Complete flags of the world

9,624 views
9,220 views

Published on

all the flags of the world.

Published in: Education
4 Comments
21 Likes
Statistics
Notes
No Downloads
Views
Total views
9,624
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1,070
Comments
4
Likes
21
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Complete flags of the world

  1. 1. WORLD MAP(see back endpaper for Europe and Caribbean detail)
  2. 2. This page intentionally left blank
  3. 3. COMPLETEFLAGSOF THE WORLD
  4. 4. LONDON, NEW YORK, MELBOURNEMUNICH, AND DELHIThis book was produced in association with The Flag Institute, UK.We would like to dedicate this book to the late Dr. William G. Crampton,Director of the Flag Institute, without whom it would not have been possible.Vexillology artwork and consultants Graham Bartram, Michael FaulEditorial Contributors Roger Bullen, Debra Clapson, Wim Jenkins, Simon MumfordUS Editor Charles Wills rDesigners Tony Cutting, Carol Ann Davis, Yahya El Droubie, Karen Gregory, Nicki LiddiardSystems Coordinator Philip Rowles rManaging Editor David Roberts rManaging Art Editor Karen Self rArt Director Bryn WallsPublisher Jonathan Metcalf rProduction Controller Rita Sinha rFirst published in the United States in 1997 as The Ultimate Pocket Flags of the Worldby DK Publishing, 375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 1001408 09 10 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1CD278 - November/2008Reprinted with Revisions 1998. Second Edition 1999. Third Edition 2002. Fourth Edition 2005.Reprinted with Revisions 2006. Fifth Edition 2008.Copyright © 1997, 1998, 1999, 2002, 2005, 2006, 2008 Dorling Kindersley Limited. All rights reserved.Without limiting the rights under copyright reserved above, no part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in or introduced into a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise), without the prior written permissionof both the copyright owner and the above publisher of this book.Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited.A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress.ISBN-13: 978-0-7566-4115-3DK books are available at special discounts when purchased in bulk for sales promotions, premiums,fund-raising, or educational use. For details, contact: DK Publishing Special Markets, 375 HudsonStreet, New York, New York 10014 or SpecialSales@dk.com.Color reproduction by Altaimage Ltd., London, UKPrinted and bound in China by L.Rex Printing Co., Ltd.Discover more atwww.dk.com
  5. 5. ContentsIntroduction ............................................................... 5 AFRICATypes of flags/Parts of the flag ................ 6–7 Morocco/Algeria ........................................ 56–57 Tunisia/Libya ................................................ 58–59 Egypt/Sudan ................................................ 60–61 Eritrea/Djibouti ......................................... 62–63 Ethiopia/Somalia ...................................... 64–65NORTH & CENTRAL AMERICA Uganda/Kenya ............................................ 66–67Canada Rwanda/Burundi ...................................... 68–69 National and subnational flags ............... 8–10 Central African Republic .............................. 70United States of America Dem. Rep. Congo .............................................. 71 National and subnational flags ............. 11–19 Niger/Chad .................................................... 72–73Mexico/Guatemala ................................... 20–21 Mauritania/Mali .......................................... 74–75Belize/El Salvador ..................................... 22–23 Senegal/Gambia .......................................... 76–77Honduras/Nicaragua ............................... 24–25 Cape Verde/Guinea-Bissau ................. 78–79Costa Rica/Panama ................................. 26–27 Guinea/Sierra Leone .............................. 80–81Jamaica/Cuba ............................................... 28–29 Liberia/Ivory Coast ................................. 82–83Bahamas/Haiti .............................................. 30–31 Burkina/Ghana ........................................... 84–85Dominican Republic ........................................ 32 Togo/Benin .................................................. 86–87St. Kitts & Nevis .................................................. 33 Nigeria/Cameroon .................................. 88–89Antigua & Barbuda/Dominica ......... 34–35 Equatorial Guinea .............................................. 90St. Lucia ..................................................................... 36 São Tomé & Príncipe ........................................ 91St. Vincent & the Grenadines ..................... 37 Gabon/Congo ............................................. 92–93Barbados/Grenada .................................... 38–39 Angola/Zambia .......................................... 94–95Trinidad & Tobago ............................................ 40 Tanzania/Malawi ...................................... 96–97 Zimbabwe/Mozambique ..................... 98–99 Namibia/Botswana .............................. 100–101 Lesotho/Swaziland ............................... 102–103 South Africa/Seychelles .................... 104–105SOUTH AMERICA Comoros/Madagascar ....................... 106–107Colombia .................................................................. 41 Mauritius ................................................................ 108Venezuela/Guyana .................................... 42–43Suriname/Ecuador .................................... 44–45Peru .............................................................................. 46Brazil National and subnational flags ............ 47–50 EUROPEChile ............................................................................. 51 Iceland ..................................................................... 109Bolivia/Paraguay ........................................ 52–53 Norway/Denmark ................................. 110–111Uruguay/Argentina .................................. 54–55 Sweden/Finland ...................................... 112–113
  6. 6. Estonia/Latvia .......................................... 114–115 Jordan/Saudi Arabia ............................ 180–181Lithuania/Poland ................................... 116–117 Yemen/Oman ......................................... 182–183Germany United Arab Emirates/Qatar ........ 184–185 National and subnational flags ....... 118–120 Bahrain/Kuwait .................................... 186–187The Netherlands Iraq/Iran ..................................................... 188–189 National and subnational flags ....... 121–123 Turkmenistan/Uzbekistan .............. 190–191Belgium/Ireland .................................... 124–125 Kazakhstan/Mongolia ....................... 192–193United Kingdom Kyrgyzstan/Tajikistan ........................ 194–195 National and subnational flags ...... 126–130 Afghanistan/Pakistan ......................... 196–197France ........................................................................ 131 Nepal/Bhutan ......................................... 198–199Luxembourg/Monaco ........................ 132–133 India/Maldives ...................................... 200–201Andorra/Portugal ................................. 134–135 Sri Lanka/Bangladesh ...................... 202–203Spain Myanmar/Thailand ............................ 204–205 National and subnational flags ....... 136–138 Laos/Cambodia .................................... 206–207Italy ............................................................................ 