城市社会和环境的可持续发展

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Some thoughts on urban social and physical sustainability. 城市社会和环境的可持续发展

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城市社会和环境的可持续发展

  1. 1. 市民中心 为了人类居住点的社会和环境的可持续发展 而建造的实体结构和制度结构 Civic CentersA Proposed Physical and Institutional Structurefor the Social and Environmental Sustainability of Human Settlements 2012 06 25
  2. 2. 1.市民中心 : 历史先例CIVIC CENTERS:Historical Precedents2.市民中心 : 社会发展 与社区建设CIVIC CENTERS:Social Development & Community-Building .3.市民中心 : 城市与小镇 规划CIVIC CENTERS:City and Town Planning
  3. 3. 1.市民中心 : 历史先例CIVIC CENTERS:Historical Precedents2.市民中心 : 社会发展 与社区建设CIVIC CENTERS:Social Development & Community-Building .3.市民中心 : 城市与小镇 规划CIVIC CENTERS:City and Town Planning
  4. 4. The Emperor, the Representative of Heaven, (spiritual and temporal authority combined as one)is located at the center of the city. Old Beijing’s city plan and the Forbidden City are based on this model . In the Chinese model of an ideal city, there is a coherence of spiritual and material authority. China did not experience the same early rupture of reason and faith, “church” and state as in the West. 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  5. 5. The drum towers provide venues for the whole village to discuss and settle important matters, hold important festivals or entertainments such as singing and playing wind instruments. A leather drum is placed in the drum tower. When there are important things to talk about, the drum is beaten by a respected village leader to summon the villagers. There is a fire on the ground where a fire burns almost all year round.Community Centers in Guizhou, Dong Minority Village 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  6. 6. Drum Tower Drum Tower Drum Tower Drum Tower Drum TowerDrum Tower Community Centers in Guizhou, Dong Minority Village 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  7. 7. The Mandala pattern was used by astronomer-King Sawai Jai Singh (1700-1743), India. In the center are the Palace Complex and Observatory. 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  8. 8. The word “mandala” is from the classical Indianlanguage of Sanskrit, loosely translated to mean “circle“.It represents wholeness, and can be seen as a model for the organizational structure of life itself--a cosmic diagram that reminds us of our relation to the infinite. Mandala 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  9. 9. Civic Center in Ancient Athens (Greece), The AgoraA cluster of spiritual, political , educational, and commercial institutions 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  10. 10. Civic Center in Ancient Athens (Greece), The Agora 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  11. 11. Civic Center in Ancient Rome, The Forum 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  12. 12. Gur city is a circle-shaped city with diameter of 2 kilometres. The city is divided into 61 parts by 20 radial walls and 3 concentric circles. The core circle is 450 meters in diameter. Most probably important buildings such as ceremonial, religious, and governmental departments were in this area, remains of twoof which can still be seen in the area. One of them is the famous mihrab (altar) which is located just in thecentre of the circle and the other is known as the seat monument which must have been a big Zoroastrian temple. Gur, Iran. Founded by Ardeshir I ( 224-651 CE), the founder of the Sasanian Dynasty 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  13. 13. In 762 AD, construction began on Mansur. The city was designed as a circle about 2.7 km in diameter,leading it to be known as the "Round City". The original design shows as single ring of residential andcommercial structures along the inside of the city walls, but the final construction added another ringinside the first. Within the city there were many parks, gardens, villas, and promenades. In the centerof the city lay the mosque, as well as headquarters for guards. The purpose or use of the remainingspace in the center is unknown. City of Al- Mansoor, Baghdad (762) 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  14. 14. City of Al- Mansoor, Baghdad (762)历史先例 Historical Precedents
