The Institution of the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar                     2012 06 10
The Institution of the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar         1. What is the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar?      2. Potential Impact ...
The Institution of the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar         1. What is the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar?      2. Potential Impact ...
The Baha’i Mashriqu’l-AdhkarBaha’u’llah, Abdu’l-Baha, and Shoghi Effendirefer to the Mashriqu’l-Adhkar asa gathering of Ba...
In its most developed state, this first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár complex included   a travelers’ hospice; a school for boys; a sc...
In October 1902, the foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár was laid in the presence of the governor-general of t...
Kampala, Uganda            Chicago, USA         Sydney, AustraliaFrankfurt, Germany                     Baha’i Houses of W...
Panama City, PanamaNew Delhi, India                              Apia, Samoa                   Baha’i Houses of Worship
Santiago, Chile (under construction)   Baha’i Houses of Worship
The DependenciesThese are the complex of buildings surroundingthe central House of Worship. They include:• hospital• drug ...
Mashriqu’l-Adhkar and Haziratul-Quds on same siteThe term Haziratul-Quds (Arabic, “sacred fold”)or Baha’i Center refers to...
The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár land allows for expansion, for the addition of its dependencies.
旅馆The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár complex includes the House of Worship              surrounded by its dependencies.
The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá explains,is a "material structure" that has "a spiritual effect" and, indeed,"a powerf...
From the description of the role ofthe institution of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkar and its dependencies,mentioned above, we can d...
This vision has been unfolding, and its realization slowlyemerging. In the 2012 Ridvan Letterfrom the Universal House of J...
In our devotional and educational coreactivities we can see the temple, thedependencies, and the Haziratu’l-Quds, inembryo...
In some parts of the worldthe correlation between work and service has advanced to the pointwhere it is ready to be embodi...
天  合                                                                     一                                      人The Mashr...
The Institution of the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adkar        1. What is the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar?     2. Potential Impact on ...
If the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár is the material and spiritual nerve-center of the city,What is its potential impact on human sett...
Promote the Development of Cities“Promote ye the development of the cities of God and His countries,and glorify Him therei...
The following images look at a fewhistorical precedentswhere there has been a conscious,or unconscious, attempt to organiz...
Civic Center in Ancient Athens (Greece), The Agora            Historical Precedents
Civic Center in Ancient Athens (Greece), The Agora            Historical Precedents
Civic Center in Ancient Rome, The Forum        Historical Precedents
English Medieval Monastery  Historical Precedents
DevotionEducation                   English Medieval Monastery                       Historical Precedents
Devotion                                      EducationInce Madrassah (1260-65)Historical Precedents
The Süleymaniye                                           Mosque was built on                                            t...
ca                 ec                MSuleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey (1558) Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey (15...
Palmanova, Italy (1593)Historical Precedents
Palmanova, Italy (1593) Nine-sided town. Where might they place a House of Worship?                            Historical ...
Palmanova, Italy (1593) Nine-sided town. Where might they place dependencies?                           Historical Precede...
Karslruhe, Prince’s Palace (1752-81), center of 32 radiating roads, Germany                        Historical Precedents
Schools are located along the Grand Avenue or in the surrounding countryside.Social and humanitarian institutions are loca...
Schools are located along the Grand Avenue.         The Culturally-oriented Civic center includes:Town Hall, Museum-Galler...
Elementary SchoolJunior High School                                                                              Senior Hi...
The word "mandala" is from the classical Indianlanguage of Sanskrit, loosely translated to mean "circle“.It represents who...
The Mandala pattern was used by astronomer-King Sawai Jai Singh (1700-1743), India.               In the center are the Pa...
The Emperor (the Representative of Heaven) is located at the center of the city.    Old Beijing’s city plan and the Forbid...
Venice: Institutions of Authority: St. Mark’s Church and the Palace of the Doge                      Existing / Potential
Sweden: A hierarchy of community centers organized around education and social centers                             Existin...
Drum Tower     Drum Tower            Drum Tower                                          Drum Tower                       ...
The drum towers provide venues for the whole                             village to discuss and settle important matters, ...
Administrative Wards                            Temple                                      Administrative Office         ...
Ganeshnagar Community: Local Residents        Existing / Potential
Kindergarten                           Central Green Space                            Elementary SchoolNan Mo Fang residen...
PROXIMITY of INSTITUTIONS                     “Civic Buildings should be grouped together…….                              ...