139 Vietnam ................................................................. 208Malta/Vatican City .............................. 140–141 MalaysiaSan Marino ........................................................... 142 National and subnational flags ...... 209–211Switzerland Indonesia/East Timor ........................ 212–213 National and subnational flags ....... 143–147 Singapore/Brunei ................................. 214–215Liechtenstein ....................................................... 148 Philippines/Taiwan ............................. 216–217Austria China/North Korea ........................... 218–219 National and subnational flags ....... 149–150 South Korea/Japan .............................. 220–221Hungary .................................................................. 151Czech Republic/Slovakia ................ 152–153Slovenia/Croatia ..................................... 154–155Bosnia & Herzegovina ................................... 156Montenegro .......................................................... 157 AUSTRALASIA & OCEANIASerbia/Kosovo ......................................... 158–159 AustraliaAlbania/Macedonia ............................. 160–161 National and subnational flags ...... 222–223Bulgaria/Greece ..................................... 162–163 Vanuatu/Fiji ............................................. 224–225Romania/Moldova .............................. 164–165 Papua New Guinea/Belarus/Ukraine .................................... 166–167 Solomon Islands ................................ 226–227Russian Federation Palau/Micronesia ................................ 228–229 National and subnational flags ....... 168–171 Marshall Islands/Nauru ................... 230–231 Kiribati/Tuvalu ..................................... 232–233 Samoa/Tonga .......................................... 234–235 New Zealand ....................................................... 236ASIA International flags ................................ 237–238Azerbaijan/Armenia ............................ 172–173Turkey/Georgia ...................................... 174–175 Index ............................................................ 239–240Lebanon/Syria ......................................... 176–177Cyprus/Israel ........................................... 178–179
  7. 7. IntroductionFlags are part of everyday life. more important in politics. ManyThey are used by countries, newly-independent states chooseprovinces, cities, international flags based on those of the politicalbodies, organizations, and parties which secured independence.companies. Revolutionary movements usually have their own flags, and privateEARLY FLAGS and professional organizations areThe earliest known flags were used increasingly adopting flags.in China, to indicate different parts This book deals with national,of the army. In Europe flags began international and subnational flags,with the Roman vexillum, a square and national coats of arms, and isflag used by Roman cavalry, from arranged continent by continent.which the term “vexillology”—the Among national flags are the statestudy of flags—originated. In the ensign and flag, for government useMiddle Ages, heraldry became only on sea and land; the civilimportant as a means of identifying ensign and flag, for private andkings and lords. The distinctive commercial use; and the navalcoats of arms which developed ensign, flown by warships.were used as flags, and some still Subnational flags may beexist today. of states (USA), provinces (Canada), cantons (Switzerland), overseasFLAGS FOR IDENTIFICATION territories, or other such areas.The most significant development offlags was for use at sea. Ships flew KEY FLAGS IN WORLD HISTORYflags for identification at a distance, Throughout history certain flagsand many of the rules of flag-use have become the inspiration ofdeveloped at sea. Some well-known others, starting with the Stars andflags were designed specifically for Stripes in 1777 (see pages 11–12) ;naval use, including the Dutch and which has inspired more flags thanSpanish flags (see pages 121 & 136) any other. The same degree ofand the International code flags (see influence has been exercised bypage 238), which were used by ships the French Tricolore from 1794,to communicate with each other. (see page 131), the Dutch Tricolor (see page 121) and its major derivativePOLITICAL FLAGS the Russian Tricolor (see page 168)With the growth of independent which gave rise to most of the flagsnation states, flags have become of eastern Europe. 5
  8. 8. Types of flags SALTIRE SCANDINAVIAN CROSSA diagonal cross stretching from corner to A cross with the upright set closer to thecorner of the flag. hoist than to the fly. CROSS COUPED CROSS OR SALTIREA cross is vertical, centrally placed, and A cross or saltire which ends short of theextends across the whole flag. edges of the flag is couped. SERRATION QUARTEREDA narrow strip of color separating two A flag divided into four equal sections ofbroader stripes or larger areas. differing design. FIMBRIATED BICOLORA narrow strip of color separating two A flag of two stripes of different colors,broader stripes or larger areas. either horizontal or vertical. TRICOLOR TRIBARA flag of three stripes of three colors, either A flag of three stripes of two colors,horizontal or vertical. horizontal or vertical. TRIANGLE BORDEREDA flag divided by a triangle of a different A flag where the central color is surroundedcolor, usually at the hoist. by a different color.6
  9. 9. Parts of the flag FIELD: The basic area orCANTON: The canton background color strictly refers to any of the flag quarter of the flag,but it commonly means the upper quarter FLY: The part of the nearest the staff flag furthest from the staff; the part which flies in the wind CHARGE: Any emblemSTAFF: The pole from placed on the fieldwhich the flag is flown or added to the basic design of the flag HOIST: The part of RATIO describes the relative the flag closest to the proportions of height against width. staff; the part used to For example, ratio: 1:2 represents a hoist or raise the flag flag twice as wide as it is high.Heraldic terms CREST: The element which WREATH or TORSE: The appears at the extreme top of rope of colors placed above the arms, above the shield the helmet or shield CHIEF: The top MANTLING: The strips third of shield of cloth hanging or flying from the wreath SUPPORTERS: The SHIELD: The basic unit figures, human or animal, on which the coat of which hold the shield arms is portrayedSCROLL: The strip—usually COMPARTMENT: The below the shield—which base, often a mound, on contains the motto which the shield stands 7
  10. 10. North AmericaCanadaRatio: 1:2 Adopted: February 15, 1965 Usage: National and Civil A stylized maple White leaf has been represents theCanada’s national snowy north emblem for over of Canada 150 years Red represents the sacrifice made by Canadians during the First World War Canada became a nation in 1867 when four colonies united. Later, six other provinces and two territories joined the Confederation.The Royal Standard shows the THE NEW MAPLE LEAF FLAGArms of Canada, with the personal Pearson’s Pennant did not meet withemblem of Queen Elizabeth II. universal approval, and consensus wasThe quarters show the arms of only reached on the idea of the mapleEngland, Scotland, Ireland, and leaf and on the use of the nationalFrance, the historical origin for the colors. The result was the “Maplemajority of European settlers to Leaf Flag” which was adopted byCanada. The lowest stripe shows Parliament in 1965. The Union Flagthe red maple leaf which is Canada’s is often flown to show Canada’s linksnational emblem. with the United Kingdom. CANADIAN ROYAL STANDA RD T The quarters of the shield represent England, Scotland, The maple leaves Ireland and France represent Canada’s —the homelands of national emblem many Canadian people8