  15. 15. Institutions of Spiritual and Temporal Authority Residential Commercial (assumed)City of Al- Mansoor, Baghdad (762)历史先例 Historical Precedents
  16. 16. DevotionEducation English Medieval Monastery 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  17. 17. English Medieval Monastery历史先例 Historical Precedents
  18. 18. Venice: Institutions of Authority: St. Mark’s Church and the Palace of the Doge 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  19. 19. Palmanova, Italy (1593)历史先例 Historical Precedents
  20. 20. Palmanova, Italy (1593)历史先例 Historical Precedents
  21. 21. Palmanova, Italy (1593)历史先例 Historical Precedents
  22. 22. Karslruhe, Prince’s Palace (1752-81), center of 32 radiating roads, Germany 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  23. 23. Devotion Education Ince Madrassah (1260-65)历史先例 Historical Precedents
  24. 24. The Süleymaniye Mosque was built on the order of Sultan Suleyman (the Magnificent) and designed by Sina Pasha. Construction work began in 1550 and was finished in 1558.Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey (1558) 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  25. 25. 17 16 ca 15 3 ec M 2 1314 1 5 6 712 8 9 11 10 Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey (1558) Suleymaniye Mosque, Istanbul, Turkey (1558) 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  26. 26. 巴哈伊灵曦堂 The Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  27. 27. The Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar, A Temple surrounded by “dependencies” 巴哈伊灵曦堂建筑群,包括礼拜堂及其周围的附属建筑 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  28. 28. 阿博都巴哈提到, 灵曦堂建筑群应包括即将建立的附属建筑,包括: •医院 •救济穷人的药房 •接待旅人的馆舍 •教导孤儿的学校 •老弱病残者之家 •高等研究的大学 •及其他慈善建筑 所有这些都将向所有种族、民族和宗教的人开放。 The Baha’i Mashriqu’l-Adhkar, including a central House of Worship, or Temple, and the complex ofbuildings surrounding it, is to be at the heart of every Bahá’í community. The surrounding buildings, or“dependencies” are to include educational and humanitarian service institutions open to people of allreligions: a hospital, drug dispensary for the poor, travelers’ hospice, school for orphans, home for theelderly, infirm and disabled, university for advanced studies, and other philanthropic buildings; in addition,community administration offices with a secretariat, treasury, archives, library, publishing office, assemblyhall, and council chamber. The dependencies surrounding the Temple link worship to service to humanity;the prayers …. within the Temple are translated into deeds of compassion, care, and education in the worldoutside. 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  29. 29. The Mashriqu’l-Adhkár Temples built so far, such as this one in New Delhi, India, allow for expansion, for the addition of the dependencies. 灵曦堂用以扩建其附属建筑的土地 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  30. 30. 花园城市图,埃比尼泽 · 霍华德设计的花园城市 Ebenezer Howard and the Garden City 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  31. 31. Schools are located along the Grand Avenue or in the surrounding countryside.Social and humanitarian institutions are located in the surrounding countryside. 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  32. 32. Schools are located along the Grand Avenue. The Culturally-oriented Civic center includes:Town Hall, Museum-Gallery, Hospital, Library, Theater, and Concert Hall 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  33. 33. Elementary SchoolJunior High School Senior High SchoolPlan by Jose Sert A hierarchy of community centers organized around education 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  34. 34. Sweden: A hierarchy of community centers organized around education and social centers 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  35. 35. Temple Kindergarten Center for Elderly加内施纳格尔社区: 5.3 公顷, 1200 户居民,人口总数 7000 人 /5.3 化顷= 1300 人 / 公顷 Map of Ganeshnagar, Pune, 历史先例 Historical Precedents drawn in 1989.
  36. 36. 加内施纳格尔社区:当地居民历史先例 Historical Precedents
