On the ENUM Forefront

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  • Promote innovation §1 Austrian Telecommunications Act Inform market players and discuss opportunities and threats White paper | Public consultations | Public workshop Prepare landscape for first trials Provide platform for interested parties | Clarify responsibilities regarding Austrian ENUM Domain | File application for delegation of Austrian ENUM Domain | Persuade the sceptics Promote innovation §1 Austrian Telecommunications Act Inform market players and discuss opportunities and threats White paper | Public consultations | Public workshop Prepare landscape for first trials Provide platform for interested parties | Clarify responsibilities regarding Austrian ENUM Domain | File application for delegation of Austrian ENUM Domain | Persuade the sceptics
  • Ensure integrity of E.164 Numbering Space and related 3.4.e164.arpa ENUM Domain Space Compile transparent framework for usage of Austrian ENUM Domain Define requirements for identification and validation Ensure adherence to framework Enable maximum competition on ENUM Tier 2 level ENUM Registrar, ENUM Name Server Provider, ENUM Validation Entity ENUM Service Provider Protect Consumers Ensure secrecy of telecommunications Prevent lock-in scenarios Ensure end-customer opt-in
  • Ensuring smooth transition into commercial phase Signing of contract with ENUM Tier 1 Registry regarding U-ENUM Monitoring policy framework requirements Setting track for Infrastructure ENUM Work on policy framework Signing of contract with ENUM Tier 1 Registry regarding I-ENUM Reducing regulatory involvement Phasing out of project-oriented work Establishing of monitoring processes … Allowing ENUM to stand on its own feet …
  • On the ENUM Forefront

    1. 1. On the ENUM Forefront Approach and Lessons Learned Kurt Reichinger Austrian Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Broadcasting The opinions expressed in this presentation are the personal view of the author and do not prejudge decisions of the Austrian regulatory authorities.
    2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>What is ENUM? >> </li></ul><ul><li>Austrian ENUM Timeline </li></ul><ul><li>ENUM Policy Framework </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned </li></ul><ul><li>Final Considerations </li></ul>Page 1 2 3 0 4
    3. 3. Austrian ENUM Timeline 1 Page
    4. 4. Phase 1 <ul><li>Main focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inform market players and discuss opportunities and threats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare landscape for first trials </li></ul></ul>First public consultation Aug 01 Feb 02 First public workshop May 02 Jun 02 Request for 3.4.e164.arpa Tier 1 Registry in operation 3.4.e164.arpa delegation Sep 02 AETP formed
    5. 5. Phase 2 <ul><li>Main Focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure integrity of E.164 Numbering Space and related ENUM Domain Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enable maximum competition on ENUM Tier 2 level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect Consumers </li></ul></ul>Nov 02 Dec 02 Oct 03 First live demo Ready to invite friendly customers Dec 03 Large scale ENUM & VoIP trial AT43 Sep 02 Tier 2 Name Server in operation AETP formed Austrian ENUM Trial Policy Framework Trial part 2 started (business customers) Trial part 1 completed
    6. 6. Phase 3 <ul><li>Main focus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure smooth transition into commercial phase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Set track for Infrastructure ENUM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce regulatory involvement </li></ul></ul>New Numbering Ordinance May 04 Aug 04 Contract w/ enum.at Nov 04 May 05 Commercial User ENUM launched New Number Range 780 Apr 06 Commercial Infrastructure ENUM launched End of ENUM Trial
    7. 7. ENUM Policy Framework 2 Page
    8. 8. Responsibilites and decisions <ul><li>RTR is responsible for numbering in Austria (+43 number range) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction of ENUM enabled number ranges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RTR is also responsible for Austrian ENUM Domain (3.4.e164.arpa) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Admin Contact  RTR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tech + Zone Contact  Outsourced to nic.at (later to found enum.at) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ENUM trial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy framework between RTR and ENUM trial partners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluating processes between registry and registrars </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Working on (re-)validation processes regarding the right to use number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>ENUM commercial deployment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy framework between RTR and Tier 1 registry enum.at </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on results of ENUM trial phase </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also defining policy framework for tier 2 registrars </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Crucial issues <ul><li>Identification (identity of user) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the applicant really the person it pretends to be? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Validation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the applicant the legal right to use a specific E.164 number? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ongoing validation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has the applicant still the legal right to use a specific E.164 number? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monitoring of validation errors per registrar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For the first 200 domains delegated: a maximum of 2 errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From 201 to 1,000 domains delegated: a maximum error rate of 1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From 1,001 to 10,000 domains delegated: a maximum error rate of 0.1% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From 10,001 to 100,000 domains delegated: a maximum error rate of 0.01% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For more than 100,000 delegated domains: a maximum error rate of 0.001% </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Identification / validation for number ranges in ENUM <ul><li>Geographical numbers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification by identification card; or copy by fax/e-mail and call-back at geo number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial validation by presentation of the contract with the communications service provider for the geo number or a current invoice and call-back at the geo number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing validation: Use of publicly available information (e.g. subscriber directories); possibly by text message to a mobile number indicated upon initial registration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile numbers (0)6 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification by identification card; or copy by fax/e-mail and call-back at the mobile number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial validation by presentation of the contract with the communications service provider for the mobile number or a current invoice (also by fax, e-mail) and call-back at the mobile number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Possible identification / initial validation option with increased risk of error for the registrar: Subscriber data entry on the web plus a text message containing a PIN code for continuing the web-based request; completion of initial validation only by means of a second text message to the mobile number on a different day and confirmation message from the applicant. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing validation: Via text message / confirmation text message (possibly to a 901 number) once per month/quarter </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Identification / validation for number ranges in ENUM <ul><li>Private network numbers (0)5 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification by identification card; in cases where only a copy is transmitted by fax/e-mail, a subscriber call-back number for the respective private network is to be provided and the registrar is to call the registrant back at the number indicated; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial validation by presentation of the official telephone number allocation decision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing validation: Comparison with the number-specific information on RTR's web site. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toll-free numbers (0)800 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification by identification card; in cases where only a copy is transmitted by fax/e-mail, the registrar is to call the registrant back at the 800 number indicated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial validation by presentation of the contract with the communications service provider for the 800 number or a current invoice (also by fax, e-mail) and call-back at the 800 number (unless the number has already been called for the purpose of identification). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ongoing validation: Periodic (monthly) calls to the 800 number </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Identification / validation for number ranges in ENUM <ul><li>Location independent fixed network numbers (0)720 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation as for geographical numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Convergent services numbers (0)780 >> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No special regulations required due to provisions of numbering ordinance, i.e. no provision of (0)780 number without prior ENUM delegation </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Lessons learned 3
    14. 14. ENUM Delegations in Austria by Q3/2009 8379 overall 2 mobile 4564 geo 1 800 3270 780 520 720 22 5 Q0309 Kennzahl
    15. 15. Three flavours of ENUM <ul><li>User ENUM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End-users should opt-in to ENUM with their existing phone numbers on the PSTN under the domain e164.arpa to provide other end-users with the capability to look up contact URIs on the Internet the above end-user wants to link to his number </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure ENUM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Providers should opt-in to ENUM with the telephone numbers of their subscribers under a sovereign domain (e.g. i.3.4.e164.arpa for Austria) to provide other providers with details of their networks‘ ingress points. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private ENUM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also called Operator ENUM, Enterprise ENUM or Carrier ENUM </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providers opt-in to ENUM with the telephone numbers of their subscribers under a private domain (e.g. e164.info) to provide fellow providers with details of their networks‘ ingress points or their subscribers SIP AoRs, directly. </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. User ENUM Weaknesses <ul><li>Most VoIP providers do not provide end-users with SIP URIs to be reached on the Public Internet (i.e. without generating termination income) </li></ul><ul><li>Only the calling party benefits from an ENUM Record of the called party </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken and egg problem (with number of ENUM delegations and ENUM services) and the statistics of Metcalfe’s Law 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Country opt-in  involvement of administrations and regulators slowing down process </li></ul><ul><li>End-user opt-in  slowing process down further more </li></ul><ul><li>General ENUM skepticism of providers </li></ul><ul><li>High tariffs to ENUM-driven number range (+43 780) on domestic level </li></ul><ul><li>ENUM-driven number ranges not routed from abroad at all or applied with high tariffs on international level </li></ul><ul><li>1) the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of users of the system (n 2 ) </li></ul>