  11. 11. North AmericaProvincial flagsThe date when each province joined the Confederation is shown below the province name. ALBERTA T BRITISH COLUMBIA 1905 1871The shield dates from 1907 and was placed This flag, adopted in 1960, is an armorialon a blue field to make a flag in 1967. The anner of the arms, granted in 1906. Theshield depicts a scene from the vast wheat un placed over heraldic waters, representslands of the west under a St. George’s Cross. he province’s position on the west coast. MANITOBA NEWFOUNDLAND 1870 & LABRADOR 1949The flag is intended to recall and to preserve The colors of the flag represent all aspects ofthe old Canadian Red Ensign, with he province, such as snow, ice, and the sea.Manitoba’s shield, depicting a buffalo on a The design is intended to recall the Unionrock, in the fly. It was adopted in 1966. ack, the previous flag. NEW BRUNSWICK NOVA SCOTIA 1867 1867Another armorial banner, authorized Theoretically the oldest flag of ain 1965. The galley ship stands for ritish Dominion. “Nova Scotia” meansshipbuilding, once an important industry, New Scotland. Its flag is a St. Andrew’sand the lion represents New Brunswick’s Cross in reversed colors, with theties to Britain. cottish Royal Arms. ONTA RIO T PRINCE EDWARD 1867 ISLAND 1873The flag was adopted in 1965 and also The flag is a banner of the arms grantedattempts to recall and preserve the n 1905. It depicts an island, with a greatCanadian Red Ensign. The shield is from ritish oak and its “descendants,” under thethe arms of 1868 and was the first design to rotection of a British lion.use a maple leaf. 9
  12. 12. North AmericaCanada: Provincial and official flags QUEBEC SASK ATCHEWAN 1867 1905Adopted in 1948, this flag is a modern Adopted in 1969, the flag combines theversion of the Fleurdelysé, an old French- rovincial shield (representing forestsCanadian flag. The fleur-de-lis flower is nd grain) with the floral emblem, thesymbolic of France. western red lily. NORTHWEST NUNAVUT TERRITORIES 1999 1870The flag was a competition winner in 1969. The figure on this flag symbolizes the stoneIt contains the shield from the arms adopted monuments used to mark sacred places. Thein 1956. The lakes are represented by blue, North Star represents the leadership of thesnow by white. ommunity’s elders. YUKON CAPE BRETON ISLAND TERRITORY 1994 1898Accepted in 1967, the flag uses the 1956 This competition-winning flag wascoat of arms. Forests, snows and waters dopted in 1994 by Cape Breton inare symbolized by the colors. Nova Scotia. The bird is a bald eagle. LABRADOR THE UNION FLAG OF 1606–1801The spruce sprigs on this regional flag When the USA became independent,denote the three races of the larger ome people refused to give up theirNewfoundland & Labrador Province. British nationality. Known as United mpire Loyalists, they moved to Canada. To honor them, the Union Flag in the GOVERNOR-GENERAL attern of that time is often flown. OF CANADA 1981This flag, dating from 1981, does not use theBritish Royal Crest; it has its own crest of alion with a maple leaf.10
  13. 13. North AmericaUnited States of AmericaRatio: 10:19 Adopted: 1960 Usage: National and Civil The 50 stars stand for each of 13 stripes standthe current states for the original of the Union 13 colonies which formed the United States If a new state joins the Union a star is added the following July 4 The United States was formed when 13 colonies rose against the British in 1775. They declared their independence from Britain on July 4, 1776.The first flag used by the Americans design and color combination waswas an adaptation of the British Red soon copied by other new nations.Ensign, known as the “Grand Union The Stars and Stripes is anFlag,” (see page 12). From this all-purpose flag, but the USA is richdeveloped the distinctive “Stars and in flags of many other kinds.Stripes,” as it known today, whichstill has the 13 stripes for each of the THE PRESIDENT’S STA NDARD Toriginal colonies to join the Union, The Presidential standard, in useand a star for each state which is now today, contains the President’spart of the USA. The latest star was version of the national arms, and aadded on July 4, 1960, after Hawaii ring of 50 stars. The coat of armsbecame a state in 1959. depicts a spread eagle holding a shield in the style of the Stars and Stripes,A TRULY NATIONAL FLAG 13 arrows, and 13 olive leaves,The flag of 1777 (see page 12), marked indicating the country is prepared fora break with old colonial ties. It either war or peace. The motto “Ebecame the first of a new kind of Pluribus Unum,” meaning “Out offlag, one which was truly a national many, one,” reflects the federalflag in the modern sense. Its basic nature of the United States. 11
  14. 14. North AmericaUSA: Historical flagsThe flags of the War of Independence and of the Civil War still have an influenceon the American flags of today. THE GRAND THE FIRST STARS T UNION FLAG AND STRIPESThe first American flag was adapted from On June 14, 1777, the Union Jack wasthe British Red Ensign of the time. It was emoved from the flag in favor of a blueknown as the “Grand Union Flag,” i.e. of anton with 13 stars, representing a newthe Union of 13 colonies. These were onstellation, which now also representedrepresented by the 13 stripes of red and he United States. This was the first use ofwhite. The flag was introduced in tars in this way, and set a precedent forDecember 1775 for use on land and at sea. many later flags. THE FLAG THE FLAG OF 1795 OF 1818When two new states joined the Union ive new states were formed after 1795,in 1795, two new stars and two new ut a new flag was not designed until 1817stripes were added to the flag, making when Congress decreed that in future only15 stripes and 15 stars. This set a precedent ew stars would be added and it wouldfor adding new stripes and stars when each evert to 13 stripes, in order to preserve thenew state joined the Union. The flag soon ppearance of the flag. The new stars werebecame known as the “Star Spangled dded on July 4, 1818, and this system hasBanner.” een followed ever since. THE STARS T THE BATTLE FLAG OR AND BARS “FLAG OF THE SOUTH”When Southern states seceded from the The Battle Flag with its distinctive saltireUnion in 1860-61, a new flag for the n a red field (Southern Cross) wasConfederacy was hoisted on March 3, ntroduced in September 1861, specifically1861. Known as the “Stars and Bars”, it or use in battle. On land it was squareoriginally had 7 stars, but these increased with a white border, but the rectangularto 13 in the course of 1861, as more states aval version, without a border, is nowjoined the Confederacy. ccepted as “The Flag of the South.”12
  15. 15. North AmericaUSA: State flagsThe date when each state joined the Union is shown below the state name. ALABAMA ALASK A 1819 1959This flag, which was adopted in 1895, The flag was designed by a Native Americanshows a red saltire on a white field. It is choolboy in 1926, when Alaska was still aintended to recall the Southern Cross or erritory. It depicts the Plow and theBattle Flag of the Confederate States. orthern Pole star. Gold also represents Alaska’s mineral reserves. ARIZONA ARK ANSAS 1912 1836The red and yellow rays recall the period The flag recalls the Southern Cross.of Spanish rule and the copper star stands The lower stars represent former colonialfor mineral riches. The flag was designed owers and the upper star stands for thelocally and adopted in 1927. Confederacy. The flag was adopted n 1913. CALIFORNIA COLORADO 1850 1876The flag is based on that of the California The C-shaped emblem contains theRepublic declared at Sonora in 1846; it olors of Spain, which once laid claimdid not become the state flag until 1911. o this area. The gold ball also representsIt depicts a grizzly bear and a star he state’s mineral riches. The flag wasfor freedom. dopted in 1911. CONNECTICUT DELAWARE 1788 1787The arms date back to the seal of 1784, The arms date back to 1777 and theand the blue field to the Civil War period, ag, adopted in 1913, includes the datewhen the flag was a Union color. This Delaware joined the Union. The colorsdesign was adopted in 1897. ecall the uniforms worn during the War of Independence. 13
