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Adhd Slides 2nd Presentation 1.0
 

Adhd Slides 2nd Presentation 1.0

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  • Custom animation effects: shrink picture circle with text(Intermediate)To reproduce the picture effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank.On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click Picture. In the InsertPicture dialog box, select a picture, and then click Insert.On the slide, select the picture. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the PictureStyles group, click PictureShape, and then under BasicShapes click Oval (first row, first option from the left).Select the picture-filled oval. Under Picture Tools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the Size group, click the Size and Position dialog box launcher. In the Size and Position dialog box, on the Size tab, resize or crop the picture as needed so that under Size and rotate, the Height box is set to 6” and the Width box is set to 6”. Resize the picture under Size and rotate by entering values into the Height and Width boxes. Crop the picture under Crop from by entering values into the Left, Right, Top, and Bottom boxes. Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the PictureStyles group, click PictureEffects, point to Glow, and then under GlowVariations click Accent color 1, 18 pt glow (fourth row, first option from the left).Under PictureTools, on the Format tab, in the PictureStyles group, click PictureEffects, point to Glow, point to More Glow Colors, and then under ThemeColors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click the Format Shape dialog box launcher. In the Format Picture dialog box, click Shadow in the left pane. In the Shadow pane, click the button next to Presets, under Inner click InsideDiagonalBottomLeft (third row, first option from the left), and then do the following:In the Transparency box, enter 50%.In the Blur box, enter 8 pt.In the Angle box, enter 135°.In the Distance box, enter 8 pt.On the Insert tab, in the Text group, click TextBox. On the slide, drag to draw a text box.Enter text, and then select the text. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select Candara.In the FontSize box, enter 30.Click the arrow next to FontColor, and then click Black, Text 1, Lighter 25% (fourth row, second option from the left).On the Home tab, in the Paragraph group, click AlignTextLeft.On the slide, select the text box. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the WordArt Styles group, click TextEffects, point to Reflection, and then under ReflectionVariations click TightReflection, touching (first row, first option from the left).Drag the text box onto the right half of the slide.With the text box still selected, on the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following:Point to Align, and then click Align to Slide.Point to Align, and then click Align Right.Point to Align, and then click Align Middle.Click Send to Back. To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation. On the slide, select the picture. In CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point to Entrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Basic, click Wheel.Select the animation effect (wheel effect for the picture). Under Modify: Wheel,do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Spokes list, select 1 Spoke.In the Speed list, select Medium. On the slide, select the picture. In CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point to Entrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Subtle, click FadedZoom.Select the second animation effect (faded zoom effect for the picture). Under Modify: FadedZoom,do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Speed list, select Medium. On the slide, select the picture. In CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point to Emphasis, and then click More Effects. In the Add Emphasis Effect dialog box, under Basic, click Grow/Shrink.Select the third animation effect (grow/shrink effect for the picture). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click EffectOptions. In the Grow/Shrink dialog box, do the following:On the Effect tab, under Settings, do the following:In the Size list, in the Custom box, enter 95%, and then press ENTER.Select SmoothStart.Select SmoothEnd.Select Auto-reverse.On the Timing tab, do the following: In the Start list, select AfterPrevious. In the Speed box, enter 0.3 seconds. On the slide, select the picture. In CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point to Emphasis, and then click More Effects. In the Add Emphasis Effect dialog box, under Basic, click Grow/Shrink.Select the fourth animation effect (grow/shrink effect for the picture). Under Grow/Shrink, do the following:In the Start list, select AfterPrevious.In the Size list, select Smaller.In the Speed list, select Medium. On the slide, select the picture. In CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Left.Select the fifth animation effect (left motion path for the picture). Under Modify: Left,do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Speed list, select Medium.On the slide, select the text box. In the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click Add Effect, point to Entrance, and then click More Effects. In the Add Entrance Effect dialog box, under Subtle, select Fade.Select the sixth animation effect (fade effect for the text box). Click the arrow to the right of the selected effect, and then click Timing. In the Fade dialog box, on the Timing tab, do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Delay box, enter 1.5.In the Speed list, select 1 seconds (Fast).On the slide, select the text box. In CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to MotionPaths, and then click Left.Select the seventh animation effect (left motion path for the text box). Under Modify: Left,do the following:In the Start list, select WithPrevious.In the Speed list, select Fast.On the slide, right–click the selected motion path for the text box, and then click ReversePathDirection. To reproduce the rectangle on this slide, do the following: On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Shapes, and then under Rectangles click Rectangle (first option from the left). On the slide, drag to draw a rectangle.Select the rectangle. Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the Size group, do the following:In the ShapeHeight box, enter 1.54”. In the ShapeWidth box, enter 10”.Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click the arrow next to ShapeOutline, and then click NoOutline.Under DrawingTools, on the Format tab, in the bottom right corner of the ShapeStyles group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the Format Shape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradientfill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 88%.Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).In the Transparency box, enter 43%.On the Home tab, in the Drawing group, click Arrange, and then do the following:Point to Align, and then click Align to Slide. Point to Align, and then click AlignMiddle.Point to Align, and then click AlignCenter.Click Send to Back. To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Radial.Click the button next to Direction, and then click From Center (third option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left).Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under Theme Colors click Black, Text 1, Lighter 50% (second row, second option from the left).
