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China’s Development Pattern as found in its Sacred Literature
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China’s Development Pattern as found in its Sacred Literature

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China's philosophical heritage contains surprising resonances with latest contemporary social development thinking..

China's philosophical heritage contains surprising resonances with latest contemporary social development thinking..

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    China’s Development Pattern as found in its Sacred Literature China’s Development Pattern as found in its Sacred Literature Presentation Transcript

    • China’s Development Pattern as found in its Sacred Literature
    • A Proposed Research Framework for DaTong Research China’s Development Pattern as found in its Sacred Literature 1. The Great Unity: The Goal of Development 2. Society-Building Spiritual Principles 3. Method of Development 4. Protagonists of Development
    • 1960s 1950s Appropriate Technology Education of Girls 1970s to Now History of Development Thinking The world was divided into “developing” and “developed”. “Developing” World: Criteria moved from industrial-economic to social.
    • Contemporary Development Discourse United Nations Conference on Environment & Development Rio de Janerio, Brazil, 3 to 14 June 1992 Sustainability Millennium Development Goals History of Development Thinking The world was divided into “developing” and “developed”. “Developing” World: Criteria expanded to emphasize sustainability.
    • 这些努力的结果不尽人意: 全球范围内的贫富差别没有缩小,而在加大 “The global economy has grown sevenfold since 1950. Meanwhile, the disparity in per capita gross domestic product between the 20 richest and 20 poorest nations more than doubled between 1960 and 1995. Of all high-income nations, the United States has the most unequal distribution of income, with over 30 percent of income in the hands of the richest 10 percent and only 1.8 percent going to the poorest 10 percent.” Source: Worldwide Institute Rich-Poor Gap Growing, Vital Signs 2003, pp. 88-89.
    • 这些努力的结果不尽人意: 我们从来没有如此接近环境生态的崩溃 “In 1992, governments at the Rio Earth Summit made a historic commitment to sustainable development—an economic system that promotes the health of both people and ecosystems. Twenty years and several summits later, human civilization has never been closer to ecological collapse, a third of humanity lives in poverty, and another 2 billion people are projected to join the human race over the next 40 years.” Source: Worldwide Institute State of the World 2012
    • Growing Consensus: Broaden the criteria that guides development activity to include spiritual dimensions of life. “Until both the material and the spiritual needs and aspirations of individuals are acknowledged, development efforts will largely continue to fail. “….material advancement is properly understood not as an end in itself, but rather as a vehicle for moral, intellectual and social progress. Recognition of the inseparable connection between the material and spiritual aspects of life therefore gives rise to a fundamentally different notion of development. Baha’i International Community, United Nations, Comments on the Draft Declaration and Draft Programme of Action for Social Development (A/CONF.166/PC/L.13) presented at the second session of the Preparatory Committee for the World Summit for Social Development, 22 August, 1994, New York.
    • Examples of spiritual principles or virtues related to social, economic, and environmental problems. Problem Spiritual Principle or Virtue Unity, Peace War, violence, struggles between nations Justice Economic instability, Gap between rich and poor, Corruption Dictatorship, Blind Obedience Independent thinking, Self-reliance Creativity Conservative, rigid Honesty Moral degradation Unity in diversity, open-mindedness Conflict: Religious, cultural minorities Equality Sex and Race Prejudice Stewardship, responsibility Environmental degradation
    • Human happiness, security and well-being, social cohesion, and economic justice are not mere by-products of material success. Rather, they emerge from a complex and dynamic interplay between the satisfaction of material and social needs and the spiritual fulfillment of the individual. Baha’i International Community, United Nations, Comments on the Draft Declaration and Draft Programme of Action for Social Development (A/CONF.166/PC/L.13) presented at the second session of the Preparatory Committee for the World Summit for Social Development, 22 August, 1994, New York. Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations, Prepared by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity
    • The enterprise of building human capacity, of fostering constructive • individual, • community and • institutional change, is increasingly being recognized as the fundamental purpose of development. “Advances in knowledge across an ever-expanding range of disciplines, the emergence of international mechanisms that promote collective decision-making and action, and the increasing ability of the masses of humankind to articulate their aspirations and needs, portend a great surge forward in the social evolution 机构 of the planet.” Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations, Prepared by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity The Individual has a two-fold purpose: Individual transformation and social transformation; Deeds performed in the context of a moral purpose, as acts of service toward the construction of a peaceful world, contribute both to spiritual and material progress and, as expressions of individual initiative, are a source of learning and growth for the individual as well.
    • The Great Unity Vision and Goal The Great Learning Method of Implementation Selections from China’s traditional sacred literature concerning the Great Unity as a goal of development and the Great Learning as the path to achieve it.
    • The Great Unity What is the vision of development? What are the goals of development? The Great Unity begins with Social-Spiritual Goals and Principles “The period of the Great Unity (Da Tong) is characterized by: Universal openness and fairness; All the world will be a common possession; The whole world is bent upon the common good. Leaders of society will combine talent, virtue, and ability. The wise and able are elected (selected). The cultivation of sincerity and harmony; and Love extends beyond the family to the society at large. All men will be bound by equal ties of intimacy.” Ta T’ungShu, The One World Philosophy of Kang You Wei, Translated by LaurenceThompson, George Allen and Unwin, 1958, p. 49. Kang You Wei (1858-1927) 爲 有 康 Confucius 孔子 551 - 479 BC • • • • • • • •