  16. 16. North AmericaUSA: State flagsThe date when each state joined the Union is shown below the state name. DISTRICT OF FLORIDA COLUMBIA 1845 1791The flag of the Federal District of This is another flag which recalls theColumbia is based on a banner of the arms outhern Cross used by the Confederacyof the Washington family, which originated uring the Civil War. The original flag,in England and dates back to 1592. It was dopted in 1868, had only the seal, the redadopted in 1938 by a Congress Commission. altire was added in 1900. GEORGIA HAWAII 1788 1959The new state flag for Georgia was The state flag, originally representing theintroduced in 2003, following objections ndependent kingdom, was adopted in 1845.to the inclusion of the Confederate flag on The Union Jack recalls a flag given to thethe previous two designs. The three bars King by an army officer in 1793. The stripesevoke pre-1956 versions of the flag. and for the main islands. IDAHO LLINOIS 1890 1818The flag was originally a military color and Created in 1915, the central emblem of thebears the state seal in the center; beneath it is linois flag, depicts elements from the statea scroll with the state’s name. The flag in this eal, including a bald eagle and a shield ofform was adopted in 1927, with new he Stars and Stripes. The name was addedspecifications in 1957. eneath this in 1970. NDIANA OWA 1816 1846The flag was the winning entry in a design The red, white and blue colors stand forcompetition held in 1916, and was rench Louisiana, of which Iowa was once aofficially adopted in 1917. The stars in two art. In the center is the seal of 1847. Thearcs are for the original states and the ag was adopted in this form in 1921.subsequent ones.14
  17. 17. North America K ANSAS KENTUCK Y 1861 1792The flag of Kansas follows a very common Another flag derived from the militiaseal and name pattern. The original flag of olors. The flag was adopted in 1918 and1925 had the seal, recalling settlement and egularized in 1962. Like many state flagsagriculture, and a sunflower—the state contains the seal, the state name and aflower. The name was added in 1963. wreath of goldenrod, the state flower. LOUISIANA MAINE 1812 1820The pelican, representing self-sacrifice and the The flag dates from 1909 when the arms,state’s role as a protector, has long been the badge dopted in 1820, were placed on a blue field.of Louisiana, but the flag was only adopted in The star and motto recall Maine’s northerly1912 and slightly modified in 2004. The ocation. It was the northernmost state of theAcadians or “Cajuns” also have their own flag. nion, until Michigan joined in 1837. MARYLAND MASSACHUSETTS 1788 1788This is the only flag which is a true heraldic The flag was originally adopted in 1908 andbanner, reproducing the arms of the Baltimore evised in 1971, replacing a pine tree withfamily, once the “proprietors” of the state. he coat of arms adopted in 1780. The arms,Each side of the family is represented by two epicting a Native American holding a bow,quarters. It was adopted in 1904. ow appears on both sides of the flag. MICHIGAN MINNESOTA 1837 1858The arms was adopted in 1832, and The motto on this flag “The North Star,”placed on a blue field to make the state was retained from when the state wasflag in 1911. The mottoes mean “I will he northernmost in the Union. Thedefend,” and “If you seek a pleasant ag was originally adopted in 1893 andpeninsula, look about you.” evised in 1957. 15
  18. 18. North AmericaUSA: State flagsThe date when each state joined the Union is shown below the state name. MISSISSIPPI MISSOURI 1817 1821The flag of Mississippi was adopted in The colors of the flag recall when the region1894. It combines both the Confederacy’s was under French control. The 24 stars standSouthern Cross with the stripes of its first or Missouri being the 24th state to join theflag, the Stars and Bars, although on the Union. Within the seal itself are another 24flag of Mississippi the upper stripe is blue. ars. The flag was adopted in 1913. MONTANA NEBRASK A 1889 1867The flag is derived from the former state The flag of Nebraska was adopted in 1925militia colors, while the motto “Gold and nd uses the seal which was adopted in 1867.Silver” is in Spanish, recalling Spain’s claim This depicts an allegorical landscape,to the area. The flag was adopted in 1905 ymbolic of the state’s agricultural andand had the name added in 1981. ndustrial development. NEVADA NEW HAMPSHIRE 1864 1788The flag emerged from a design The design was adopted in 1909, makingcompetition and was adopted in 1929. It se of the seal, which dates back to 1775.was revised in 1991 and the state name was depicts a ship, the Raleigh, being builtplaced underneath boughs of the sagebrush n the docks of the town of Portsmouthand the star, which represents the state. uring the War of Independence. NEW JERSEY NEW MEXICO 1787 1912The buff field recalls the uniforms worn This most distinctive flag was adopted induring the War of Independence. The flag 925 and uses the sun symbol of the Ziawith the arms was adopted in 1896 and ueblo Indians, while the colors representmade generally available in 1938. he Spanish colonial era.16
  19. 19. North America NEW YORK NORTH CAROLINA 1788 1789The flag dates originally from flags used in The original flag was adopted in 1861 atthe War of Independence, but in this form he outbreak of the Civil War, and was inonly from 1901. Prior to that the flag had a he same colors as the Stars and Bars. Thebuff field. The two figures symbolize liberty resent design dates from 1885. It containsand justice. The coat of arms dates from 1777. he initials of the state in the blue stripe. NORTH DAKOTA OHIO 1889 1803The flag was originally used by the state The pennant-shaped flag of Ohio is derivedmilitia, the North Dakota Infantry, and was rom a cavalry guidon of the Civil Waradopted in 1911, almost without alteration, eriod. The 17 stars recall that Ohio was theexplaining its squarish shape. In the center 7th state to join the union and the circle oris a version of the national arms. O” refers to the state’s initial. OKLAHOMA OREGON 1907 1859The basic design emerged from a design This is now the only state flag with acompetition and was adopted in 1925. The ifferent design on its reverse. The obversename was added in 1941. The Native hows the seal within 33 stars, the state’sAmerican emblems, all symbols of peace, ame and its date of admission. The reverserecall the previous name, “Indian Territory.” hows a beaver. It was adopted in 1925. PENNSYLVANIA RHODE ISLAND 1787 1790The coat of arms of the state was adopted in The anchor, symbolic of hope, has long1777 and regularized in 1875. It was placed een the emblem of Rhode Island. The flag,on a blue field to make the flag in 1907. The ased on a War of Independence flag, wasshield is supported by two horses. dopted in 1877 and modified in 1897. 17