PROXIMITY of INSTITUTIONS   The Institution of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkar stimulates a consciousness   and inspires individual ...
An example of Institutional Synergy:    Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten...
An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.   ...
INSTITUTIONAL SYNERGY        “We found that once the two facilities were joined together,            the children began le...
An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.   ...
An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.   ...
An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.   ...
The following are a few imagesthat explore the physical design ofvillages, towns and cities usingthe Mashriqu’l-Adhkar and...
旅馆Mashriqu’l-Adkar Municipal Level   (for about 300,000 people
Assumption: Cities will have municipal, district, and community-level Mashiqu’l-Adhkars.             The size of each type...
Mashriqu’l-Adhkar District and Community Levels
“Walking” POD                                                                          Community  Assumption: People will ...
“Walking” POD                                                                          CommunityDistrict-LevelMashriqu’l-A...
“Walking”                                                                               CommunityDistrict-LevelMashriqu’l-...
District-level           Mashiqu’l-Adhkar                                Community-level                                  ...
District              PODMashriqu’l-Adhkar   Mashriqu’l-Adhkar                    城市级市民中心                      Municipal  ...
Mashriqu’l-AdhkarTransportation Plan
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Walking-Distance Community                                  with Mashriqu’l-Adkar                                         ...
Clusters of Human Settlements organized around the Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
In the Chinese model of an ideal city, there is a coherence of spiritual and material authority.China did not experience t...
谢谢 !   Thank you!
The Baha'i Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; Implications for the spiritual, social, and physical development of human settlements
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The Baha'i Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; Implications for the spiritual, social, and physical development of human settlements

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An exploration of the implications of the Baha'i Mashriqu'l-Adhkar for social development and human settlement design; its role in fostering balanced material and spiritual progress.

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  • Gilda Laroya Here is a good news! In the message of the Universal House of Justice this Ridvan, April 21st it says, there are 5 countries - the first to start the HOUSE of JUSTICE, Mashriqu/l-Adkar!
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The Baha'i Mashriqu'l-Adhkar; Implications for the spiritual, social, and physical development of human settlements

  1. 1. The Institution of the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar 2012 06 10
  2. 2. The Institution of the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar 1. What is the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar? 2. Potential Impact on Human Settlement Design
  3. 3. The Institution of the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar 1. What is the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar? 2. Potential Impact on Human Settlement Design
  4. 4. The Baha’i Mashriqu’l-AdhkarBaha’u’llah, Abdu’l-Baha, and Shoghi Effendirefer to the Mashriqu’l-Adhkar asa gathering of Bahá’ís worshiping and praising Godthrough use of sacred scripture, especially at dawn.(Mashriqu’l-Adhkar is Arabic for “The Dawning Place of the Praise of God”.)The Mashriqu’l-Adhkar includes:• the central House of Worship, or Temple, itself, and,• the complex of buildings surrounding the central House of Worship; buildings ordained by Bahá’u’lláh to be at the heart of every Bahá’í community, buildings that include educational and humanitarian service institutions open to people of all religions.
  5. 5. In its most developed state, this first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár complex included a travelers’ hospice; a school for boys; a school for girls; two kindergartens; a medical dispensary; a library; and a public reading room. At its height, the Bahá’í community of Ashgabat reached a degree of community development that remains unsurpassed to this day.The First Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar, Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, 1912
  6. 6. In October 1902, the foundation stone of the first Mashriqu’l-Adhkár was laid in the presence of the governor-general of the province. In 1948 a major earthquake that devastated large sections of thecity severely damaged the building. After it was further damaged by heavy rains in the early 1960s, it was demolished. General View of Ashgabat, Turkmenistan, 1945
  7. 7. Kampala, Uganda Chicago, USA Sydney, AustraliaFrankfurt, Germany Baha’i Houses of Worship
  8. 8. Panama City, PanamaNew Delhi, India Apia, Samoa Baha’i Houses of Worship
  9. 9. Santiago, Chile (under construction) Baha’i Houses of Worship
  10. 10. The DependenciesThese are the complex of buildings surroundingthe central House of Worship. They include:• hospital• drug dispensary for the poor,• travelers’ hospice,• school for orphans,• home for the infirm and disabled,• university for advanced studies, and• other philanthropic buildingsThe dependencies of the Masriqu’l-Adhkarwere described by Shoghi Effendi…as "institutions of social service"that relieve suffering, sustain the poor, andprovide shelter, solace, and education.