  37. 37. 研究与文化中心Research and Culture Center学校School 四川羌族杨柳村( 2010 重建) Qiang Minority Yang Liu Village (Reconstructed 2010) Sichuan 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  38. 38. Kindergarten Central Green Space Elementary School Nan Mo Fang Residential Community, Beijing, 1995.Planning law requires community service buildings, particularly for education. 历史先例 Historical Precedents
  39. 39. 1.市民中心 : 历史先例CIVIC CENTERS:Historical Precedents2.市民中心 : 社会发展 与社区建设CIVIC CENTERS:Social Development & Community-Building .3.市民中心 : 城市与小镇 规划CIVIC CENTERS:City and Town Planning
  40. 40. 市民中心 : 社会发展 与社区建设CIVIC CENTERS: Social Development & Community-Building Extended . 任务: 塑造人的能力。培育个人、社区和制度的建设性变革。
  41. 41. The enterprise of building human capacity, 促进塑造人类的能力以培育 of fostering constructive • individual, 社会发展 • 个人、 • community and • 社区与 • institutional change, • 机构的 is increasingly being recognized 建设性转变 as the fundamental 是发展的根本目的 purpose of development. 这日益 成为人们的共识。 机构 个人 社区 Social Development and Community-Building: The Individual, The Community, Institutions 社会发展 与社区建设:个人,社区和机构Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations, Prepared by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity
  42. 42. 个人 , 社区 , 机构的新定义 A New Definition of the INDIVIDUAL, COMMUNITY, and INSTITUTIONS 转变周期 新世界秩序 古代 时代 社会演变 Social Evolution
  43. 43. 三种社会关系 Three Kinds of Social Relationships Social Characteristics World View Emotional and Relationships Character Intellectual with Others Characteristics 1. Authoritarian Power- oriented Dichotomous Rigidity Authoritarian Perceptions Submission 2. Indulgent Pleasure-oriented Indiscriminate Promiscuity Anarchic Perceptions Relationships 3. Integrative Growth-oriented Unity in Diversity Creativity Responsibility and CooperationChart by psychologist Dr. Hossain Danesh 人格类型 情感与理智特 特征 世界观 与他人的关系( 民族性格 征 ) 专制型 以权力为导向 二元分立的感知 刻板僵化 屈从于专制 无法无天的关 放纵型 以享乐为导向 不加分辨的感知 混乱 系 整合型 以成长为导向 存多样求团结 有创造性 负责与合作 Challenge: To Mature from authoritarian to “integrative” social relations
  44. 44. 个人的新定义(负责任的提倡者)当我们对“发展目标”再下定义的时候﹐重新审视当事人在发展过程中所扮演的角色是很必要的。各层政府机构在社会发展方面的重 要作用不言而喻。然而﹐在一个称颂平等主义原则以及相关的民主原则的时代里﹐发展规划应把广大民众视为援助和训练的接受者﹐远而我们的后代将会对此感到不可理解。尽 管“民众参与”是公认的原则﹐然而留给世界绝大多数 人民的决策范围充其量是次要性的:他们的抉择范围被高不可及的机构所规定﹐并常常受那些与他们的现实观 背道而驰的目标所制约。 A New Definition of the INDIVIDUAL (The Responsible Protagonist)“Future generations, however, will find almost incomprehensible the circumstancethat, in an age paying tribute to an egalitarian philosophy and relateddemocratic principles, development planning should viewthe masses of humanity as essentially recipients of benefits from aid and training.Despite acknowledgement of participation as a principle,the scope of the decision making left to most of the worlds populationis at best secondary, limited to a range of choices formulated by agenciesinaccessible to them and determined by goalsthat are often irreconcilable with their perceptions of reality.”The Prosperity Of Humankind, A Statement Prepared by the Baháí International Communitys Office of Public Information
  45. 45. 个人的新定义(负责任的主人翁)个人的作用个人的知识水平越高、学科面越广,促进集体决策和集体行动的国际机制越多,个人表达自身志向和需要的能力越强,公民就越容易参与公共计划和政策的观念形成、具体实践和效果评估方面,成为积极的参与者。 A New Definition of the INDIVIDUAL (The Responsible Protagonist) The Role of the Individual “Higher levels of knowledge across an ever-expanding range of disciplines, increasing international mechanisms that promote collective decision-making and action, and increasing ability to articulate their aspirations and needs, makes it increasingly possible for citizens to become active participants in the conceptualization, implementation, and evaluation of public programs and policies.”Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations, Prepared by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity
  46. 46. 个人的新定义(负责任的主人翁)A New Definition of the INDIVIDUAL (The Responsible Protagonist)"No calamity is greater than not knowing what is enoughNo fault worse than wanting too muchWhoever knows what is enoughHas enough.Attachment comes at wasteful cost;Hoarding leads to a certain loss;Knowing what is enough avoids disgrace;Knowing when to stop secures from peril.Only thus can you long last.知足不辱,知止不殆,可以長久 .( 知足于内而不争虚名,就不会有屈辱;知止于外而不贪得无厌,就不会有忧患。如此可以使身体健康长寿。 )Lao Zi, Dao De Jing, ch. 46 and 44老子《道德经》节 46 及 44"The sage does not hoard,The more he does for others,The more he has himself.The more he gives,The more he gets.聖人不積,既以為人己愈有,既以與人己愈多 ;( 圣人不为自己积攒什么:既然一切都是为了世人,自己就愈发拥有了;既然一切都已给了世人,自己就愈发丰富了 .) Spiritual HeritagesLao Zi, Dao De Jing, ch. 8老子《道德经》 节 8