  • Although precise causes have not yet been identified, there is little question that heredity makes the largest contribution to the expression of the disorder in the population.In instances where heredity does not seem to be a factor, difficulties during pregnancy, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco, premature delivery, significantly low birth weight, excessively high body lead levels, and postnatal injury to the prefrontal regions of the brain have all been found to contribute to the risk for AD/HD to varying degrees.
  • SmartArt custom animation effects: vertical bullet list(Basic)To reproduce the SmartArt effects on this slide, do the following:On the Home tab, in the Slides group, click Layout, and then click Blank. On the Insert tab, in the Illustrations group, click SmartArt. In the Choose a SmartArt Graphic dialog box, in the left pane, click List. In the List pane, click Vertical Bullet List (first row, third option from the left), and then click OK to insert the graphic into the slide. To create another row, select the bottom, first-level (color-filled) rectangle, and then under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the CreateGraphic group, click the arrow next to AddShape, and select AddShapeAfter.To add bullet text area, select the new first-level (color-filled) rectangle, and then under SmartArtTools, on the Design tab, in the CreateGraphic group, click AddBullet.To enter text, select the graphic, and then click one of the arrows on the left border. In the Type your text here dialog box, enter text for each level. (Note: In the example slide, the first-level text is “Topic One,” “Topic Two,” and “Topic Three.” The second-level text is “Supporting Text.”)Select the border of the SmartArt graphic. Drag the left center sizing handle to the left edge of the slide to resize the width of the SmartArt graphic.To reproduce the rectangle effects on this slide, do the following:Press and hold CTRL, and select the three color-filled rectangles (in the example above, these are the “Topic One,” “Topic Two,” and “Topic Three” rectangles).Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the Shapes group, click ChangeShape, and under Rectangles select RoundDiagonalCornerRectangle (ninth option from the left).Under SmartArtTools, on the Format tab, in the ShapeStyles group, click ShapeEffects, point to Presets and select Preset 7 (second row, third option from the left). On the Home tab, in the Font group do the following:In the Font list, select FranklinGothicDemiCond.In the FontSize box, enter 32 pt.Click Shadow.On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click TextBox in the left pane, and in the TextBox pane, under Internalmargin, in the Left box enter 3”. Select the first color-filled rectangle from the top (in the example slide, “Topic One”).On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradientfill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select Olive Green, Accent 3 (first row, seventh option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 90%Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select Olive Green, Accent 3 (first row, seventh option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0%.Select the second color-filled rectangle from the top (in the example above, “Topic Two”).On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradientfill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select Blue, Accent 1 (first row, the fifth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 90%Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select Blue, Accent 1 (first row, the fifth option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0%.Select the third color-filled rectangle from the top (in the example slide, “Topic Three”).On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradientfill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Right (first row, fourth option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until two stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 0%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select Orange, Accent 6 (first row, 10th option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 90%Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select Orange, Accent 6 (first row, 10th option from the left). In the Transparency box, enter 0%.To reproduce the bulleted text on this slide, do the following:Press and hold CTRL, and select the three second-level, bulleted text boxes. On the Home tab, in the Font group, do the following:In the Font list, select FranklinGothicMediumCond.In the FontSize box, enter 22 pt.In the FontColor list, select White, Background 1, Darker 50% (sixth row, first option from the left).On the Home tab, in the bottom right corner of the Drawing group, click the FormatShape dialog box launcher. In the FormatShape dialog box, select TextBox in the left pane, and in the TextBox pane do the following:Under Textlayout, in the Verticalalignment list select Middle.Under Internalmargin, do the following: In the Left box, enter 3.8”.In the Top box, enter 0.2”.In the Right box, enter 0.17”.In the Bottom box, enter 0.2”. Increase the height of the SmartArt graphic by dragging the top or bottom sizing handle. To reproduce