  11. 11. Mashriqu’l-Adhkar and Haziratul-Quds on same siteThe term Haziratul-Quds (Arabic, “sacred fold”)or Baha’i Center refers to national,regional and local Baha’I administrative centers.…. the Haziratul-Quds should include the secretariat,treasury, archives, library, publishing office, assembly hall,council chamber and the pilgrims hostel.Shoghi Effendi also stated that its functionswould be complementary to those of theBaha’i House of Worship, and that it would be desirableif both these buildings would be on the same site. Baháí World Centre (1998-07-02). Functions and Importance of the Haziratu’l-Quds.
  12. 12. The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár land allows for expansion, for the addition of its dependencies.
  13. 13. 旅馆The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár complex includes the House of Worship surrounded by its dependencies.
  14. 14. The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár, ‘Abdu’l-Bahá explains,is a "material structure" that has "a spiritual effect" and, indeed,"a powerful influence on every phase of life."Its purpose is not fulfilled by worship alone;it must inspire the direct actions of thoseworking to regenerate the life of humanity.The dependencies surrounding the Templelink worship to service to humanity;the prayers and praise of God expressed within the Templeare translated into deeds ofcompassion, care, and education in the world outside.
  15. 15. From the description of the role ofthe institution of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkar and its dependencies,mentioned above, we can derive:the goal of development, andthe roles of the individual, the community and the institutions.1. The goal of development is to “regenerate the (spiritual and material) life of humanity”.2.The role of the individual is service to humanity through deeds of compassion, care, and education.3. Society should express itself and be characterized by compassion, care and education.4. The role of the institutions is to inspire the direct actions of those working to regenerate the life of humanity.
  16. 16. This vision has been unfolding, and its realization slowlyemerging. In the 2012 Ridvan Letterfrom the Universal House of Justice, for example, we learn:The Goal of Development:"among the results of the manifestation of spiritual forces will be thatthe human world will adapt itself to a new social form," that "the justiceof God will become manifest throughout human affairs"The Role of the Individual“The individual who wishes to exercise self-expressionresponsibly participates thoughtfully in consultation devoted to thecommon good and spurns the temptation to insist on personalopinion;The Role of the Community“the community that is to take charge of its own developmentrecognizes an invaluable asset in the unity afforded throughwhole-hearted engagement in the plans devised by theinstitutions.The Role of the Institutions“A Baha’i institution, appreciating the need for coordinatedaction channeled toward fruitful ends, aims not to controlbut to nurture and encourage;
  17. 17. In our devotional and educational coreactivities we can see the temple, thedependencies, and the Haziratu’l-Quds, inembryonic form.UHJ Ridvan Message 2012The Mashriqul-Adhkar, described by Abdul- Baha as "one of the most vitalinstitutions of the world", weds two essential, inseparable aspects of Bahai life:worship and service. The union of these two is also reflected in the coherencethat exists among the community-building features of the Plan, particularly theburgeoning of a devotional spirit that finds expression in gatherings for prayerand an educational process that builds capacity for service to humanity. Thecorrelation of worship and service is especially pronounced in those clustersaround the world where Bahai communities have significantly grown in sizeand vitality, and where engagement in social action is apparent.
  18. 18. In some parts of the worldthe correlation between work and service has advanced to the pointwhere it is ready to be embodied in the Institution of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkarin two countries:the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Papua New Guinea andthe first local Houses of Worship in each of the following clusters:• Battambang, Cambodia;• Bihar Sharif, India;• Matunda Soy, Kenya;• Norte del Cauca, Colombia; and• Tanna, Vanuatu.
  19. 19. 天 合 一 人The Mashriqu’l-Adhkar concept resonates well with a Chinese philosophical concept “Tian Ren He Yi”, “Harmony between heaven and earth, between the spiritual and the material”.
  20. 20. The Institution of the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adkar 1. What is the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar? 2. Potential Impact on Human Settlement Design
  21. 21. If the Mashriqu’l-Adhkár is the material and spiritual nerve-center of the city,What is its potential impact on human settlement design?
