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Living Cities

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Concepts for Socially and Physically Sustainable Cities

Concepts for Socially and Physically Sustainable Cities

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  • 1. Living Cities: Vision and Method Joe Carter 2011 01 26 www.townsnet.cn Joe Carter 2011 01 10 www.townsnet.cn
  • 2. Living Cities: Vision and Method
    • Vision
    • Cities and Evolution
    • Maturation of the Individual, Community, and Institutions
    • Method
    • Civic Centers with Pedestrian-Oriented Districts:
    • Physical and Social Sustainability
  • 3. Living Cities: Vision and Method
    • Vision
    • Cities and Evolution
    • Maturation of the Individual, Community, and Institutions
    • Method
    • Civic Centers with Pedestrian-Oriented Districts:
    • Physical and Social Sustainability
  • 4. Arnold J. Toynbee This British historian referred to civilization as a process, an endeavor... “… .to create a state of society in which the whole of mankind will be able to live together in harmony as members of a single all-inclusive family . This is, I believe, the goal at which all civilizations so far have been aiming unconsciously, if not consciously.“ Arnold Toynbee, A Study of History , abridged one-volume edition, p.44. Background Processes: Social and Political Evolution
  • 5. 0 CE
  • 6. 500 AD
  • 7. 1000 AD
  • 8. 1500 AD
  • 9. 1750-1918 AD
  • 10. 1919 – AD
  • 11. The majority of city-enabling inventions all occurred in the 1880s. Background Processes: Scientific and Technological Evolution
  • 12.  
  • 13.  
  • 14.  
  • 15.  
  • 16.  
  • 17.  
  • 18. 2011 In China alone, there are now 400,000,000 broadband subscribers.
  • 19. “ Subway” Map of the World
  • 20. Cities are becoming nodes in a global system.
  • 21. Cities are becoming nodes in a global system.
  • 22. Cities are becoming nodes in a global system.
  • 23. Nation/Empire City/City-State Tribe Family World Community The Evolution of Social and Political Order Globalization Cities, formally the leading edge of social evolution, are now nodes in a globally-connected system. Summary (1 of 2) Cities should benefit from and contribute to the formation of a World Community
  • 24. Humanity’s Collective Maturation Process (process comparable to the maturation of the individual) 放纵型 专制型 Summary (2 of 2) Humanity’s collective maturation can be compared to the maturation of the individual.
  • 25. Living Cities: Vision and Method
    • Vision
    • Cities and Evolution
    • Maturation of the Individual, Community, and Institutions
    • Method
    • Civic Centers with Pedestrian-Oriented Districts:
    • Physical and Social Sustainability
  • 26. Learning from the Discourse on Social and Economic Development “ Outer” City “Inner” City
    • Some Criteria for the Sustainable “Outer City”
    • Rich street life based on pedestrians and public transportation
    • New green city infrastructure for water and waste
    • A net zero energy and water community
    • Agriculture imbedded into the community
    • Some Criteria for the Sustainable “Inner City”
    • Individuals who are constructive, responsible protagonists
    • Communities that are originators and encouragers,
    • that work together with a common purpose
    • Institutions that provide for meaningful participation
  • 27. The Prosperity Of Humankind , A Statement Prepared by the Baháí International Community's Office of Public Information “ Future generations, however, will find almost incomprehensible the circumstance that, in an age paying tribute to an egalitarian philosophy and related democratic principles, development planning should view the masses of humanity as essentially recipients of benefits from aid and training. Despite acknowledgement of participation as a principle, the scope of the decision-making left to most of the world's population is at best secondary, limited to a range of choices formulated by agencies inaccessible to them and determined by goals that are often irreconcilable with their perceptions of reality.” Maturation of the INDIVIDUAL (The Responsible Protagonist) Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations , Prepared by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity “ Higher levels of knowledge across an ever-expanding range of disciplines, increasing international mechanisms that promote collective decision-making and action, and increasing ability to articulate their aspirations and needs, makes it increasingly possible for citizens to become active participants in the conceptualization, implementation, and evaluation of public programs and policies.” The Integrative Stage of Social Evolution
  • 28. The Human Body: A Unified System 人体 : 统一的体系 Society: as a Mutual Helpfulness System 社会也是一个相互帮助的体系 Maturation of the COMMUNITY (or CITY ) "The sage does not hoard, The more he does for others, The more he has himself. The more he gives, The more he gets. Lao Zi, Dao De Jing , ch. 81 The Integrative Stage of Social Evolution
  • 29. Mutual Service and Cooperation A sign of maturity is the capacity to be of service to others. Infant / Child / Youth / Adult / Senior Maturation of the INDIVIDUAL (The Responsible Protagonist) The Integrative Stage of Social Evolution
  • 30. The Universal House of Justice, The Four Year Plan , pp.34-35
      • “ a comprehensive unit of civilization
      • composed of individuals, families and institutions
      • that are originators and encouragers of
      • systems, agencies and organizations
      • working together with a common purpose
      • for the welfare of people both within and beyond its borders;
      • it is a composition of diverse, interacting participants
      • that are achieving unity in an unremitting quest
      • for spiritual and social progress.”