  20. 20. North AmericaUSA: State flagsThe date when each state joined the Union is shown below the state name. SOUTH CAROLINA SOUTH DAKOTA 1788 1889The flag was adopted in 1861 at the very The flag of South Dakota was adopted in 1963start of the Civil War, but contains n the basis of previous models and had theemblems used during the War of ormer motto “The Sunshine State” aroundIndependence and also used in the state he seal. This was changed to “The Mountarms. The central palmetto is the state tree. Rushmore State” in 1992. TENNESSEE TEX AS 1796 1845The three stars are for the three The flag copies the colors of the Stars andgeographical divisions of the state, tripes, but with only one star, which dateswhilst its general appearance recalls ack to one on the plain blue flag of thethe Battle Flag or Southern Cross. Republic of Texas. It was adopted in 1839The flag was adopted in 1905. nd retained after Texas joined the Union. UTAH VERMONT 1896 1791The beehive in the flag recalls the emblem The arms, including the Lone Pine emblem,of the Mormon state of Deseret, located in ate back to when Vermont was independentUtah and the date recalls their settlement rom 1777–91. The present flag, based onof the region. The present flag dates from he former militia flag, was adopted in 1923.1911, and uses the seal adopted in 1896. The state name appears on a scroll. VIRGINIA WASHINGTON 1788 1889The state arms was adopted in 1776. The Washington is known as “The Evergreenseal, showing Liberty Triumphing over tate” and this is reflected by its flag. It is theTyranny, was placed on the flag in 1861 nly state with a green flag. The seal datesat the start of the Civil War. The design rom 1889 and was placed on thehas been used ever since. ag in 1923.18
  21. 21. North AmericaUSA: State and overseas territory flagsThe date when each state joined the Union is shown below the state name. WEST VIRGINIA WISCONSIN 1863 1848 The coat of arms dates from 1863 when The flag is derived from the militia colors of West Virginia seceded from Virginia. The he Union in 1863. It depicts the state current version of the flag was adopted in eal, supported by a miner and a sailor. 1929 and has the arms within a wreath of The shield also recalls mining and sailing. rhododendron, the state flower. The name and the date were added in 1980. W YOMING MERICAN SAMOA 1890 The flag emerged from a design A self-governing US dependency, American competition and was adopted in 1917. The amoa’s flag shows its links with the guardian flag has been revised several times—at one ate, in the colors and the American bald time the buffalo containing the arms faced agle. Here the eagle carries Samoan the fly. The colors recall the national flag. mblems. GUAM NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS The flag was designed locally and adopted The original flag was adopted in 1972, in 1917. In the center of the flag, in the US ut has undergone several modifications, colors, is the seal of the territory, which ncluding the addition of the flower-wreath. depicts an idealized landscape. The flag can t also depicts a gray latte stone representing only be flown with the US flag. he islands’ Chamorro culture. PUERTO RICO VIRGIN ISLANDS (US) The resemblance of this flag to that of Cuba The flag dates from 1921 and uses part of the is no coincidence, since the two were US seal, with the initials of the islands. The designed at the same time, by the same hree arrows in one claw stand for the main activists. This version was adopted in 1952. lands; in the other claw is an olive branch. 19
  22. 22. North AmericaMexicoRatio: 4:7 Adopted: November 2, 1821 Usage: National and CivilThe basic design is Red, white, andderived from the green are the colorsFrench Tricolore of the national liberation army in Mexico The coat of arms incorporates the badge of Mexico CityNorth America Mexico was conquered by Spain in the 16th century, but broke away in 1821 to form a Central American state. It became a republic in 1822.France was the inspiration of those THE AZTEC INHERITANCEwho detached Mexico from Spain The central emblem is the Aztecin 1821 and they devised a new pictogram for Tenochtitlán (nowtricolor based on the flag of the Mexico City), the center of theirliberation army. At that time the empire. It recalls the legend whichItalian tricolor was not in use. inspired the Aztecs to settle on what The coat of arms on the center was originally a lake-island.stripe distinguishes the flag from The form of the coat of arms wasthat of Italy. most recently revised in 1968.ARMS OF MEXICO Aztec legend held that they should found their city on the spot where they saw an eagle on a The lake with an cactus, eating a snake island, represents Tenochtitlán Ribbon in the national colors20
  23. 23. North AmericaGuatemalaRatio: 5:8 Adopted: August 17, 1871 Usage: National and StateBlue and white arethe colors of theoriginal flag of theUnited Provincesof Central The coat ofAmerica arms was adopted in 1968North America Guatemala declared independence at the same time as Mexico and, in 1823, became part of a union with the other Central American states.In Guatemala the flag of the United THE QUETZAL BIRDProvinces of Central America, The new coat of arms shows thehorizontal stripes of blue, white, blue quetzal, Guatemala’s most famouswas used until 1851, when a pro- bird, standing on a scroll givingSpanish government added the red the date of the Declaration ofand yellow of Spain to the flag. On Independence. The present formAugust 17, 1871, the original colors of the arms was adopted in 1968.were restored as vertical stripes, and When used at sea for civil purposes,with Guatemala’s own coat of arms. the flag does not contain the arms.ARMS OF GUATEMALA The quetzal bird with its distinctive The date of the tail-feathers is a Declaration of symbol of liberty Independence Rifles and swords represent defence of freedom 21
  24. 24. North AmericaBelizeRatio: 3:5 Adopted: September 21, 1981 Usage: National and CivilThe coat of arms was granted in 1907 Blue is the party The 50 leaves recall color of the PUP 1950, the year the PUP came to power P Red stripes were added to denote the color of the opposition partyNorth America Belize was originally known as British Honduras, a colony formed in 1862 from settlements on the coast of Guatemala.British Honduras obtained a coat of —minus the Union Jack—on a whitearms on January 28, 1907, which disc in the center. The colors wereformed the basis of the badge used on those of the People’s United PartyBritish ensigns. The coat of arms (pup). Around the arms was a wreathrecalls the logging industry which of 50 leaves, recalling 1950, when thefirst led to British settlement there. pup came to prominence. From 1968 onward an unofficial On independence in 1981, thenational flag was in use. It was blue flag was retained but red was addedwith a modified version of the arms to stand for the opposition party.ARMS OF BELIZE Wreath of 50 leavesThe figures, tools, and the mahogany tree represent the logging industry National motto—“ Sub Umbra Floreo” meaning “I Flourish in the Shade”22