    17. 17. Infrastructure ENUM Weaknesses <ul><li>Providers currently do not use IP interconnection to a significant extent </li></ul><ul><li>Private ENUM deployments </li></ul><ul><li>Provider Opt-In – slowing process down </li></ul><ul><li>Country Opt-In (again) – involvement of administrations and regulators slowing down process </li></ul><ul><li>Chicken and egg problem (with number of ENUM delegations and ENUM services) and the statistics of Metcalfe’s Law (again) </li></ul>
    18. 18. Private ENUM Weaknesses <ul><li>Not so many … </li></ul><ul><li>Provider Opt-In </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly limited reach </li></ul><ul><li>Possibly new (interconnection platform) monopolies </li></ul>
    19. 19. Final Considerations 3
    20. 20. General Benefits of ENUM remain <ul><li>ENUM is using the DNS </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Saving CAPEX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provisioning done by the destination administrative domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Saving OPEX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All Call Query (ACQ) to find destination network </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Ultimate solution in Number Portability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ENUM already successfully used </li></ul><ul><ul><li>... in Private ENUM deployments ( XConnect, e164.info, SPIDER, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Future service framework </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ETSI/3GPP envisage ENUM as a major part of the NGN control layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GSMA strongly promote Private ENUM (e164enum.net) to be used in the IPX framework possibly linking 2 billion mobile subscriber within the reach of GSMA </li></ul></ul>
    21. 21. Austrian ENUM Links <ul><li>Austrian Regulatory Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.rtr.at/en/tk/ENUM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Austrian Tier 1 Registry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.enum.at </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Austrian ENUM Trial – page no longer maintained </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://enum.nic.at/Eindex.html </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Thank you. ! Kurt Reichinger Austrian Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Broadcasting Mail: kurt.reichinger[at]rtr.at Fon: +43 1 58058 306 ENUM: 6.0.3.8.5.0.8.5.1.3.4.e164.arpa Page
    23. 23. Backup - What is ENUM? A Page
    24. 24. What is ENUM? <ul><li>E lectronic NU mber M apping: “ … the mapping of Telephone Numbers to Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) using the Domain Name System (DNS) in the domain e164.arpa …” </li></ul><ul><li>ENUM is an IETF standard (RFC 3761) finalized in April 2004 that allows users and applications to use a telephone number to access a listing of Internet resources (URI) for that number, such as addresses for IP telephony, e-mail or Web sites </li></ul><ul><li>URIs are used to identify resources on the Internet (e.g. http://www.rtr.at ) </li></ul>
    25. 25. What is ENUM? TEL: +43 1 58058 306 FAX: +43 1 58058 9306 MOB: +43 664 1234567 E-Mail: kurt.reichinger@rtr.at Web: www.rtr.at VoIP: 85573@fwd.pulver.com GATEWAY NUMBER TO URI MAPPING ENUM
    26. 26. ENUM is like an inquiry service [email_address] [email_address] www.rtr.at +43 664 1234567 Kurt Reichinger | RTR | Tech. Dept. Who is +43 1 58058 306 ? Can somebody help me ? [email_address] [email_address] www.rtr.at +43 664 1234567 Kurt Reichinger | RTR | Tech. Dept. I have some information !
    27. 27. 4 Call Scenarios PSTN Internet +43 1 2083639 ENUM +43 1 58058 306 +43 1 58058 306 [email_address] [email_address] +43 1 2083639 +43 1 2083639 +43 1 2083639
    28. 28. ENUM Domain Name +43 1 58058 306 43158058306 60385085134 6.0.3.8.5.0.8.5.1.3.4 6.0.3.8.5.0.8.5.1.3.4.e164.arpa  „ Fully qualified E.164 telephone number“  „ Fully qualified domain name“ As a result of an ENUM Lookup for this domain one gets back the IP-Address of the server where the data of the user of the corresponding telephone number are stored. Now this information can be retrieved
    29. 29. ENUM NAPTR RRs [email_address] [email_address] www.rtr.at +43 664 1234567 Kurt Reichinger | RTR | Tech. Dept. ENUM Name Server $ORIGIN 7.1.4.8.5.0.8.5.1.3.4.e164.arpa.   IN NAPTR 10 10 “u” “E2U+ voice ” “!ˆ^.*$!sip:85575@fwd.pulver.com!”. IN NAPTR 10 10 “u” “E2U+ email ” “!ˆ^.*$!mailto:kurt.reichinger@rtr.at!”. IN NAPTR 10 20 “u” “E2U+ voice ” “!ˆ^(.*$)$!tel:+436641234567!”. usw. NAMING AUTHORITY POINTER RESOURCE RECORD >> Agenda
    30. 30. Backup – (0)780 Numbers B Page
    31. 31. ENUM-driven Number Range (0)780 <ul><li>Number format: +43 780 abcdef (ghi) </li></ul><ul><li>Prior delegation of ENUM domain required for assignment of number </li></ul><ul><li>Registrar has to provide a Generic Gateway (for this number range) </li></ul><ul><li>Cancellation of ENUM domain will (also) relinquish the number </li></ul><ul><li>No validation problem as the domain delegation is necessary as the first step (domains delegated on a first come first served policy) </li></ul><ul><li>Decoupling of number range allocation and gateway operator </li></ul><ul><li>Any gateway may route the whole number range, just needs to be able to query ENUM  These gateways are called Generic Gateways (GG) </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial delegation of domains starting May 2005 </li></ul>
    32. 32. The Generic Gateway Generic Gateway Calling Party A Called Party B Registration PSTN ENUMTier 1 ENUMTier 2 Internet >> back

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