    Maturation of the COMMUNITY (or CITY ) The Integrative Stage of Social Evolution
  • 31. “ The creation of the institutions of a global society , a web of interconnected structures that hold society together at all levels, from local to international institutions that gradually become the patrimony of all the inhabitants of the planet is for me one of the major challenges of development planning and strategy. Without it, I fear, globalization will be synonymous with the marginalisation of the masses. Dr. Farzam Arbab, The Lab, the Temple, and the Market , IDRC, 2001. The Maturation of INSTITUTIONS “ If governing institutions do, in fact, provide for the meaningful participation of citizens in the conceptualization, implementation and evaluation of public programs and policies, then a community's capacity to effect and manage change will indeed be greatly enhanced. This is true whether the institutions operate at the village or international level”. Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations , Prepared by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity The Integrative Stage of Social Evolution
  • 32. This understanding of the intimate relationship between the inner life of the individual and the welfare of society has long been understood in China. We see this, for example, in the Confucian “Great Learning” ( 大学 ). The accomplishment of the peaceful development of the nation and the well-being of society begins with the spiritual health of the individual. "From the son of Heaven down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of their person as the root of everything besides.“ The Integrative Stage of Social Evolution
  • 33. Strengthen institutional capacity at the POD and neigbourhood levels to channel productively, creatively, and safely the increasing capacity and participation of humanity. The Maturation of INSTITUTIONS The Integrative Stage of Social Evolution
  • 34.
    • According to the Confucian “Great Learning”,
    • social problems (such as the ones below) indicate a lack of maturity
    • at the individual, community, and institutional level.
    • Corruption
    • Regional Disparity: An increasing Gap between Rich & Poor
    • The brake-up of existing life-sustaining social networks as people leave
    • their rural communities and migrate to larger centres.
    • The lack of new communities and social networks in anonymous urban populations.
    • Environmental Degradation: Over-population and scarce land resources, the environmental
    • pressure of several mega-cities.
    • Materialism
    • Nationalism
    • Ethnic and Religious Rivalry
    The Integrative Stage of Social Evolution
  • 35. Living Cities: Vision and Method
    • Vision
    • Cities and Evolution
    • Maturation of the Individual, Community, and Institutions
    • Method
    • Civic Centers with Pedestrian-Oriented Districts:
    • Physical and Social Sustainability
  • 36.
    • The Civic Center
    • Social sustainability is the
    • foundation of physical sustainability.
    • Social sustainability requires we move
    • to the “Integrative” social condition
    • mentioned above.
    • The Civic Center, combined with
    • Pedestrian-Oriented Districts is proposed
    • as a city-town organizing concept
    • to inspire, enable, and foster mature, sustainable
    • relationships between the individual, the community and institutions, and the environment.
    • The Civic Center is a group of service-oriented institutions, together with local government/administration offices, located around a central park. The goal is to:
    • a) Stimulate community-service consciousness
    • b) Provide a safe and coordinated channels for individual initiative
    • c) I ncreased mutual awareness, communication, and consultation between the institutions
    • d) Allow p ositive synergies between them
    • The Civic Center is the heart of a community, the district and the city. It is the Forum, the Agora of the Modern Age.
    • The Civic Center will act as a nucleus for global knowledge exchange around the globe.
    • The Civic Center can begin as a small endeavor in a local community before advancing in scale to the district and city levels.
