ENUM in Austria
A story of high expectations and low usage figures


Kurt Reichinger
Austrian Regulatory Authority for
Tel...
One of my slides from 2001 …
                               erge                              n c e?
        ENUM: T he Ke...
… and Usage Figures from 2009
                                                                                            ...
Agenda


   0   What is ENUM? >>
   1   The Austrian ENUM Story
   2   Lessons Learned
   3   Way Forward




            ...
1 The Austrian ENUM Story


                            Page 5
Phases of the Austrian ENUM Story


         Warming                          Forming   Storming
                        ...
From  Warming to  Forming …
 August 2001
   First public consultation conducted by RTR (i.e. the Austrian Regulatory A...
RTR‘s main focus in phase 1/2
 Acting as an enabler for innovative technology
   §1 Austrian Telecommunications Act mand...
ENUM Tier 1 Registry
 Responsibility for Numbering in Austria (+43)
    RTR, i.e. the Regulatory Authority
 Responsibi...
From  Storming to  Norming …
 September 2002
   ENUM Tier 2 Name Server in operation by Telekom Austria
 November 200...
RTR‘s main focus in phase 3/4
 Ensuring integrity of E.164 Numbering Space and related 3.4.e164.arpa
  ENUM Domain Space
...
The Legal Framework (I)
 New Austrian Telecommunications Law (TKG 2003)
   In force since August 20th 2003
   Based on ...
Number Ranges made available for ENUM

    A
                                                (Used to be) Most common num...
ENUM-driven Number Range (0)780
 Number format: +43 780 abcdef (ghi)
 Prior delegation of ENUM domain required for assig...
The Generic Gateway
                                                    ENUM
                                             ...
And finally from  Performing to  Mourning …
 October 2003
   Decision to start preparation for commercial deployment
...
RTR‘s main focus in phase 5/6
 Ensuring smooth transition into commercial phase
   Signing of contract with ENUM Tier 1 ...
The Legal Framework (II)
 Contract between RTR and Tier 1 Registry (enum.at)
     Signed in August 2004 for a period unt...
Regulatory Involvement over Time

                              ENUM
  Degree of
                               Trial
  re...
enum.at - The official Austrian ENUM Registry




                                               http://www.enum.at



19....
IPcom - One of 13 Austrian ENUM Registrars




                                               http://www.my-enum.at/



19...
ENUM Delegations in Austria by Q1/2009




19.05.2009   .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur   Page 22
Numbers in ENUM by 07.05.2009




                                               http://crawler.enum.at


19.05.2009   .my...
2 Lessons learned


                    Page 24
User ENUM
 General Principle
       End-users should opt-in to ENUM with their existing phone numbers on the PSTN
      ...
User ENUM (cont’d)
 Weaknesses (cont’d)
   National level:
           High tariffs to ENUM-driven number range (+43 780...
Infrastructure ENUM
 General Principle
   Providers should opt-in to ENUM with the telephone numbers of their subscriber...
Private ENUM
 General Principle
   Providers opt-in to ENUM with the telephone numbers of their subscribers under a
    ...
3 Way forward


                Page 29
General Benefits of ENUM remain (1/2)
 ENUM is using the DNS
   it’s there, it works, it’s global, it scales, it’s relia...
General Benefits of ENUM remain (2/2)
 The major benefits of Infrastructure ENUM for (VoIP) carriers and (VoIP)
  service...
Final Considerations (1/2)
 ENUM already successfully used
   ... in Private ENUM deployments (XConnect, e164.info, SPID...
Final Considerations (2/2)
 ENUM has left its infancy years
   Has been well supported, gained attention and is deployed...
! Thank you.
  Kurt Reichinger
  Austrian Regulatory Authority for
  Telecommunications and Broadcasting

  Mail: kurt.rei...
3 Backup - What is ENUM?


