Educational Psychology II ADHD Case Scenario Sigmund Seow Zichao Valencia Thng Su Ying Pang Toh Jin Anna Lin Shi Ting Seah Hui Xin
What is ADHD?
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders ADHD is a neurobiological condition that affects mental functioning.
What causes ADHD?
3 Kinds of ADHA
How do we tell if a child has ADHD?
To be diagnosed with ADHD, without hyperactivity, six or more of the following symptoms of inattention must have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.
ADHD, without hyperactivity Often fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakesin schoolwork, work, or other activities. Often has difficulty sustaining attentionin tasks or play activities.
ADHD, without hyperactivity Often does not seem to listen when spoken directly. Often does not follow through on instructionsand fails to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace. Often has difficulty organisingtasks and activities.
ADHD, without hyperactivity Often avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that requires sustained mental effort. Often loses things. Often easily distracted by extraneous stimuli Often forgetful in daily activities.
To be diagnosed with ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type, six or more of the following symptoms of hyperactivity/impulsivity must have persisted for at least six months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level.
ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type Hyperactivity
Often fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat.
Often leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected.
Often talks excessively.
ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type Hyperactivity
Often runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which remaining seated is expected.
Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quickly.
Is often “on the go” or often acts as if“driven by motor”.
ADHD, hyperactive-impulsive type Impulsivity
Often blurts our answer before questions have been completed.
Often has difficulty awaiting turn.
Ofteninterrupts or intrudes on other (e.g., butts into conversation or game)
To diagnosed with ADHD, combined subtype, symptoms of the above two typesare equally predominant in the person.
Is Simon ADHD?
Simon, who had been wriggling feverishlyon his chair, fell off it much to the amusement of his classmates. Simon stormed off to the back of the classroom where he proceeded to roll around in the reading corner. Hyperactivity
Simonignored him and proceeded instead to run around the teacher’s desk trying to upset the piles of books stacked on it. Mr Chan took him firmly by the hand and deposited him with the computer group where he became fascinated in the mouse. Hyperactivity Inattentive, easily distracted
Simon, in the meantime, had deserted the computer group after only five minutes and was attempting to run backwards around the class. Difficulty sustaining attention Hyperactivity
Simon has ADHD
What difficulties /problemsis Simon experiencing? a How might the problems/ difficulties that Simon is facing affect his development and learning in the short and longterm? b
Simon, who had been wriggling feverishly on his chair, fell off it much to the amusement of his classmates. Kids with ADHD enjoy producing emotional reactions in others. They may be drawn to the children at school who cause more trouble and they often look for or try to provoke an emotional reaction in order to feel more stimulation. Because a loud or angry response from an adult or peer tends to be reinforcing for many children with ADHD.
Simon stormed off to the back of the classroom where he proceeded to roll around in the reading corner.
Simon ignored himand proceeded instead to run aroundthe teacher’s desk trying to upset the piles of books stacked on it.
Impulsivity is the behavioural side of ADHD. Kids with ADHD often bypass the process of considering the consequences. The impulsive child will be constantly in trouble for talking, poking others, and leaving his seat.
Mr Chan took him firmly by the hand and deposited him with the computer group where he became fascinated in the mouse.
Simon, in the meantime, had deserted the computer group after only five minutes and was attempting to run backwards around the class.
The key problem in ADHD is distractibilitywhich will lead to a lack of application in study unless the teacher and the material are of compelling interest.
How might the problems/ difficulties that Simon is facing affect his development and learning in the short and long term? School Performance Issue Intelligent Performance Academic Achievement Lowered self-esteem short term But the consequence can leads to longterm. Social difficulty Family interaction (disharmony )Peer interaction (peer rejection) High-risk in adulthood High risk for criminal activity High risk for automobileaccidental injury longterm
inability to pay attention to details or a tendency to make careless errors in schoolwork or other activities School Performance Issue problems with organization difficulty following instructions avoidance or dislike of tasks that require mental effort
ADHD interference with concentration and attention, which make learning become difficult for a child to perform well in school.
Social difficulty ADHD kids have their difficulty in getting along with others because they have…
Social difficulty ADHD kids have their difficulty in getting along with others because they have… Limited turn-taking during conversations, Less responsive to others' initiations, Likely to ignore peers' questions, Inappropriate or disagreeable verbal exchange, Difficulty remaining on topic, Poor eye contact and motor regulation Deficient communication skills High-rate intrusive behavior Excessive talking, Interruptions, Noisy interactions, Dominating activities Monopolizing discussions, Obnoxious behavior
High-risk in adulthood Alcoholism Drug abuse Drunken driving Traffic violation Smoking Street racing Biased and deficient social cognitive skills Poor emotional regulation Aggressive behavior, Temper outbursts, Overreaction to minor events, Excitability, Having a tendency to fall apart easily, Have difficulty in learning to tolerate frustration and to over-come stress of disappointments. lack of self- awareness of the results of their own actions. Less knowledgeable about appropriate behavior, Deficient social problem-solving skills, Biased attributions of others' intentions, Inattentive to social cues Due to a lack of the above mentioned skills, there is a tendency for the child to behave in an antisocial manner.