    Civic Center CBD Two City Centers
  • 37. Civic Center Precedents
  • 38. Civic Center in Ancient Athens (Greece), The Agora Civic Center Precedents
  • 39. Civic Center in Ancient Rome, The Forum Civic Center Precedents
  • 40. 花园城市图,埃比尼泽 · 霍华德设计 Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City Civic Center Precedents
  • 41. Schools are located along the Grand Avenue or in the surrounding countryside. Social and humanitarian institutions are located in the surrounding countryside. Civic Center Precedents
  • 42. Schools are located along the Grand Avenue. The Culturally-oriented Civic center includes: Town Hall, Museum-Gallery, Hospital, Library, Theater, and Concert Hall Civic Center Precedents
  • 43. Civic Center Civic Center Civic Center Civic Center Civic Center Civic Centers in Guizhou, Dong Minority Village Civic Center Precedents
  • 44. Civic Centers in Guizhou, Dong Minority Village Civic Center Precedents
  • 45. Qiang Minority Yang Liu Village (Reconstructed 2010) Sichuan Research and Culture Center School Civic Center Precedents
  • 46. Construction Area: 222,000 sq.m. Plot Ratio: 2.16 No. of apartments: 2620 Population: about 8000 Land Area: 10.3 hectare Population Density: 777 people/hectare Civic Center Precedents Kindergarten Park School
  • 47. Civic Center Precedents Temple Kindergarten Center for Elderly Map (left) of Ganeshnagar, Pune, drawn in 1989.
  • 48. Civic Center Precedents Ganeshnagar Community, Pune, India, 1989
  • 49. The Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adkar Civic Center Precedents
  • 50. The Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar , including a central House of Worship, or Temple, and the complex of buildings surrounding it, is to be at the heart of every Bahá’í community. The surrounding buildings, or “dependencies” are to include educational and humanitarian service institutions open to people of all religions: a hospital, drug dispensary for the poor, travelers’ hospice, school for orphans, home for the elderly, infirm and disabled, university for advanced studies, and other philanthropic buildings; in addition, community administration offices with a secretariat, treasury, archives, library, publishing office, assembly hall, and council chamber. The dependencies surrounding the Temple link worship to service to humanity; the prayers …. within the Temple are translated into deeds of compassion, care, and education in the world outside. Civic Center Precedents
  • 51. The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Temples built so far, such as this one in New Delhi, India, allow for expansion, for the addition of the dependencies . Civic Center Precedents
  • 52. Typical Contents of a Municipal Civic Center Scaled for a City of 300,000 people Based on the Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkár
  • 53.
    • Civic Centers and PODs
    • The smallest Civic Center is at the heart of an 800 meter diameter Pedestrian-Oriented District (POD) allowing the Center to be within easy reach of everyone.
    • When there are enough PODs to make a Town or a District of a City; it, in turn, has a Town or District Level Civic Center.
    • When there are enough Districts, it is possible to create a municipal level Civic Center.
    • The result is a bi-polar town or city with the Civic Center focused on social development and the CBD focused on business and commerce.
    Civic Center CBD Two City Centers
  • 54. Estimation of Convenient “Walking” Community (POD) Size and Population Pedestrian-Oriented District (POD)
  • 55. A Pattern for City Growth: PODS & Civic Centers Airport 300,000 People: L arge enough to have a university, small enough to have access to farmland and nature.
  • 56. 机场 Airport City/Nature Relationship 300,000 People: L arge enough to have a university, small enough to have access to farmland and nature.
  • 57. Many elderly choose to live here; they find a new happiness through their association with the children. The family circle is complete again. An example of Institutional Synergy: Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten .
  • 58. Exercise together An example of Institutional Synergy: Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.
  • 59. INSTITUTIONAL SYNERGY “ We found that once the two facilities were joined together, the children began learning how to care for others by talking and being with their older co-residents. We could see that through this experience the children were growing into warm and compassionate human beings. For the elderly , we realized that through their association with the children, they were becoming more alive and their health was improving . Seeing these aged people, many of whom I thought had forgotten how to laugh or even express their thoughts, holding the children and happily talking with them, brought home how important a touching relationship can be between two caring people” Maeda Takumi, Kotoen Director
  • 60. Grandpa talks to the children about the good old days. An example of Institutional Synergy: Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.