                           Page 35
What is ENUM?
 Electronic NUmber Mapping: “ … the mapping of Telephone Numbers to
  Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) u...
What is ENUM?




                                        GATEWAY

    TEL: +43 1 58058 306                              V...
Can somebody
ENUM is like an inquiry service                                                                help me ?




...
4 Call Scenarios                                            ENUM

                                        +43 1 58058 306 ...
ENUM Domain Name

       +43 1 58058 306          „Fully qualified E.164 telephone number“


              43158058306

 ...
ENUM NAPTR RRs

                      ENUM Name Server
                                                                   ...
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ENUM in Austria

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Presentation for ENUM workshop at .my ENUM Seminar in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

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  • FormingIn the first stages of team building, the forming of the team takes place. The team meets and learns about the opportunity and challenges, and then agrees on goals and begins to tackle the tasks. Team members tend to behave quite independently. They may be motivated but are usually relatively uninformed of the issues and objectives of the team. Team members are usually on their best behavior but very focused on themselves. Mature team members begin to model appropriate behavior even at this early phase. Sharing the knowledge of the concept of \"Teams - Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing\" is extremely helpful to the team.Supervisors of the team tend to need to be directive during this phase.The forming stage of any team is important because in this stage the members of the team get to know one another and make new friends. This is also a good opportunity to see how each member of the team works as an individual and how they respond to pressure .[edit] StormingEvery group will then enter the storming stage in which different ideas compete for consideration. The team addresses issues such as what problems they are really supposed to solve, how they will function independently and together and what leadership model they will accept. Team members open up to each other and confront each other's ideas and perspectives.In some cases storming can be resolved quickly. In others, the team never leaves this stage. The maturity of some team members usually determines whether the team will ever move out of this stage. Some team members will focus on minutiae to evade real issues.The storming stage is necessary to the growth of the team. It can be contentious, unpleasant and even painful to members of the team who are averse to conflict. Tolerance of each team member and their differences needs to be emphasized. Without tolerance and patience the team will fail. This phase can become destructive to the team and will lower motivation if allowed to get out of control.Supervisors of the team during this phase may be more accessible but tend to still need to be directive in their guidance of decision-making and professional behavior.The groups will therefore resolve their differences and group members will be able to participate with one another more comfortably and they won't feel that they are being judged in any way and will therefore share their own opinions and views.[edit] NormingAt some point, the team may enter the norming stage. Team members adjust their behavior to each other as they develop work habits that make teamwork seem more natural and fluid. Team members often work through this stage by agreeing on rules, values, professional behavior, shared methods, working tools and even taboos. During this phase, team members begin to trust each other. Motivation increases as the team gets more acquainted with the project.Teams in this phase may lose their creativity if the norming behaviors become too strong and begin to stifle healthy dissent and the team begins to exhibit groupthink.Supervisors of the team during this phase tend to be participative more than in the earlier stages. The team members can be expected to take more responsibility for making decisions and for their professional behavior.[edit] PerformingSome teams will reach the performing stage. These high-performing teams are able to function as a unit as they find ways to get the job done smoothly and effectively without inappropriate conflict or the need for external supervision. Team members have become interdependent. By this time they are motivated and knowledgeable. The team members are now competent, autonomous and able to handle the decision-making process without supervision. Dissent is expected and allowed as long as it is channeled through means acceptable to the team.Supervisors of the team during this phase are almost always participative. The team will make most of the necessary decisions. Even the most high-performing teams will revert to earlier stages in certain circumstances. Many long-standing teams will go through these cycles many times as they react to changing circumstances. For example, a change in leadership may cause the team to revert to storming as the new people challenge the existing norms and dynamics of the team.<number>
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  • ENUM in Austria