the animation effects on this slide, do the following:On the Animations tab, in the Animations group, click CustomAnimation.Select the SmartArt graphic on the slide, and then in the CustomAnimation task pane, do the following:Click AddEffect, point to Entrance, and select MoreEffects. In the AddEntranceEffect dialog box, under Moderate,select Ascend.Click the arrow to the right of the ascend entrance effect, and then select EffectOptions. In the Ascend dialog box, do the following:On the Timing tab, in the Speed list, select 1 seconds (Fast).On the SmartArtAnimation tab, in the Groupgraphic list, select Onebyone. Click the double arrow below the animation effect to expand the list of effects.Press and hold CTRL, and select all the effects in the CustomAnimation task pane. Then under Modify: Ascend, in the Start list, select AfterPrevious.Press and hold CTRL, and select the second, fourth, and sixth effects (ascend entrance effects) in the CustomAnimation task pane. Click Change, point to Entrance, and then select MoreEffects. In the ChangeEntranceEffect dialog box, under Moderate, select EaseIn.To reproduce the background effects on this slide, do the following:Right-click the slide background area, and then click Format Background. In the Format Background dialog box, click Fill in the left pane, select Gradient fill in the Fill pane, and then do the following:In the Type list, select Linear.Click the button next to Direction, and then click Linear Left (first row, fifth option from the left). Under Gradient stops, click Add or Remove until three stops appear in the drop-down list.Also under Gradient stops, customize the gradient stops that you added as follows:Select Stop 1 from the list, and then do the following:In the Stop position box, enter 60%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select White, Background 1 (first row, first option from the left). Select Stop 2 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 90%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select White, Background 1, Darker 25% (fourth row, first option from the left). Select Stop 3 from the list, and then do the following: In the Stop position box, enter 100%.Click the button next to Color, and then under ThemeColors select Black, Text 1, Lighter 50% (second row, second option from the left).
  • Point 2: not due to oppositional behaviour or failure to understand instructions.
  • Point 2: not due to oppositional behaviour or failure to understand instructions.

Adhd Slides 2nd Presentation 1.0 Adhd Slides 2nd Presentation 1.0 Presentation Transcript

  • Educational Psychology II
    ADHD Case Scenario
    Sigmund Seow Zichao
    Valencia Thng Su Ying
    Pang Toh Jin
    Anna Lin Shi Ting
    Seah Hui Xin
  • What is ADHD?
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders
    ADHD is a neurobiological condition that affects mental functioning.
  • What causes ADHD?
  • 3 Kinds of ADHA
  • How do we tell if a child has ADHD?
  • To be diagnosed with ADHD, without hyperactivity, six or more of the following symptoms of inattention must have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.
  • ADHD, without hyperactivity
    Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakesin schoolwork, work, or other activities.
    Often has difficulty sustaining attentionin tasks or play activities.
  • ADHD, without hyperactivity
    Often does not seem to listen when spoken directly.
    Often does not follow through on instructionsand fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace.
    Often has difficulty organisingtasks and activities.
  • ADHD, without hyperactivity
    Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that requires sustained mental effort.
    Often loses things.
    Often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli
    Often forgetful in daily activities.
  • To be diagnosed with ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type, six or more of the following symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity must have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.
  • ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type
    Hyperactivity
    • Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.
    • Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected.
    • Often talks excessively.
  • ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type
    Hyperactivity
    • Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which remaining seated is expected.
    • Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quickly.
    • Is often “on the go” or often acts as if“driven by motor”.
  • ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type
    Impulsivity
    • Often blurts our answer before questions have been completed.
    • Often has difficulty awaiting turn.
    • Ofteninterrupts or intrudes on other (e.g., butts into conversation or game)
  • To diagnosed with ADHD, combined subtype, symptoms of the above two typesare equally predominant in the person.
  • Is Simon ADHD?
  • Simon, who had been wriggling feverishlyon his chair, fell off it much to the amusement of his classmates. Simon stormed off to the back of the classroom where he proceeded to roll around in the reading corner.