  • 61. The children draw a picture of Grandma. An example of Institutional Synergy: Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.
  • 62. The children help take care of Grandma An example of Institutional Synergy: Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.
  • 63. “ Civic Buildings should be grouped together as should all Geddesian cultural Institutions. Gardens and agricultural stations should be close to the schools to ensure the awakening and encouragement of the children in these activities, which he believed were of equal importance to town based activities of finance and industry in promoting the county’s future. ‘ It has too often been the case, in the history of cities, that their Cultural Institutes have been postponed until adequate sites for them are no longer obtainable. Modern cities (British and American especially) are thus discovering their needs when too late adequately to supply them at great expense, and then in too scattered locations.’ His point is that it was vital to ensure the ‘ proximity of these institutes, so as to prevent their mutual forgetfulness, which in time hardens into exclusiveness, and thus to failure of usefulness all round: and just when duly intelligent and understanding and sympathetic cooperation are most required. This condition of proximity, and for mutual interaction, is fundamentally necessary.’ Of course, Geddes wanted to preserve the best sites available in the whole city for this purpose, regardless of land values and costs.” Helen Meller, Patrick Geddes, Social Evolutionist and City Planner, Routledge, 1990, p.280.
  • 64. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 65. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 66. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 67. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 68. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 69. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 70. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 71. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 72. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 73. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 74. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 75. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 76. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 77. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 78. Human Settlement Growth Pattern: Comparison with the Garden City
  • 79. Some experiments inserting the Civic Center and POD concept into the Chinese landscape
  • 80. Urban Forest Walking-Distance Community (POD) with Civic Center
  • 81. Small Town / District : Four Communities and a District-Level Civic Center CBD Walking-Distance Community with Civic Center Town Civic Center Heavy Industry Urban Forest
  • 82. Large Town / Small City: Two Districts each with District-Level Civic Center Yuan Shang Du CBD CBD Walking-Distance Community with POD Civic Center Town Civic Center Industry Urban Forest
  • 83. City: Six Districts and a City-Level Civic Center CBD Original town becomes CBD City Civic Center District Civic Center Heavy Industry Heavy Industry Urban Forest Original village becomes a POD Walking-Distance Community with Civic Center Managed Growth: An original town becomes a District; original villages become Communities within a District
  • 84. City: Seven New Districts, One Existing District (white) and a City-Level Civic Center CBD Managed Growth: An original town becomes a District of the new City; original villages become Communities within a new District City Civic Center District Civic Center Heavy Industry Heavy Industry Heavy Industry Urban Forest Original Town 1,2,3, and 4 are Original Villages 1 2 3 4 Walking-Distance Community with Civic Center
  • 85. City: Twelve Districts and a City-Level Civic Center CBD CBD District Civic Center Urban Forest Walking-Distance Community with Civic Center City Civic Center
  • 86. A Group of Human Settlements organized around Civic Centers
  • 87. The Civic Center/ POD Concept Perhaps, in a country like China where large-scale collective enterprises are more common, the concept of the Civic Centres with PODs can be considered as a planning concept in anticipation of human settlements designed around social priorities; human settlements in which….. “… material advancement is ….not as an end in itself, but rather as a vehicle for moral, intellectual and social progress.”
  • 88. Urbanization is a current development strategy in China In the past 20 years, 200 million people moved to the city. In the next 20 years, 300 million people will move to the city. The new highway and rail infrastructure of China is not sending the benefits of “urbanization” to the countryside; rather the reverse is happening. The number of small cities at around 150,000 people or less is decreasing; and the number of cities over 1,000,000 is increasing (currently about 300 cities). The big cities are getting bigger and the small cities are getting smaller.
  • 89. Rural Community Building Presently, job and education opportunities in the big cities - and an urban-oriented curriculum used in rural schools - pull the rural population away from the countryside, leaving the rural areas less developed than they could be. Could a program of “inner” community-building, including, gradually, the development of suitably-scaled civic centres in the rural areas, awaken and channel human resources that would stay in the rural areas? Resources that would be dedicated to local, rural development. Such a strategy could help stem the excessive flow to the larger, urban areas; it could tap the idealism of rural and urban youth, and apply it to meaningful work.
  • 90. Thank you!