    1. 1. ENUM in Austria A story of high expectations and low usage figures Kurt Reichinger Austrian Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Broadcasting The opinions expressed in this presentation are the personal view of the author and do not prejudge decisions of the Austrian regulatory authorities. 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur
    2. 2. One of my slides from 2001 … erge n c e? ENUM: T he Key to Conv ENUM Switched The Internet “Trad itionalquot; Public (PSTN) Tele phone Network Best Effort y (No) Plug & Pla Reliable Easy to use Spam els Viruses 64 kBit/s Chann vices Multitude of Ser e Simple and Saf SIP AORs High Availability User Accounts Domain Names bers Telephone num 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 2
    3. 3. … and Usage Figures from 2009 ns Overall Delegatio 8000 7000 6000 5000 overall 4000 3000 2000 1000 08 08 1 09 7 8 08 3 4 Q0 0 07 30 7 40 10 Q0 2 Q0 Q0 06 06 07 2 Q0 Q0 05 06 06 3 4 Q0 1 Q0 Q0 4 1 Q0 2 Q0 Q0 Q0 Q0 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 3
    4. 4. Agenda 0 What is ENUM? >> 1 The Austrian ENUM Story 2 Lessons Learned 3 Way Forward Page 4
    5. 5. 1 The Austrian ENUM Story Page 5
    6. 6. Phases of the Austrian ENUM Story Warming Forming Storming    Norming Performing Mourning    19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 6
    7. 7. From  Warming to  Forming …  August 2001  First public consultation conducted by RTR (i.e. the Austrian Regulatory Authority)  February 2002  (User) ENUM Workshop organized by RTR  Group of interested partners formed  Austrian ENUM Trial Platform  May 2002  Delegation request by RTR to RIPE, ITU-TSB for 3.4.e164.arpa  June 2002  3.4.e164.arpa delegated to RTR  ENUM Tier 1 Registry in operation by NIC.AT (i.e. Austrian ccTLD Registry)  September 2002  Austrian ENUM Trial Platform officially established 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 7
    8. 8. RTR‘s main focus in phase 1/2  Acting as an enabler for innovative technology  §1 Austrian Telecommunications Act mandates promotion of innovation  Inform market players – discuss opportunities and threats  White paper  Public consultation(s)  Public workshop  Prepare landscape for first trials  Providing platform for interested parties  Clarify responsibilities regarding Austrian ENUM Domain  File application for delegation of Austrian ENUM Domain  Persuade the sceptics 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 8
    9. 9. ENUM Tier 1 Registry  Responsibility for Numbering in Austria (+43)   RTR, i.e. the Regulatory Authority  Responsibility for Austrian ENUM Domain (3.4.e164.arpa)   RTR  Responsibility for ENUM Tier 1 Registry  General  RTR  Admin Contact  RTR  Tech + Zone Contact  Outsourced to nic.at (later to found enum.at)  ENUM trial framework between RTR-GmbH and trial partners  Policy framework for ENUM trial in Austria  Evaluating processes between registry and registrars  Working on (re-)validation processes regarding the right to use number 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 9
    10. 10. From  Storming to  Norming …  September 2002  ENUM Tier 2 Name Server in operation by Telekom Austria  November 2002  Policy Framework available  Official start of Austrian ENUM trial  First Live Demo in Atlanta, GA (Fall VON)  December 2002  Ready to invite friendly ENUM subscribers and users  October 2003  1st part of trial completed, 2nd phase (business customers) started  December 2003  Large Scale ENUM and VoIP Pilot started at Vienna University (AT43) 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 10
    11. 11. RTR‘s main focus in phase 3/4  Ensuring integrity of E.164 Numbering Space and related 3.4.e164.arpa ENUM Domain Space  Compilation of transparent framework for usage of Austrian ENUM Domain  Definition of requirements regarding identification and validation  Ensuring adherence to the framework  Enabling of maximum competition on ENUM Tier 2 level  ENUM Registrar, ENUM Name Server Provider, ENUM Validation Entity  ENUM Service Provider  Consumer Protection  Ensuring secrecy of telecommunications  Preventing lock-in scenarios  Ensuring end-customer opt-in 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 11