  25. 25. North AmericaEl SalvadorRatio: 1:2 Adopted: May 17, 1912 Usage: National and StateThe flag ismodeled on theflag of the United The title of theProvinces of state while it wasCentral America part of the United Provinces of Central America surrounds the emblem The emblem is surrounded by five flags, recalling the original five United Provinces of Central AmericaNorth America El Salvador’s flag recalls the colors of the United Provinces of Central America, used following independence from Spain in 1823.The flag of Central America was TRIANGLES AND VOLCANOESused as the national flag until 1865, The coat of arms is similar to thosewhen a flag based on the Stars and of the United Provinces of CentralStripes was adopted, with blue and America. The emblem is based onwhite stripes and a red canton the Masonic triangle for equality,containing nine stars. and depicts the five original provinces In 1912 the original design was with five volcanoes. Around there-adopted, with the arms of triangle are five national flags and aEl Salvador in the center. wreath, tied in the national colors.ARMS OF EL SALVADOR A triangle representing equality The Cap of Liberty The motto of Central America— Five volcanoes “Dios, Union, representing the Libertad ” meaning original united “God, Union, Liberty” provinces 23
  26. 26. North AmericaHondurasRatio: 1:2 Adopted: February 16, 1866 Usage: National and CivilThe colors andpattern are thesame as the flagof the UnitedProvincesof CentralAmerica Five stars recall the five original members of the United Provinces of Central America Honduras was one of the Spanish colonies which formed the United Provinces of Central America in 1823. It became independent in 1838.In 1823 Honduras joined the The arms was created in 1838 andUnited Provinces of Central revised in 1935. The central feature isAmerica and adopted their flag. a pyramid in Maya style rising fromIn 1866 it was amended; five blue the sea. Around this is a band withstars were placed in the center to the name of the state and the date ofrepresent the five original Central the Declaration of Independence.American provinces. The state flag Beneath it is a landscape strewn withhas the arms of Honduras in the allegorical items representing mineralcenter in place of the stars. and timber industries.ARMS OF HONDURAS The cornucopias are A Maya pyramid symbolic of prosperity and agricultural wealth The landscape depicts mines, mining tools, forests, and logging tools24
  27. 27. North AmericaNicaraguaRatio: 3:5 Adopted: September 4, 1908 Usage: National and CivilApart from thetext around thearms, the flag isidentical to that Arms of Nicaraguaof the UnitedProvinces ofCentral America “America Central ” recalls the United Provinces of Central AmericaNorth America Nicaragua declared independence from Spain in 1821. It was a member of the United Provinces of Central America from 1823 to 1838.The flag and the arms of Nicaragua in 1823 the title was Provinciasin use today are the most similar to Unidas del Centro de America.those used by the United Provinces In 1908 the decision to revertof Central America. The triangle, to the emblems used by the Unitedvolcanoes, rising sun, Cap of Liberty, Provinces of Central America wasand rainbow all appeared on the taken and reflected Nicaragua’soriginal emblem. The coat of arms aspirations for the rebirth of theused today contains the name of the political entity formed by thestate, Republica de Nicaragua, whereas five nations.ARMS OF NICARAGUA The Cap of The rays of the sun and Liberty represents the rainbow are symbolic national freedom of the bright future The five volcanoes represent the original five member states 25
  28. 28. North AmericaCosta RicaRatio: 3:5 Adopted: September 29, 1848 Usage: National and StateBlue and white Red, white, andwere the colors blue recall theof the original colors of theflag of the United French TricoloreProvinces ofCentral AmericaNorth America Costa Rica was a signatory to the Declaration of Independence from Spain in 1821, joining the United Provinces of Central America (1823–1838).The Central American flag remained the red stripe, and later onin use in Costa Rica until 1848 when, an oval, set toward the hoist.in response to events in France, it was The coat of arms depicts thedecided to incorporate the French isthmus between the Pacific Oceancolors into the national flag. This was and the Caribbean Sea. The starsdone by adding a central red stripe. stand for the seven provinces andThe coat of arms was also revised and the Central American union isplaced in the center of the flag. In recalled by “America Central” on the1906, it was placed in a white disc on upper scroll.ARMS OF COSTA RICA T “America Central ” recalls the former United Provinces of Central America The Caribbean Sea Seven stars for the Three volcanoes on seven provinces the isthmus The Pacific Ocean26
  29. 29. North AmericaPanamaRatio: 2:3 Adopted: November 3, 1903 Usage: National and CivilAlthough Blue was theinspired by color of thethe Stars and ConservativesStripes, the stars and red that ofand quarters are the Liberalssaid to representthe two mainpolitical parties White symbolizes peace in the countryNorth America Panama, originally a province of Colombia, was detached in 1903 to secure the building of the Panama Canal within a US-controlled zone.The first flag, proposed in 1903, new flag. Although clearly modeledconsisted of seven horizontal stripes of on the US flag, the stars and quartersred and yellow, with a blue canton are said to stand for the rival politicalcontaining two golden suns, joined by parties, and the white for the peace ina narrow line to depict the oceans to which they operate.be united by the Panama Canal. The coat of arms reflects Panama’s However this was not accepted by transition from civil war to peace, andthe Panamanian leader, Manuel A. the increased prosperity this promisedGuerrero, whose family designed a the people.ARMS OF PANAMA The national motto— “Pro Mundi Beneficio” meaning “For the Benefit of the World” The shield depicts tools,weapons, a cornucopia, and awinged wheel, which together The northern and southern symbolize a move from war, hemispheres joined by the to peace and prosperity Panama Canal 27
  30. 30. North AmericaJamaicaRatio: 1:2 Adopted: August 6, 1962 Usage: National and CivilBlack, green, “Hardshipsand yellow there are butare also pan- the land isAfrican colors green and the sun shineth” is the local Black reflects explanation of hardships the flag Green represents Yellow recalls the the land sun shiningNorth America Jamaica was a British colony from 1655 until 1962. From 1958 onward it was part of the West Indies Federation, which was dissolved in 1962.The present design emerged a British colony. It was used on thefrom those sent in by the public former British flags of Jamaica.in a national competition. It wasoriginally designed with horizontal THE QUEEN’S STANDARD Tstripes, but this was too similar to The flag for HM Queen Elizabeth II,the then Tanganyikan flag, and so was introduced after independence.the saltire was substituted. It contains a banner of the arms, with The coat of arms, based on those the Queen’s Cypher in the center.granted to Jamaica on February 3, The field depicts the red Cross of1663, is among the oldest granted to St. George charged with pineapples. BANNER OF THE QUEEN OF JAMAICA The Royal Cypher St. George’s Cross is enclosed within a chaplet of roses The four pineapples and ross are taken from the Arms of Jamaica28
  31. 31. North AmericaCubaRatio: 1:2 Adopted: May 20, 1902 Usage: National and Civil The design is based on the “La Estrella US Stars and Solitaria”— Stripes the Lone Star The triangle comes from the Masonic symbol for equalityNorth America Cuba, the only communist state in the Americas, was a Spanish colony until 1898, when it was ceded to the USA. It gained independence in 1902.The flag was designed in 1848 for the provinces of the time. The flag wasliberation movement, which sought briefly hoisted in 1850 at Cardenas,to detach Cuba from Spain and make but was not officially adopted untilit into a state of the USA. The Lone 1902, when independence wasStar represented another star which granted by the USA.would be added to “the splendid Another flag from the 19th centuryNorth American constellation.” is that of Carlos Manuel de Céspedes, The triangle is derived from the used by the independence movementMasonic symbol for equality, while of 1868–78. It is now used as the Jackthe five stripes stand for the five of the Cuban navy. FLAG OF CÉSPEDESThe flag is like that of This flag was alsoChile with the blue modeled on the Starsand red reversed and Stripes, using the same colors: blue, red, and white and a star in the canton 29