  47. 47. 个人的新定义(负责任的主人翁) A New Definition of the INDIVIDUAL (The Responsible Protagonist) 婴儿 / 儿童 / 青年 / 成年 / 长者 Infant / Child / Youth / Adult / SeniorServed by Others Serving Others 接受他人服务 服务他人 幼小的和衰老的依靠他人的服务 The very young and the very old rely on the service of others. 成熟的标 志是有能力为他人服务。 A sign of maturity is the capacity to be of service to others. 服务 SERVICE
  48. 48. 社区的新定义一个成熟和谐的社区定义为:“ 文明的综合单位,由个人家庭和机构组成是对体制、部门和组织的发起者和激励者、机构和组织等为一个共同的目标、为内部和外部的福祉而协同运作的个人、家庭和机构组成;由多样化的、彼此互动的、在为灵性和社会进步而不懈追求中实现团结的参与者组成。 A New Definition of COMMUNITY We can define a mature harmonious community as…. “a comprehensive unit of civilization composed of individuals, families and institutions that are originators and encouragers of systems, agencies and organizations working together with a common purpose for the welfare of people both within and beyond its borders; it is a composition of diverse, interacting participants that are achieving unity in an unremitting quest for spiritual and social progress.”The Universal House of Justice, The Four Year Plan, pp.34-35 世界正义院《四年计划》 34-35
  49. 49. 社区的新定义 A New Definition of COMMUNITY 国家 社区 家庭 在社区的层次上增加机构的一层, 以安全地、有效地、创造性地增加人类的能力 Add an institutional layer at the community level to channel safely, productively, and creatively the increasing capacity of humanity.
  50. 50. 社区的新定义A New Definition of COMMUNITY The Human Body: A Unified System 人体 : 一个统一的统系 Society is also a Mutual Helpfulness System 社会也是一个相互帮助的统系
  51. 51. 机构的新定义“ 如果统治机构确实能够为公民提供机会,使他们有意义地参与公共事务和政策的观念形成、具体实践和效果评估,那么社团影响和应对变化的能力必将大在增强。事实就是如此,无论机构是在村庄还是国际范围内运行。”A New Definition of INSITUTIONS“If governing institutions do, in fact,provide for the meaningfulparticipation of citizens in the conceptualization,implementation and evaluationof public programs and policies,then a communitys capacity to effectand manage changewill indeed be greatly enhanced.This is true whether the institutions operateat the village or international level”.Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations,Prepared by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity摘自《科学、宗教与发展,最初始的考虑》全球繁荣研究所
  52. 52. 机构的新定义 “ 建立全球社会的诸多机构,从各层面上把社会凝聚起来、 形成结构上彼此连结的网络, 让这些机构,无论是地方性还是国际性机构, 都逐渐成为整个地球上的所有居民的宝贵财富, 在我看来,这是发展计划与策略中的首要挑战之一。 做不到这一点,恐怕全球化就会成为大众边缘化的同义词。” Dr. Farzam Arbab, The Lab, the Temple, and the Market, IDRC, 2001. 摘自 法赞 . 阿巴布:《庙宇与市场》 2001 A New Definition of INSITUTIONS “The creation of the institutions of a global society,a web of interconnected structures that hold society togetherat all levels, from local to international institutions thatgradually become the patrimony of all the inhabitants ofthe planet is for me one of the major challenges ofdevelopment planning and strategy.Without it, I fear, globalization will be synonymous withthe marginalisation of the masses.Dr. Farzam Arbab, The Lab, the Temple, and the Market, IDRC, 2001.Science, Religion and Development: Some Initial Considerations,Prepared by the Institute for Studies in Global Prosperity
  53. 53. 市民中心 : 社会发展 与社区建设CIVIC CENTERS: Social Development & Community-Building 市民中心在组织小区、城镇、城市时提供如下功能:1. 提供机构框架,使服务型社会释放出来的能量得到和谐输导。2. 提供社会结构,使社会理想转化成行动。3. 提供社区建设途径,以实现城市发展。4. 提供与中国思想更相符的发展模式,例如: a) 个人进步和社会进步依赖于生命中物质与精神双方面的动态的、共同发展 (修身、齐家、治国、平天下)。 b) 个人内在生命的发展需要通过与社会的互动、通过为社会服务来实现。 c) 天国与尘世的和谐5. 提供机会,使各机构之间实现一体性。The use of Civic Centers to organize communities, towns, and cities provides: .11. The institutional framework to channel harmoniously, the energy released by a service-oriented society.12. A unifying social structure for the translation of social ideals into action.13. A community-building approach to urban development.4. A model of development more in harmony with Chinese thought, for example:- Individual and social progress depend on the dynamic co-development of the material and spiritual dimensions of life.- Development of the inner life of the individual is through interaction with, and service to, the society around him.- Harmony of Heaven and Earth5. Opportunities for synergistic relations between the assembled institutions.