    12. 12. The Legal Framework (I)  New Austrian Telecommunications Law (TKG 2003)  In force since August 20th 2003  Based on the New European Legal Framework  New Austrian Numbering Ordinance  In force since May 12th 2004, Amendment of October 18th 2006  Taking ENUM into account  +43 720 for national portable numbers and VoIP (semi-nomadic)  +43 780 for VoIP and ENUM (nomadic)  Definition of number ranges to be available for ENUM   see next slide 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 12
    13. 13. Number Ranges made available for ENUM A  (Used to be) Most common numbers Geographic numbers  Validation by postal mail and PIN B  Also pre-paid numbers are usable Mobile numbers - (0)6  Validation by premium rate SMS C  Numbers directly assigned to enduser Private networks - 05  Validation via assignment document D  Commercially interesting numbers Toll free numbers - (0)800  Validation via assignment document E Location independent fixed  Usable for VoIP network numbers - (0)720  Also possible as „Personal Numbers“ F Numbers for convergent  Designated for the use with ENUM services - (0)780  Gateway to the PSTN required 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 13
    14. 14. ENUM-driven Number Range (0)780  Number format: +43 780 abcdef (ghi)  Prior delegation of ENUM domain required for assignment of number  Registrar has to provide a Generic Gateway (for this number range)  Cancellation of ENUM domain will (also) relinquish the number  No validation problem as the domain delegation is necessary as the first step (domains delegated on a first come first served policy)  Decoupling of number range allocation and gateway operator  Any gateway may route the whole number range, just needs to be able to query ENUM  These gateways are called Generic Gateways (GG)  Commercial delegation of domains starting May 2005 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur
    15. 15. The Generic Gateway ENUM Tier 1 Calling Party A ENUM Generic Tier 2 Gateway PSTN Internet Registration Called Party B 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 15
    16. 16. And finally from  Performing to  Mourning …  October 2003  Decision to start preparation for commercial deployment  May 2004  New Numbering Ordinance defines ENUM-driven number range (780)  August 2004  Contract signed with enum.at concerning a commercial phase  November 2004  End of ENUM trial / Commercial ENUM services made available  May 2005  ENUM enabled number range 780 finally added  April 2006  Addendum to ENUM Agreement allowing Infrastructure ENUM in Austria  Since then  Desperately seeking ENUM users … 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 16
    17. 17. RTR‘s main focus in phase 5/6  Ensuring smooth transition into commercial phase  Signing of contract with ENUM Tier 1 Registry regarding U-ENUM  Monitoring policy framework requirements  Setting track for Infrastructure ENUM  Work on policy framework  Signing of contract with ENUM Tier 1 Registry regarding I-ENUM  Reducing regulatory involvement  Phasing out of project-oriented work  Establishing of monitoring processes  …  Allowing ENUM to stand on its own feet … 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 17
    18. 18. The Legal Framework (II)  Contract between RTR and Tier 1 Registry (enum.at)  Signed in August 2004 for a period until the end of 2007 (now ext. to 2009)  Policy framework for ENUM in Austria for 3.4.e164.arpa domain  Basic technical, operational and administrative requirements  Validation guidelines for Registrars  E.g. defining error values depending on the number of delegations with several procedures occurring when this values are exceeded  Addendum to the existing agreement between RTR and enum.at  Signed in April 2006 allowing the commercial usage of Infrastructure ENUM  Allowing communication service providers to enter numbers of their subscribers into a separate sub-domain and to add provider-relevant information (e.g. for routing or billing). 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 18