    • The Great Unity The passage continues by describing the practical implementation and indicators of the above goals and principles. • Sufficient provision shall be secured for the aged till their death and competent employment for the able-bodied and • Adequate means of upbringing for the young. • Kindness and compassion shall be shown to widows, orphans, childless people, and those who are disabled by disease, so that they will have the wherewithal for support. • Men will have their proper works and women will have their homes. • They shall hate to see the wealth of natural resources under-developed, but also dislike to see the hoarding of wealth for their own pleasures. • They shall regret of not exerting themselves (of their given talents) but also hate to exert themselves only for their own benefit. Thus, the selfish schemes shall be repressed and found no development. • Robbers, filchers, and the rebellious traitors shall not appear, and hence the outer doors shall be left open.” Ta T’ungShu, The One World Philosophy of Kang You Wei, Translated by LaurenceThompson, George Allen and Unwin, 1958, p. 49. Kang You Wei (1858-1927) 爲 有 康 Confucius 孔子 551 - 479 BC
    • The Great Unity 同一个世界 同一个梦想 Beijing 2008 Olympic Theme: One World One Dream
    • The Method of the Great Learning (Black is “outer”, social order; Red is “inner” spiritual order. Outer depends on inner. Spirituality is based on knowledge.) “The ancients who wished to illustrate illustrious virtue throughout the kingdom, first ordered well their own states. Wishing to order well their states, they first regulated their families. Wishing to regulate their families, they first cultivated their persons. Wishing to cultivate their persons, they first rectified their hearts. Wishing to rectify their hearts, they first sought to be sincere in their thoughts. Wishing to be sincere in their thoughts, they first extended to the utmost their knowledge. Such extension of knowledge lay in the investigation of things. Things being investigated, knowledge became complete. Their knowledge being complete, their thoughts were sincere. Their thoughts being sincere, their hearts were then rectified. Their hearts being rectified, their persons were cultivated. Their persons being cultivated, their families were regulated. Their families being regulated, their states were rightly governed. Their states being rightly governed, the whole kingdom was made tranquil and happy.” The Great Learning Confucianism, LiJi, DaXue 2:
    • The process relates the accomplishment of peaceful development with the internal life of the nation, the well-being of society to the spiritual health of the individual. "From the son of Heaven down to the mass of the people, all must consider the cultivation of their person as the root of everything besides." The investigation of reality by the individual is the fulcrum upon which the inner and outer balance depends. The Great Learning
    • The Great Learning The Great Learning puts the individual, the family, the state, and the kingdom, all on the same Path, the establishment of the Great Unity. Individual transformation is achieved through investigation, learning, and self-cultivation, and by participation in the transformation of society. “Desiring to maintain one, one sustains others; desiring to develop oneself, one develops others”. Doctrine of the Mean (Zhong Yong), 22 “The virtuous man wants others to succeed”. The Analects 15:23 There is a reciprocal relationship between individual transformation and social transformation. Twofold Purpose: 1. Develop Individual spiritual and intellectual capacity 2. Transform Society
    • Heaven Authority Confucianism, Li Ji, Li Yun. Relationship “He who obeys the will of Heaven, loving universally and benefiting others, will obtain rewards. He who opposes the will of Heaven, by being partial and unfriendly and harming others, will incur punishment.” Covenant The Great Unity is Heaven’s Plan “Therefore when the principle of obeying the will of Heaven is understood and widely practiced in the world, then justice and government will be orderly, the multitudes will be harmonious, the country will be wealthy, the supplies will be plenteous, and the people will be warmly clothed and sufficiently fed, peaceful and without worry”. Mozi The Individual, The Family, The Community, Rulers The Great Unity is the protagonist’s goal The protagonists of social development must follow the Will of Heaven to achieve the Great Unity.
    • China’s Traditional Development Pattern We find in China’s sacred literature, not just fragments of wisdom, but a whole vision or pattern of life - tested through millennia of experience - that recognizes: 1.The goal of social evolution is an era of global peace and justice called the Great Unity. 2.The spiritual nature and moral capacity of human beings, 3.The development of spiritual capacity through responsible and thoughtful responses to the will of Heaven. These responses are expressed as initiatives by individuals, families and government, carried out in service to society, and are contributions to social development. 4.The reciprocal relationship between the inner life of the individual and the welfare and prosperity of society.
    • Examples of Questions about our Development Pattern 1. What does it mean, in the modern context, to re-establish a link with the will of Heaven? Is the link with Heaven the necessary relationship that will release the vast reservoir of neglected or underused human spiritual capacity, and apply it to beneficial individual, social, and institutional transformation? New definition of religion. What kind of religion does this world need? The reform, regeneration of religion. 2. To what extent could these ideas: the Great Unity, the Great Learning, Chinese definitions of societybuilding principles, and the definitions of the nature and role of the protagonists of development be accepted as China’s development strategy, part of a unique path forward that is rooted in its heritage? How to carry out education/ capacity-building efforts in the following areas? • The capacity of individuals to independently investigate reality, to work on developing their own spiritual nature, and to become social activists pursuing the twin goals of individual and social transformation. • The capacity of communities to take responsibility for their own spiritual and material development. • The capacity of institutions to encourage and nurture such activities by individuals and communities.
    • A dream common to all civilizations for centuries. The world has many groups centered on religion, political ideologies, and philosophies.
    • A dream common to all civilizations for centuries. Early signs of its realization beginning in the 19th century. The world has many groups centered on religion, political ideologies, and philosophies. Some have left these groups and are looking for alternatives. Global consciousness begins in the 19 th century.
    • A dream common to all civilizations for centuries. Early signs of its realization beginning in the 19th century. Global discourse on the meaning of religion and the relationship between science, religion and development. The world has many groups centered on religion, political ideologies, and philosophies. Some have left these groups and are looking for alternatives. Global consciousness begins in the 19 th century.
    • A dream common to all civilizations for centuries. Early signs of its realization beginning in the 19th century. Conscious, collective, global, on-going construction of Da Tong.
    • Thank you!