  54. 54. 市民中心: 人道机构和社会机构的步调一致的一个实例。灵曦堂的建构不仅激发了“重振人类生命”的意识,还激励个人采取行动;其附属建筑之间有一种积极的协作关系。实例:机构统筹:东京市民中心的机构不仅促进一种自学和设想个人行动,以重建人类生活 . 而且还使各个从居住部分主动融合。江户川区老人院与幼儿园相结合CIVIC CENTERS: An example of synergy when humanitarian and social institutions are juxtaposed.The Institution of the Civic Center will not only stimulate a consciousnessand inspire individual action “to regenerate the life of humanity”; it alsoallows for positive synergies between the dependencies.The following is an example of what could happen: Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawadistrict combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.
  55. 55. 举例:机构统筹:东京江户川区老人院与幼儿园相结合 An example of Institutional Synergy: Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten.很多老年人选择在此居住,他们通过与孩子们交往找到了新的快乐。由此得享天伦之乐。 Many elderly choose to live here; they find a new happiness through their association with the children. The family circle is complete again.
  56. 56. 举例:机构统筹:东京江户川区老人院与幼儿园相结合An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten. 一起锻炼 Exercise together
  57. 57. 机构统筹“ 我们发现一旦把两种设施结合起来,儿童就开始学习如何照顾他人,比如陪老人聊天。我们从这个经验中看到,儿童正成长为更温暖、更仁爱的人。对于老人来说,我们意识到通过与儿童交往,他们正变得富有生气,其健康也在好转。看着这些老人,很多我原以为已经失去欢笑能力或思想表达能力的人,开始拥抱儿童,跟他们快乐地笑谈,让我们意识到两个有关怀心的人群建立令人感动的关系是多么重要。Maeda Takumi, Kotoen Director INSTITUTIONAL SYNERGY “We found that once the two facilities were joined together, the children began learning how to care for others by talking and being who her older co-residents. We could see that through this experience the children were growing into warm and compassionate human beings. For the elderly, we realized that through her association with the children, They were becoming more alive and their health was improving. Seeing these aged people, many of whom I thought had forgotten how to laugh or even express their thoughts, holding the children and happily talking with them, brought home how important a touching relationship can be between two caring people” Maeda Takumi, Kotoen Director
  58. 58. 举例:机构统筹:东京江户川区老人院与幼儿园相结合An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten. 爷爷给孩子们讲述过去的美好时光 Grandpa talks to the children about the good old days.
  59. 59. 举例:机构统筹:东京江户川区老人院与幼儿园相结合An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten. 儿童为老奶奶画像 The children draw a picture of Grandma.
  60. 60. 举例:机构统筹:东京江户川区老人院与幼儿园相结合An example of Institutional Synergy:Kotoen, Tokyo, Edogawa district combines a home for the elderly and a kindergarten. 儿童帮助照顾老人 The children help take care of Grandma
  61. 61. PROXIMITY of INSTITUTIONS “Civic Buildings should be grouped together……. ‘It has too often been the case, in the history of cities, that their Cultural Institutes have been postponed until adequate sites for them are no longer obtainable. Modern cities (British and American especially) are thus discovering their needs when too late adequately to supply them at great expense, and then in too scattered locations.’ His point is that it was vital to ensure the proximity of these institutes, so as to prevent their mutual forgetfulness, which in time hardens into exclusiveness, and thus to failure of usefulness all round: and just when duly intelligent and understanding andOn January 7, 1913, Abdu’l-Baha sympathetic cooperation are most required.visited the "Outlook Tower”, aneducational institution in Edinburgh, This condition of proximity, and for mutualScotland, guided by the learned interaction, is fundamentally necessary.’scholar, Prof Patrick Geddes. Prof. Helen Meller, Patrick Geddes, Social Evolutionist and City Planner,Geddes gave Abdu’l-Baha a rousing Routledge, 1990, p.280.reception. The Master praised hisenergy and patience.