    Hyperactivity
  • Simonignored him and proceeded instead to run around the teacher’s desk trying to upset the piles of books stacked on it. Mr Chan took him firmly by the hand and deposited him with the computer group where he became fascinated in the mouse.
    Hyperactivity
    Inattentive, easily distracted
  • Simon, in the meantime, had deserted the computer group after only five minutes and was attempting to run backwards around the class.
    Difficulty sustaining attention
    Hyperactivity
  • Simon has ADHD
  • What difficulties
    /problemsis Simon experiencing?
    a
    How might the problems/ difficulties that Simon is facing affect his development and learning in the short and longterm?
    b
  • Simon, who had been wriggling feverishly on his chair, fell off it much to the amusement of his classmates.
    Kids with ADHD enjoy producing emotional reactions in others. They may be drawn to the children at school who cause more trouble and they often look for or try to provoke an emotional reaction in order to feel more stimulation. Because a loud or angry response from an adult or peer tends to be reinforcing for many children with ADHD.
    • Simon stormed off to the back of the classroom where he proceeded to roll around in the reading corner.
    • Simon ignored himand proceeded instead to run aroundthe teacher’s desk trying to upset the piles of books stacked on it.
    Impulsivity is the behavioural side of ADHD. Kids with ADHD often bypass the process of considering the consequences. The impulsive child will be constantly in trouble for talking, poking others, and leaving his seat.
    • Mr Chan took him firmly by the hand and deposited him with the computer group where he became fascinated in the mouse.
    • Simon, in the meantime, had deserted the computer group after only five minutes and was attempting to run backwards around the class.
    The key problem in ADHD is distractibilitywhich will lead to a lack of application in study unless the teacher and the material are of compelling interest.
  • How might the problems/ difficulties that Simon is facing affect his development and learning in the short and long term?
    School Performance Issue
    Intelligent Performance Academic Achievement
    Lowered self-esteem
    short term
    But the consequence
    can leads to longterm.
    Social difficulty Family interaction (disharmony )Peer interaction (peer rejection)
    High-risk in adulthood High risk for criminal activity
    High risk for automobileaccidental injury
    longterm
  • inability to pay attention
    to details or a tendency to make
    careless errors in schoolwork or
    other activities
    School Performance Issue
    problems with
    organization
    difficulty following
    instructions
    avoidance or dislike
    of tasks that
    require mental effort
    • ADHD interference with concentration and attention, which make learning become difficult for a child to perform well in school.
  • Social difficulty
    ADHD kids have their difficulty in getting along with others because they have…
  • Social difficulty
    ADHD kids have their difficulty in getting along with others because they have…
    Limited turn-taking during conversations,
    Less responsive to others' initiations,
    Likely to ignore peers' questions,
    Inappropriate or disagreeable verbal exchange,
    Difficulty remaining on topic,
    Poor eye contact and motor regulation
    Deficient communication skills
    High-rate intrusive
    behavior
    Excessive talking,
    Interruptions,
    Noisy interactions,
    Dominating activities Monopolizing discussions,
    Obnoxious behavior
  • High-risk in adulthood 
    Alcoholism
    Drug abuse
    Drunken driving
    Traffic violation
    Smoking
    Street racing
    Biased and deficient social cognitive skills
    Poor emotional regulation
    Aggressive behavior,
    Temper outbursts,
    Overreaction to minor events,
    Excitability,
    Having a tendency to fall apart easily,
    Have difficulty in learning to tolerate frustration and to over-come stress of disappointments.
    lack of self- awareness of the results of their own actions. 
    Less knowledgeable about appropriate behavior,
    Deficient social problem-solving skills,
    Biased attributions of others' intentions,
    Inattentive to social cues
    Due to a lack of the above mentioned skills, there is a tendency for the child to behave in an antisocial manner.
  • Model of Creating an Inclusive Learning environment
  • Using the Model of Creating an Inclusive Learning environment, our team has suggested a few things Mr Chan can do to save himself a few years of stroke(Raj,2009).
  • Collaboration
  • Collaboration between the school, the parents, the students, is the key to success in overcoming the problem that the child experiences.
  • Collaboration
  • School
    The Psychological and Guidance Services Branch of MOE advocates that teachers and other relevant personnel serve as front-line mangers to address the learning and behavioral needs of the student. (PGSB,2001)
  • School
    Mr Chan should consult the Learning Support Coordinator or Pastoral Care coordinator regarding the situation.