    19. 19. Regulatory Involvement over Time ENUM Degree of Trial regulatory Platform involvement I-ENUM Policy Framework U-ENUM Policy Framework Kick-start process       Phase 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 19
    20. 20. enum.at - The official Austrian ENUM Registry http://www.enum.at 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 20
    21. 21. IPcom - One of 13 Austrian ENUM Registrars http://www.my-enum.at/ 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 21
    22. 22. ENUM Delegations in Austria by Q1/2009 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 22
    23. 23. Numbers in ENUM by 07.05.2009 http://crawler.enum.at 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 23
    24. 24. 2 Lessons learned Page 24
    25. 25. User ENUM  General Principle  End-users should opt-in to ENUM with their existing phone numbers on the PSTN under the domain e164.arpa to provide other end-users with the capability to look up contact URIs on the Internet the above end-user wants to link to his number  Weaknesses  Most VoIP providers do not provide end-users with SIP URIs to be reached on the Public Internet (i.e. without generating termination income)  Only the calling party benefits from an ENUM Record of the called party  Chicken and egg problem (with number of ENUM delegations and ENUM services) and the statistics of Metcalfe’s Law1  Country opt-in  regulators involvement slowing process down  End-user opt-in  slowing process down further more  General Scepticism of providers 1) the value of a telecommunications network is proportional to the square of the number of users of the system (n2) 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 25
    26. 26. User ENUM (cont’d)  Weaknesses (cont’d)  National level:  High tariffs to ENUM-driven number range (+43 780)  International level  ENUM-driven number ranges not routed from abroad at all  “Unknown” number range not implemented  “Suspect” number range not implemented  High tariffs to “unknown” number range 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 26
    27. 27. Infrastructure ENUM  General Principle  Providers should opt-in to ENUM with the telephone numbers of their subscribers under a defined domain (e.g. i.3.4.e164.arpa for Austria) to provide other providers with details of their networks‘ ingress points.  Weaknesses  Provider Opt-In  Country Opt-In (again)  Single Tree  What type of tree?  Who is responsible?  How to get all providers on that tree?  How to deal with private ENUM deployments?  Chicken and egg problem (with number of ENUM delegations and ENUM services) and the statistics of Metcalfe’s Law (again) 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 27
    28. 28. Private ENUM  General Principle  Providers opt-in to ENUM with the telephone numbers of their subscribers under a defined domain (e.g. e164.info) to provide fellow providers with details of their subscribers SIP AoRs.  Also called Operator ENUM, Enterprise ENUM or Carrier ENUM  Current service provider interconnect  Private ENUM in a walled garden scenario  SIP Exchange with restricted access on the Internet  Public tree not in e164.arpa  Weaknesses  Limited reach  No global solution  How to peer with other federations? 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 28
    29. 29. 3 Way forward Page 29
    30. 30. General Benefits of ENUM remain (1/2)  ENUM is using the DNS  it’s there, it works, it’s global, it scales, it’s reliable, it’s open, anyone can use it…   Saving CAPEX  Enables originating administrative domain to do an All Call Query (ACQ) to find destination network   Ultimate solution in Number Portability  Provisioning is done only by the destination (recipient) administrative domain for the E.164 numbers this domain is hosting  Saving OPEX  Enables all multimedia (MM) services for E.164 numbers for all sessions on IP end-to-end  Enables convergence (remember slide from 2001: ENUM – Key to Convergence?) 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 30