  32. 32. North AmericaBahamasRatio: 1:2 Adopted: July 10, 1973 Usage: National Black Blue represents recalls the the strength Caribbean of the people Sea Yellow reflects the islands’ sandy beaches Originally a pirate base, the Bahamas became a formal British colony in 1783. It did not achieve independence until July 10, 1973.The colors of the flag are intended to seen, since many ships are registeredrepresent the aquamarine seas around in the Bahamas. The flag is based onthe islands and their golden sands. the British Red Ensign—red withThe flag is based on designs by the a Bahamian national flag in theBahamian people. Many of those canton—but is distinguished by thesubmitted also included the idea of white cross, like the Cross ofsunrise, which has been incorporated St. George, across the red field.into the coat of arms. The Bahamas has many other The Bahamas Civil Ensign flags including one for the specific(flown by merchant ships) is often use of the Prime Minister. BAHAMAS CIVIL ENSIGN The national flag is placed in the canton The civil ensign is distinguished from government and naval ensigns by its red field30
  33. 33. North AmericaHaitiRatio: 3:5 Adopted: May 18, 1803 Usage: National and CivilFor official and Blue and redstate purposes the are taken fromflag is charged the Frenchwith the national Tricolorearms on a centralwhite rectangleNorth America Haiti became a French colony in 1697, but in 1803 a rebellion broke out. Independence was granted on January 1, 1804.The blue and red of the flag were period from 1964–86, during theretained after a French Tricolore was regime of the Duvalier family.torn up by the rebel Jean-Jacques Since 1843 the flag for officialDessalines in 1803. The two parts and state use has had the arms on awere stitched together horizontally white panel in the center. The coat ofto make a new flag. arms depicts a trophy of weapons However a rival flag of vertical ready to defend freedom, and a royalblack and red panels was also used at palm topped with a Cap of Libertyvarious times, most recently in the for the country’s independence. The Cap of LibertyARMS OF HAITI The royal palm symbolizes Weapons reflect the independencepeople’s willingness to defend their liberty The national motto— “L’Union Fait La Force” meaning “Union is Strength” 31
  34. 34. North AmericaDominican RepublicRatio: 2:3 Adopted: November 6, 1844 Usage: National and StateBlue and redare taken fromthe flag of Haiti,which oncecontrolled the The coat of armsDominican only appears on theRepublic flag for national and state use The cross of the Trinitarian independence movementNorth America A Spanish colony, briefly occupied by Haiti (1820–44), the Trinitarian movement was formed to free the country. Dominican Republic was liberated in 1844.The flag was designed by the leader in 1844, was placed on the state flag.of the Trinitarians. He altered the The civil flag, on both land and sea,layout of the blue and red of the does not carry the arms.Haitian flag, placing a large white The arms depicts a Bible open atcross over it to symbolize faith. the first chapter of St. John’s Gospel. This is placed on a trophy of nationalA DISTINCTIVE NATIONAL FLAG flags, on a shield of the same design.To create distinct flags for state and The Trinitarian motto is above thiscivil use, the coat of arms, adopted and the name of the state below.ARMS OF HAITI The password of the Trinitarian movement— “Dios, Patria, Libertad ” Gospel of St. John, a (“God, Country, Trinitarian emblem Freedom”) The lower scroll contains the state title32
  35. 35. North AmericaSt. Kitts & NevisRatio: 2:3 Adopted: September 19, 1983 Usage: National and Civil Green is symbolic of the fertile land Two stars for hope and liberty Black recalls St. Red recalls the Kitts’ African struggle for freedom heritage Yellow reflects the country’s sunny climate A British colony in the Leeward Islands since 1873,Rico ST. KITTS & NEVIS the islands of St. Kitts and Nevis gained Dominica independence together in 1983.The flag was the winning entry in a liberty, not for the islands oflocal competition which attracted St. Kitts and Nevis.258 entries, and was the work of astudent, Edrice Lewis. It was she THE FLAG OF NEVISwho gave what is now the official The island of Nevis has a flag of itsinterpretation of the flag—that its own, which is bright yellow, with acolors stand for the fertile land, year- stylized image of Nevis Peak. Theround sunshine, the struggle for national flag is in the canton.freedom, and the African heritage. St. Kitts also has an ensign for theThe two stars stand for hope and Coast Guard. THE FLAG OF NEVIS National flag in canton A graphic representation Yellow for year-long of Nevis Peak, a cone- sunshine shaped mountain in the center of the island 33
  36. 36. North AmericaAntigua & BarbudaRatio: 2:3 Adopted: February 27, 1967 Usage: National and Civil Black recalls the islands’ African heritage The V-shape is the symbol of victory White symbolizes hope The rising sun represents a new era Blue represents the Caribbean Sea From 1632 until formal independence was granted in 1981, Antigua and its neighbor Barbuda were British colonies.The flag dates from the achievement Barbuda, does not have a separateof self-government in 1967 and was flag, although there is one forthe winning design in a competition Redonda, an uninhabited islandwhich over 600 local people entered. whose “throne” is claimed by several rival “monarchs.”THE SYMBOLISM OF THE FLAGThe designer, Reginald Samuel, THE NAT IONAL ARMS Ainterpreted it as representing the sun The coat of arms was granted in 1977rising against the background of the and depicts a shield with a sugar mill,peoples’ African heritage in a new once the primary industry, on aera. The overall V-shape stands for background of white and blue waves.victory. It is on a red background Above this is a sun on a blackwhich symbolizes the dynamism of background. The shield stands on athe population. Blue is for the sea and sea island. The crest is a pineapplewhite is for hope. from the arms of the former colony of the Leeward Islands, of whichTHE NEW NAT IONAL FLAG A Antigua was once a part. BeneathThe flag was retained unchanged is a scroll with the national motto—when Antigua became independent. “Each endeavouring, all achieving.”34
  37. 37. North AmericaDominicaRatio: 1:2 Adopted: November 3, 1978 Usage: National and Civil White Yellow recalls symbolizes the the original region’s pure inhabitants waterBlack is for the The sisserou fertile soil parrot—unique to Dominica The stars represent the ten parishes First colonized by the French, Dominica came under British control in 1759. It became a British Associated State in 1967 and independent in 1978.The flag adopted in 1978 features Christian faith and its three colorsthe national bird emblem, the recall the native Indians, the fertilesisserou parrot, which also appears on soil, and the pure water. The tenthe coat of arms granted July 21, stars stand for the ten parishes and1961. This parrot is unique to the red disc for social justice.Dominica. It is an endangered The flag of the President has aspecies; only a few pairs remain. dark green field with the coat of arms The green field represents the in the center, crowned with a Britishlush vegetation of the island. The lion. It depicts palm trees, ancross represents the Trinity and the indigenous frog and the sea. THE PRESIDENT’S FLAGThe national motto is inCreole—“Aprés Bondie C’est La Ter” meaning The supporters are “After the good Lord two sisserou parrots (we love) the soil” 35