  22. 22. Promote the Development of Cities“Promote ye the development of the cities of God and His countries,and glorify Him therein in the joyous accents of His well-favoured ones.In truth, the hearts of men are edified through the power of the tongue,even as houses and cities are built up by the hand and other means.We have assigned to every end a means for its accomplishment;avail yourselves thereof, and place your trust and confidence in God,the Omniscient, the All-Wise.”(Bahaullah, The Kitab-i-Aqdas, p. 77)
  23. 23. The following images look at a fewhistorical precedentswhere there has been a conscious,or unconscious, attempt to organizehuman settlements around institutions ofauthority, worship, and education.
  24. 24. Civic Center in Ancient Athens (Greece), The Agora Historical Precedents
  25. 25. Civic Center in Ancient Athens (Greece), The Agora Historical Precedents
  26. 26. Civic Center in Ancient Rome, The Forum Historical Precedents
  27. 27. English Medieval Monastery Historical Precedents
  28. 28. DevotionEducation English Medieval Monastery Historical Precedents
  29. 29. Devotion EducationInce Madrassah (1260-65)Historical Precedents
  30. 30. The Süleymaniye Mosque was built on the order of Sultan Suleyman (the Magnificent) and designed by Sina Pasha. Construction work began in 1550 and was finished in 1558.Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey (1558) Historical Precedents
  31. 31. ca ec MSuleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey (1558) Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey (1558) Historical Precedents
  32. 32. Palmanova, Italy (1593)Historical Precedents
  33. 33. Palmanova, Italy (1593) Nine-sided town. Where might they place a House of Worship? Historical Precedents
  34. 34. Palmanova, Italy (1593) Nine-sided town. Where might they place dependencies? Historical Precedents
  35. 35. Karslruhe, Prince’s Palace (1752-81), center of 32 radiating roads, Germany Historical Precedents
  36. 36. Schools are located along the Grand Avenue or in the surrounding countryside.Social and humanitarian institutions are located in the surrounding countryside. Historical Precedents
  37. 37. Schools are located along the Grand Avenue. The Culturally-oriented Civic center includes:Town Hall, Museum-Gallery, Hospital, Library, Theater, and Concert Hall Historical Precedents
  38. 38. Elementary SchoolJunior High School Senior High SchoolPlan by Jose Sert A hierarchy of community centers organized around education Historical Precedents
  39. 39. The word "mandala" is from the classical Indianlanguage of Sanskrit, loosely translated to mean "circle“.It represents wholeness, and can be seen as a model for the organizational structure of life itself--a cosmic diagram that reminds us of our relation to the infinite, Mandala Historical Precedents
  40. 40. The Mandala pattern was used by astronomer-King Sawai Jai Singh (1700-1743), India. In the center are the Palace Complex and Observatory. Historical Precedents
  41. 41. The Emperor (the Representative of Heaven) is located at the center of the city. Old Beijing’s city plan and the Forbidden City are based on this model . Historical Precedents
  42. 42. Venice: Institutions of Authority: St. Mark’s Church and the Palace of the Doge Existing / Potential
  43. 43. Sweden: A hierarchy of community centers organized around education and social centers Existing / Potential
  44. 44. Drum Tower Drum Tower Drum Tower Drum Tower Drum TowerDrum Tower Community Centers in Guizhou, Dong Minority Village Existing / Potential
  45. 45. The drum towers provide venues for the whole village to discuss and settle important matters, hold important festivals or entertainments such as singing and playing wind instruments. A leather drum is placed in the drum tower. When there are important things to talk about, the drum is beaten by a respected village leader to summon the villagers. There is a fire on the ground where a fire burns almost all year round.Community Centers in Guizhou, Dong Minority Village Existing / Potential
  46. 46. Administrative Wards Temple Administrative Office Kindergarten Center for ElderlyA hutment community in Ganeshnagar, Pune, India, where the residents built there own community center which includes a temple, administrative offices, a kindergarten and an activity center for the elderly. Existing / Potential
  47. 47. Ganeshnagar Community: Local Residents Existing / Potential
  48. 48. Kindergarten Central Green Space Elementary SchoolNan Mo Fang residential community, Beijing, 1995. Planning law requires community service buildings, particularly for education. Existing / Potential
  49. 49. PROXIMITY of INSTITUTIONS “Civic Buildings should be grouped together……. ‘It has too often been the case, in the history of cities, that their Cultural Institutes have been postponed until adequate sites for them are no longer obtainable. Modern cities (British and American especially) are thus discovering their needs when too late adequately to supply them at great expense, and then in too scattered locations.’ His point is that it was vital to ensure the ‘proximity of these institutes, so as to prevent their mutual forgetfulness, which in time hardens into exclusiveness, and thus to failure of usefulness all round: and just when duly intelligent and understanding and sympatheticOn January 7, 1913, Abdu’l-Baha cooperation are most required. This condition ofvisited the "Outlook Tower”, an proximity, and for mutual interaction, iseducational institution in Edinburgh, fundamentally necessary.’Scotland, guided by the learnedscholar, Prof Patrick Geddes. Prof. Helen Meller, Patrick Geddes, Social Evolutionist and City Planner,Geddes gave Abdu’l-Baha a rousing Routledge, 1990, p.280.reception. The Master praised hisenergy and patience.