Model of Creating an Inclusive Learning environment
Using the Model of Creating an Inclusive Learning environment, our team has suggested a few things Mr Chan can do to save himself a few years of stroke(Raj,2009).
Collaboration between the school, the parents, the students, is the key to success in overcoming the problem that the child experiences.
School The Psychological and Guidance Services Branch of MOE advocates that teachers and other relevant personnel serve as front-line mangers to address the learning and behavioral needs of the student. (PGSB,2001)
School Mr Chan should consult the Learning Support Coordinator or Pastoral Care coordinator regarding the situation. Should any special arrangements be needed to be made for the student, it would referred by them to the Multi-Skilled Team of PGSB which will grant the permission.
PARENTS Share with Parents: The concerns about the student’s difficultyand how it has adversely affected his performance in the classroom.
what you, as a teacher, have done and will continue to do to help the student and the effectiveness of those strategies. Offer to them some suggestions on what they can do, such as arranging for a psycho-educational assessment to gain a better understanding of the student’s difficulties.
Students Mr Chan can teach the student how to learn to organise with the use of a notebook
The Notebook Should containdaily checklists B. List homework assignments with due dates and textbooks and supplies needed. C. Remind the child to refer to the notebook at the end of the day to ensure the needed supplies are taken home.
Teach the student to be an Active Learner(Keep him occupied) Encourage visual aids and hands-on experiences
Teach: Active learning (underlining), Active listening (note-taking) Reading for detail Sub-vocalization (whispering) as an aid to memorization.
Seat the child close to the teacher
Provide a structured classroom with clear expectations
Limit open spaces which may encourage hyperactive behaviours Reduce distracting stimuli Give the student opportunities to move if he is restless.
What can Mr Chan Do? Make Simon sit near to Mr Chan A set of Specific Classroom rules for Simon (To be discussed later in the section on Behaviour)
The area of reading corner should be relocated Mr Chan should observe Simon’s behaviour and remove any distracting stimuli such the mouse and the pile of books on his table the next time he comes into class. Should Simon be restless, Mr Chan should give clear instructionsfor him to stretch and take a break in an orderly manner.
Instruction Keep oral instructions brief and repeat if necessary. Provide written instructions Break up tasks and homework into smaller steps.
How can Mr Chan help Simon follow his instructions? With written instructions already on the board, he should have given brief instructions instead of giving his instructions all at a time. For the benefit of Simon, Mr Chan should have told him specifically which group he should be in and break down his task into smaller parts so that he can comprehend them easily.
Target a few unacceptable behaviours with clear consistent consequences. This should be explained privately to the child. Consequences should not be publicly humiliating. Use of Hand signals
Provide Feedback privately
Focus upon positive reinforcement rather than negative responses.
Provide formal feedback(e.g star charts) to reinforce positive behaviours. 4. Reward progress even if achievement does not meet standard requirements. 5. Remove tedious repetitive work.
How can Mr Chan Design a Specific Behaviour Programmethat will consider Simon’s Self-Esteem at the same time?
Mr Chan can target Simon’s undesirable behaviours such as rocking the chair and running around the class without permission and come up with consistent consequences – Mr Chan should explain this Specific Behaviour Programme to Simon in private.
The consequences should not be publicly humiliating as it might hurt his self-esteem. Instead of reprimanding Simon in front of the class and taking him by the hand to the computer table, Mr Chan should have given his feedback in private.
Mr Chan can privately warn Simon that his behaviour is unacceptable is through the use of hand signals. On the contrary, hand signals can also provide positive feedback for appropriate behaviour which will act as a positive reinforcement for his behaviour. Mr Chan can also use a star chart in the class for Simon to reinforcehis positive behaviour.
References Cohen, L. G., & Spenciner, L. J. (2009). Teaching Students with Mild and Moderate Disabilities. New Jersey: Pearson Education. Charles, C.M. (2005). Building classroom discipline (8th Ed.). New York: Allyn and Bacon. Edwards, C.H. (2004). Classroom discipline and mangement (4th Ed.). New York: Wiley and Sons, Inc. Kounin, J. S. (1970): Discipline and group management in classrooms. New York: Holt, Reinbhart and Winston. Inc Elliot, Kratochwill, Cook & Travers, (2000). Educational psychology: Effective teaching, effective learning (3rd ed.) US: The McGraw-Hill Companies.
References Nomanbhoy, D.M and Ng, K.H (2004) Learners with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders. In Lim, L. and Quah, M.M (Ed.) Educating learners with diverse abilities (pp.181-200). Singapore: McGraw-Hill Education (Asia).