    31. 31. General Benefits of ENUM remain (2/2)  The major benefits of Infrastructure ENUM for (VoIP) carriers and (VoIP) service providers is to save costs  Minimal CAPEX for setting up the required infrastructure to provide the routing data  Minimal OPEX for maintaining routing data  Announce the E.164 numbers you host (in ENUM)  Announce the domains you host (in DNS)  Make bilateral or multilateral peering agreements  Query ENUM and DNS to find any other destination provider 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 31
    32. 32. Final Considerations (1/2)  ENUM already successfully used  ... in Private ENUM deployments (XConnect, e164.info, SPIDER, …)  ENUM still strongly in the focus of standardisation  IETF: WG ENUM, WG SPEERMINT, WG P2PSIP  ETSI/3GPP: ENUM as a building block of the NGN control layer  Future mobile service framework  GSMA: strongly promoting Private ENUM to be used in their IPX framework  Private domain e164enum.net  Not connected to the public DNS  Database possibly linking 2 billion mobile subscriber within the reach of GSMA  Path Finder (GSMA number translation service) 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 32
    33. 33. Final Considerations (2/2)  ENUM has left its infancy years  Has been well supported, gained attention and is deployed in a couple of places  ENUM now needs more industry support  Standardisation bodies, operators and service providers, service developers  Technological innovation will do its part  Migration to IP-based NGNs will further promote the ENUM case  Industry solutions will emerge 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 33
    34. 34. ! Thank you. Kurt Reichinger Austrian Regulatory Authority for Telecommunications and Broadcasting Mail: kurt.reichinger[at]rtr.at Fon: +43 1 58058 306 ENUM: 6.0.3.8.5.0.8.5.1.3.4.e164.arpa Page 34
    35. 35. 3 Backup - What is ENUM? Page 35
    36. 36. What is ENUM?  Electronic NUmber Mapping: “ … the mapping of Telephone Numbers to Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs) using the Domain Name System (DNS) in the domain e164.arpa …”  ENUM is an IETF standard (RFC 3761) finalized in April 2004 that allows users and applications to use a telephone number to access a listing of Internet resources (URI) for that number, such as addresses for IP telephony, e-mail or Web sites  URIs are used to identify resources on the Internet (e.g. http://www.rtr.at ) 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 36
    37. 37. What is ENUM? GATEWAY TEL: +43 1 58058 306 VoIP: 85573@fwd.pulver.com NUMBER TO URI FAX: +43 1 58058 9306 E-Mail: kurt.reichinger@rtr.at MAPPING MOB: +43 664 1234567 ENUM Web: www.rtr.at 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 37
    38. 38. Can somebody ENUM is like an inquiry service help me ? Who is +43 1 58058 306 ? kurt.reichinger@rtr.at 85575@fwd.pulver.com www.rtr.at +43 664 1234567 Kurt Reichinger | RTR | Tech. Dept. kurt.reichinger@rtr.at 85575@fwd.pulver.com I have some www.rtr.at information ! +43 664 1234567 Kurt Reichinger | RTR | Tech. Dept. 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 38
    39. 39. 4 Call Scenarios ENUM +43 1 58058 306 85575@fwd.pulver.com +43 1 58058 306 85575@fwd.pulver.com +43 1 2083639 +43 1 2083639 +43 1 2083639 +43 1 2083639 PSTN Internet 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 39
    40. 40. ENUM Domain Name +43 1 58058 306  „Fully qualified E.164 telephone number“ 43158058306 60385085134 6.0.3.8.5.0.8.5.1.3.4 6.0.3.8.5.0.8.5.1.3.4.e164.arpa  „Fully qualified domain name“ As a result of an ENUM Lookup for this domain one gets back the IP- Address of the server where the data of the user of the corresponding telephone number are stored. Now this information can be retrieved 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 40
    41. 41. ENUM NAPTR RRs ENUM Name Server >> Agenda Kurt.reichinger@rtr.at 85575@fwd.pulver.com www.rtr.at +43 664 1234567 Kurt Reichinger | RTR | Tech. Dept. NAMING AUTHORITY POINTER RESOURCE RECORD $ORIGIN 7.1.4.8.5.0.8.5.1.3.4.e164.arpa. IN NAPTR 10 10 “u” “E2U+voice” “!ˆ^.*$!sip:85575@fwd.pulver.com!”. IN NAPTR 10 10 “u” “E2U+email” “!ˆ^.*$!mailto:kurt.reichinger@rtr.at!”. IN NAPTR 10 20 “u” “E2U+voice” “!ˆ^(.*$)$!tel:+436641234567!”. usw. 19.05.2009 .my ENUM Seminar – Kuala Lumpur Page 41
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