  50. 50. PROXIMITY of INSTITUTIONS The Institution of the Mashriqu’l-Adhkar stimulates a consciousness and inspires individual action “to regenerate the life of humanity”; The proximity of the institutions should allows for positive synergies between the dependencies. The following is an example of what could happen: Kotoen, in Tokyo’s Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten. A Partial Map of Tokyo, Edogawa District
  51. 51. An example of Institutional Synergy: Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.Many elderly choose to live here; they find a new happiness through their association with the children. The family circle is complete again.
  52. 52. An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten. Exercise together
  53. 53. INSTITUTIONAL SYNERGY “We found that once the two facilities were joined together, the children began learning how to care for others by talking and being with the older co-residents. We could see that through this experience the children were growing into warm and compassionate human beings.For the elderly, we realized that through their association with the children, they were becoming more alive and their health was improving. Seeing these aged people, many of whom I thought had forgotten how to laugh or even express their thoughts, holding the children and happily talking with them, brought home how important a touching relationship can be between two caring people” Maeda Takumi, Kotoen Director
  54. 54. An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten. Grandpa talks to the children about the good old days.
  55. 55. An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten. The children draw a picture of Grandma.
  56. 56. An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten. The children help take care of Grandma
  57. 57. The following are a few imagesthat explore the physical design ofvillages, towns and cities usingthe Mashriqu’l-Adhkar andits dependenciesas the main organizing principle.
  58. 58. 旅馆Mashriqu’l-Adkar Municipal Level (for about 300,000 people
  59. 59. Assumption: Cities will have municipal, district, and community-level Mashiqu’l-Adhkars. The size of each type will be in proportion to the population. Mashriqu’l-Adkar: Hierarchy of Sizes
  60. 60. Mashriqu’l-Adhkar District and Community Levels
  61. 61. “Walking” POD Community Assumption: People will walk every day, usually in the morning, to worship at the temple. An easy 10 minute walk to the center, a distance of about 400 meters, defines a 50 hectare land area. Using a typical Chinese urban residential density of200 people per hectare, we get a population of 10,000 people. The Mashriqu’l-Adhkar can be reached by everyone without the use of cars or public transport, inside this Pedestrian-Oriented District (POD). Community Level Mashriqu’l-Adkar at the center of a “Walking” POD community
  62. 62. “Walking” POD CommunityDistrict-LevelMashriqu’l-Adhkar 40,000 people Four “Walking” Communities and a District-Level Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
  63. 63. “Walking” CommunityDistrict-LevelMashriqu’l-Adhkar Municipal-Level Mashriqu’l-Adhkar 220,000 people Five Districts and a Municipal-Level Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
  64. 64. District-level Mashiqu’l-Adhkar Community-level Mashiqu’l-Adhkar Municipal-levelMashiqu’l-Adhkar City of 300,000 people organized around the Masriqu’l-Adhkar
  65. 65. District PODMashriqu’l-Adhkar Mashriqu’l-Adhkar 城市级市民中心 Municipal Mashriqu’l-Adhkar Mashriqu’l-Adkar Conceptual plan of a city for 300,000 people organized around the Mashriqi’l-Adhkar (about 5x5km).
  66. 66. Mashriqu’l-AdhkarTransportation Plan
  67. 67. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  68. 68. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  69. 69. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  70. 70. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  71. 71. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  72. 72. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  73. 73. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  74. 74. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  75. 75. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  76. 76. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  77. 77. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  78. 78. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  79. 79. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  80. 80. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  81. 81. Clusters of Human Settlements organized around the Mashriqu’l-Adhkar
  82. 82. In the Chinese model of an ideal city, there is a coherence of spiritual and material authority.China did not experience the same early rupture of reason and faith, “church” and state as in the West.
  83. 83. 谢谢 ! Thank you!

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