    Should any special arrangements be needed to be made for the student, it would referred by them to the Multi-Skilled Team of PGSB which will grant the permission.
  • PARENTS
    Share with Parents:
    The concerns about the student’s difficultyand how it has adversely affected his performance in the classroom.
  • what you, as a teacher, have done and will continue to do to help the student and the effectiveness of those strategies.
    Offer to them some suggestions on what they can do, such as arranging for a psycho-educational assessment to gain a better understanding of the student’s difficulties.
  • Students
    Mr Chan can teach the student how to learn to organise with the use of a notebook
  • The Notebook
    Should containdaily checklists
    B. List homework assignments with due dates and textbooks and supplies needed.
    C. Remind the child to refer to the notebook at the end of the day to ensure the needed supplies are taken home.
  • Teach the student to be an Active Learner(Keep him occupied)
    Encourage visual aids and hands-on experiences
  • Teach:
    Active learning (underlining),
    Active listening (note-taking)
    Reading for detail
    Sub-vocalization (whispering) as an aid to memorization.
  • Learning Environment
    • Seat the child close to the teacher
    • Provide a structured classroom with clear expectations
  • Limit open spaces which may encourage hyperactive behaviours
    Reduce distracting stimuli
    Give the student opportunities to move if he is restless.
  • What can Mr Chan Do?
    Make Simon sit near to Mr Chan
    A set of Specific Classroom rules for Simon
    (To be discussed later in the section on Behaviour)
  • The area of reading corner should be relocated
    Mr Chan should observe Simon’s behaviour and remove any distracting stimuli such the mouse and the pile of books on his table the next time he comes into class.
    Should Simon be restless, Mr Chan should give clear instructionsfor him to stretch and take a break in an orderly manner.
  • Instruction
    Keep oral instructions brief and repeat if necessary.
    Provide written instructions
    Break up tasks and homework into smaller steps.
  • How can Mr Chan help Simon follow his instructions?
    With written instructions already on the board, he should have given brief instructions instead of giving his instructions all at a time.
    For the benefit of Simon, Mr Chan should have told him specifically which group he should be in and break down his task into smaller parts so that he can comprehend them easily.
  • Behaviour
  • Target a few unacceptable behaviours with clear consistent consequences. This should be explained privately to the child.
    Consequences should not be publicly humiliating.
    Use of Hand signals
  • Self Esteem
    • Provide Feedback privately
    • Focus upon positive reinforcement rather than negative responses.
  • Provide formal feedback(e.g star charts) to reinforce positive behaviours.
    4. Reward progress even if achievement does not meet standard requirements.
    5. Remove tedious repetitive work.
  • How can Mr Chan
    Design a Specific Behaviour Programmethat will consider Simon’s Self-Esteem at the same time?
  • Mr Chan can target Simon’s undesirable behaviours such as rocking the chair and running around the class without permission and come up with consistent consequences – Mr Chan should explain this Specific Behaviour Programme to Simon in private.
  • The consequences should not be publicly humiliating as it might hurt his self-esteem.
    Instead of reprimanding Simon in front of the class and taking him by the hand to the computer table, Mr Chan should have given his feedback in private.
  • Mr Chan can privately warn Simon that his behaviour is unacceptable is through the use of hand signals. On the contrary, hand signals can also provide positive feedback for appropriate behaviour which will act as a positive reinforcement for his behaviour.
    Mr Chan can also use a star chart in the class for Simon to reinforcehis positive behaviour.
  • References
    Cohen, L. G., & Spenciner, L. J. (2009). Teaching Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities. New Jersey: Pearson Education.
    Charles, C.M. (2005). Building classroom discipline (8th Ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon.
    Edwards, C.H. (2004). Classroom discipline and mangement (4th Ed.). New York: Wiley and Sons, Inc.
    Kounin, J. S. (1970): Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York: Holt, Reinbhart and Winston. Inc
    Elliot, Kratochwill, Cook & Travers, (2000). Educational psychology: Effective teaching, effective learning (3rd ed.) US: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
  • References
    Nomanbhoy, D.M and Ng, K.H (2004) Learners with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders. In Lim, L. and Quah, M.M (Ed.) Educating learners with diverse abilities (pp.181-200). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education (Asia).