  38. 38. North AmericaSt. LuciaRatio: 1:2 Adopted: March 1, 1967 Usage: National and Civil The blue field represents the sea This symbol represents twin peaks of the Pitons, famous volcanic mountainsNorth America St. Lucia, first settled in 1605, was fought over by ST. LUCIA St. Vincent & the French and the British, finally being ceded toThe Grenadines Britain in 1814. It became independent in 1979.The flag was adopted when St. Lucia on white, for the twin cultures ofbecame a British Associated State in the island. On independence, the1967. It was designed by a local artist, flag was retained, but the height ofDunstan St. Omer. The blue field the yellow triangle was increased.represents the sea, from which arise A new form of the arms was alsothe twin peaks of the Pitons said to adopted, symbolizing the nationalbe “rising sheer out of the sea and motto: “The Land, the People, thelooking skyward—a symbol of Light.” Apart from the Governor-hope.” The yellow triangle stands for General’s flag and that of the capital,sunshine and the black arrowhead Castries, no other flags are known. THE GOVERNOR-GENERAL’S STANDARD T The British Royal The state’s title is Crest of a crowned placed on the scroll lion standing on a St. Edward’s Crown36
  39. 39. North AmericaSt. Vincent & the GrenadinesRatio: 2:3 Adopted: October 12, 1985 Usage: National and Civil Green represents the Blue recalls the sky islands’ abundant vegetation Yellow represents sunshine The “Gems of the Antilles”North America St. Vincent was occupied by the British in 1762.ST. VINCENT & THE It achieved independence in 1979, together withGRENADINES the Grenadines, a chain of adjacent islands.The basic design and colors of the A NEW NATIONAL FLAGflag date from the flag hoisted on After a local competition failed tothe day of independence in 1979. It produce a satisfactory design, thehad the arms of the islands placed problem was submitted to a Swisson a stylized breadfruit leaf in the graphic artist who suggested what iscenter. Its blue, yellow, and green now the current design. In this, thestripes were derived from the “V” formed by the diamonds standscommon colors of the flags assigned for St. Vincent, and the diamondsto the Associated States by the represent its local sobriquet theCollege of Arms. The breadfruit “Gems of the Antilles.”recalled the British introduction ofthe breadfruit tree into the ARMS OF ST. VINCENTCaribbean from the South Seas. The coat of arms was first introduced Although this first flag was in 1912. It depicts two women, onedesigned by a local islander, the standing holding an olive branch, thedesign did not please all the people of other kneeling to represent peace andSt. Vincent and the Grenadines, and, justice, which is the national motto—in 1985, moves were made to secure “Pax, Justitia.” This appears on aa new design. scroll at the base. 37
  40. 40. North AmericaBarbadosRatio: 2:3 Adopted: November 30, 1966 Usage: National and Civil Blue represents the sea The broken trident represents a break with the past Gold reflects the golden sands of BarbadosNorth America St. Vincent & The Barbados was first settled by the British in 1627. It Grenadines became a colony and achieved self-government in 1961 and independence in 1966.The current flag was adopted at the ARMS OF BARBADOStime of independence. It was the The coat of arms was granted bywinning design in a national HM Queen Elizabeth II in 1966,competition, won by Grantley on a visit to the island. The shieldPrescod, a local art teacher. depicts a bearded fig tree, after which the island takes its name, between twoTHE SYMBOLISM OF THE FLAG “Pride of Barbados” flowers. The crestPrescod interpreted the stripes as is an arm holding two sugarcanes inrepresenting the blue seas and the the form of a St. Andrew’s Cross. Thisgolden sands which surround the commemorates independence, whichisland. The trident is adapted from the was achieved on St. Andrew’s Day,previous flag-badge which depicted November 30, in 1966.Britannia holding a trident (symbolic Barbados also has a Governor’sof her rule over the seas). Here the standard. It is the same as that of thetrident is without a shaft, indicating a Governor of St. Lucia, which featuresbreak with the colonial past. It is also the Royal Crest of England withthe emblem of the sea god, Neptune, British lion (see page 36), except that itand reflects the importance of the bears the title “Barbados” on the scrollsea to Barbados. beneath the Royal Crest.38
  41. 41. North AmericaGrenadaRatio: 3:5 Adopted: February 7, 1974 Usage: National and Civil A nutmeg, Grenada’s most famous product The central star and disc represent the capital St. George’s The six outer stars stand for the six parishesNorth America St. Vincent &The Grenadines First settled by France, Grenada was invaded by Britain in 1762. It became an Associated State in 1967 and fully independent in 1974.The flag used prior to independence agriculture. When the flag is usedin 1967 also featured a nutmeg, at sea its proportions are altered fromsince Grenada is a major world 3:5 to a longer form (1:2).supplier of this commodity, and isknown as the “Spice Island.” THE NATIONAL ARMS Other features of the flag derive The coat of arms depicts thefrom the coat of arms granted on Santa Maria, Columbus’ ship,December 6, 1973, including the a lion representing national liberty,red, yellow, and green colors. and a lily emblem symbolizing the Virgin Mary. The shield isSYMBOLISM OF THE FLAG supported by two characteristic localThe yellow star on a red disc stands creatures, an armadillo and a ramierfor the Borough of St. George’s, pigeon. Beneath the shield is aGrenada’s capital, and the other six representation of the Grand Etangstars for the remaining six parishes. lake, and, on a scroll at the base, In the official interpretation the what must be one of the world’sred stands for courage and vitality, longest national mottos: “Everthe yellow for wisdom and warmth, conscious of God we aspire, buildand the green for vegetation and and advance as one people.” 39
  42. 42. North AmericaTrinidad & TobagoRatio: 3:5 Adopted: August 31, 1962 Usage: National and Civil White represents the sea Black symbolizes the strength of the people Red stands for the peopleNorth America Trinidad and Tobago were separate British colonies, which united in 1889. They became independent in 1962 and a republic in 1976.The flag adopted at independence of arms depicts the three ships ofwas chosen from among designs sent Columbus who landed here in 1498.in by the public. The same colors are Above the ships are two goldenused in the arms. hummingbirds. The supporters of the A flag for HM Queen Elizabeth II coat of arms are also local birds andwas adopted after independence, the whole shield stands on a scenebut it became obsolete following the depicting waves breaking againstformation of the republic. the rocky coasts of the islands. The President has a flag of blue Trinidad also has flags for thewith the arms in the center. The coat Prime Minister and other ministers. THE PRESIDENT’S FLAG The top of the The cocrico — shield depicts two a local bird hummingbirds In 1498 Columbus The scarlet ibis is one discovered Trinidad of many local birds and his ships appear on the shield40

×