalted from all thatthey ascribe as partner (unto Him) ( 39:67)Mecca Location in the light of the plate movement through the geological agesGeologists divides the historical geology of the earth into many divisions andsubdivision to make it understandable when talking about a certain period of theearth age , the earths age is estimated to be 4.5 billions years ,the earth age extends from the Cambrian age till the modern age , since this age , the earth plates havebeen moving continuously changing their shapes and locations and even their numbers– some of them were broken forming new plates while others were joined together .It is scientifically –established that the earth plates , through the long geological age, have been moving regularly around the Arabian plate ;these plates constantlyconverge towards it as if they pointed to it . Scientific studies affirm and attestthese facts though not published to discuss the convergence of the plates towardsthe Arabian plate but published with irrelevant aims .(Figure -5) shows the movement of the Indian plate according to magnetic anomaliesestimations regarding the floor of Indian ocean , it also shows the different locationsthat both the Indian and sir lanka plates occupied over the span of the last 71millions years up till now till it seemingly took its final place that is because itsmovement cant be seen and that its movement is too slow , if compared with thehuman age . It is clear in (figure -5 ) that the Indian plate had moved northwards with
  • 6. a slight circulation counterclockwise( figure-5) , the movement of the Arabian plate isnot taken into consideration in this figure , the location of the Saudi Arabia is a partof the Arabian plate . (Figure -6) shows the location of Arabian plate according to the Indian , African ,Turkish and Iranians plates ( it was first composed of a number of parts , this figurealso shows the part middle of Iran as a separate part from the north of the west ofIran ) and Afghanistan , (figure -6) shows the location of these plate surrounding theArabian plate , the dotted lines parts ( plates represented with discontinued line ) tothe earth plate during the mid Jurasic Age figure -4) themovement of theIndian plate 71millions years agoestimated according tothe magneticanomalies in accordingto Indian ocean bed –the source is:(Spencer,2003)
  • 7. (( Figure 5) the movement of theearth plates according to theArabian plate one million years ago(source Forster,1978) ( that is one millions yearsago ) . when looking carefully at ( figure -6) , we will find that the Indian plate hasmoved northwards counterclockwise as far as a few degrees and so did the plates ofAfghanistan , the middle and the north of the west of Iran , and Turkey If we look at the location of the Arab plate in the one million years ago ( the partwhich is represented by dots) in ( figure 6) , we will find that it has moved a littlenorthwards taking into consideration the movement of the far plates; it movedaround counterclockwise. We can conclude that the Arabian plate in the last millionyears ( before creating the human being ) and at the present time took a mid positionamong the earth plates – these plates encompass it (figure-6)During her long time journey , the Arabian plate didnt cover along distance as it isthe center of the circulation movement, it has moved within the shorter diameter. Soit is clear that the Arabian plate is center of the earth plates ,and everywhere it goes, it is followed by the other plates going round it regularly , each plate keeps itsconstant direction towards the Arabian plate . It is well-established that Mecca where
  • 8. the Moslem Kabba lies is in the Arabian plate (figure -7)Now , if we use the same approach applied on the Arabian plate , we can say thatevery thing on and in the earth directs its face to Mecca where the Moslem Kabba lies, this system will go on , according to Gods will , to a certain time assigned by God ,this accurate unwavering system cant be out of a chance ; it is a supernatural powerthat made it and is still keeping it going on – that is God , who rose the heavens withunseen pillars .(figure -6) the location ofthe Holy Mecca in the Arabianplatelso God says in the Holy Quran what means " Allah is Creator of all things, and He isGuardian over all things . "(39:62)Also God says in the Holy Quran what means "Say (O Muhammad): Who is Lord of theheaven and the earth? Say: Allah! Say: Take ye then (others) beside Him forprotectors, which, even for themselves, have neither benefit nor hurt? Say: Is theblind man equal to the seer, or is darkness equal to light? Or assign they unto Allahpartners Who created the like of His creation so that the creation (which they madeand His creation) seemed alike to them? Say: Allah is the Creator of all things, and Heis the One, the Almighty " (13:62)Also God says in the Holy Quran what means " So , now , since everything directs itsface towards the Holy Mecca , and that the Holy Kabba is the center of Mecca , wecan assuredly and scientifically say that Kabba is the center of the earth and thateverything on or under it directs its face towards it in complete submissiveness andpiety "God says in the Holy Quran what means " Hast thou not seen that unto Allah payethadoration whosoever is in the heavens and whosoever is in the earth, and the sun,and the moon, and the stars, and the hills, and the trees, and the beasts, and many
  • 9. of mankind, while there are many unto whom the doom is justly due. He whom Allahscorneth, there is none to give him honor. Lo! Allah doeth what He will." (22:18 )God says in the Holy Quran what means " And unto Allah falleth prostrate whosoeveris in the heavens and the earth, willingly or unwillingly, as do their shadows in themorning and the evening hours . " (13:15) God says in the Holy Quran what means " And unto Allah maketh prostrationwhatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth of living creatures, andthe angels (also), and they are not proud (16:49)God says in the Holy Quran what means " And of His portents (is this): that thou seestthe earth lowly, but when We send down water thereon it thrilleth and groweth. Lo!He who quickeneth it is verily the Quickener of the dead. Lo! He is Able to do allthings ". (41:39)God says in the Holy Quran what means " Allah hath appointed the Kabah, the SacredHouse, a standard for mankind, and the Sacred Month and the offerings and thegarlands. That is so that ye may know that Allah knoweth whatsoever is in theheavens and whatsoever is in the earth, and that Allah is Knower of all things."(5:97)Glory be to the Creator of the Heaves and the earth , we deeply implore Him toenlighten our dark heart with the light of his countenance that enlighten the Heavensand the earthGod says in the Holy Quran what means " And the earth shineth with the light of herLord, and the Book is set up, and the Prophets and the witnesses are brought, and itis judged between them with truth, and they are not wronged ." (39:67)we deeply implore to him to animate our hearts with light of wisdom as he animatethe barren land with rain and to accept our deeds and acts making them only forhis pleasure Then praise be to Allah, Lord of the heavens and Lords of the earth, the Lord of theWorlds. And unto Him (alone) belongeth majesty in the heavens and the earth, andHe is the Mighty , the Wise . (45:36-37)

×