  62. 62. 市民中心Municipal Government Civic Center Home for the Humanitarian Institutions Elderly Hospital Hospice University / Schools Orphanage The harmony of heavenEarth earth Harmony of Heaven and and
  63. 63. 1.市民中心 : 历史先例CIVIC CENTERS:Historical Precedents2.市民中心 : 社会发展 与社区建设CIVIC CENTERS:Social Development & Community-Building .3.市民中心 : 城市与小镇 规划CIVIC CENTERS:City and Town Planning
  64. 64. 市民中心不同规模的城镇与城市围绕市民中心 + 步行距离的社区之建设概念CIVIC CENTERS:Conceptual plans of towns and citiesof different sizes organizedaround the concept of Civic Centers andPedestrian-Oriented Districts.
  65. 65. 市政府 (26 公顷 ) 大学( 30 公顷) 医院( 15 公顷) 孤儿院( 7 公顷) 旅馆( 7 公顷) 敬老院( 12 公顷)慈善机构( 12 公顷) 一个市级水平的市民中心的典型内涵 , 以 30 万人口的城市为例 Typical Contents of a Municipal Level Civic Center Example: City of 300,000 people
  66. 66. 城市级市民中心 半径 1000 米 面积 314 公顷 Civic Center: City Level R = 1000m. Area 314 h.
  67. 67. 市区级 社区级 半径 R = 250 米 . 半径 R = 175 米 . 21 公顷 . 面积 10 公顷 .半径 R = 1000 米 . 市民中心 : 城市级 , 市区级 , 社区级 面积 314 公顷 . 30 万人口的城市 City of 300,000 people Assumption: Cities will have municipal, district, and community-level Civic Centers The size of each type will be in proportion to the population. Civic Center: Hierarchy of Sizes
  68. 68. 社区级 面积 10 公顷 . 半径 R = 175 米 . 市区级 21 公顷 .半径 R = 250 米 . Civic Center at District and Community Levels
  69. 69. 以步行为导向的便捷社区规模的计算Calculation of Convenient Community (POD) Size POD= Pedestrian-oriented District
  70. 70. “Walking” POD Community Assumption: People will need convenient access to the Civic Center. An easy 10minute walk to the center, a distance of about 400 meters, defines a 50 hectare landarea. Using a typical Chinese urban residential density of 200 people per hectare, we get a population of 10,000 people. The Civic Center can be reached by everyone without the use of cars or public transport, inside this Pedestrian-Oriented District (POD). Community Level Mashriqu’l-Adkar at the center of a “Walking” POD community
  71. 71. Two City Centers Civic Center CBD步行距离的社区 + 市民中心最小型的市民中心应建在步行范围内街区的中心地带,每个人都能很容易地到达。这种小区市民中心的数量达到一定程度,就将形成一个城镇或市区的市民中心。当市区的数量达到一定程度时,就可能形成市级的市民中心。如此即可形成两极点式的城镇或城市:一个极点是以社会发展为核心的市民中心,另一个极点是以商务为中心的商务区。Civic Centers and PODs• The smallest Civic Center is at the heart of an 800 meter diameter Pedestrian-Oriented District (POD)allowing the Center to be within easy reach of everyone.• When there are enough PODs to make a Town or a District of a City; it, in turn, has a Town or DistrictLevel Civic Center.• When there are enough Districts, it is possible to create a municipal level Civic Center.• The result is a bi-polar town or city with the Civic Center focused on social development and the CBDfocused on business and commerce.
  72. 72. “Walking” POD CommunityDistrict-LevelCivic Center 40,000 people Four “Walking” Communities and a District-Level Civic Center
  73. 73. “Walking” CommunityDistrict-LevelCivic Center Municipal-Level Civic Center 220,000 people Five Districts and a Municipal-Level Civic Center
  74. 74. 市区级市民中心 步行导向型市区的市民中心城市级市民中心 集中的商务区 Concentrated CBD 30 万人口的城市 垃圾处理 City of 300,000 people organized around Civic Centers and PODS
  75. 75. 市区级市民中心 District-level 步行导向型市区的市民中心 Civic Center Community-level Civic Center城市级市民中心 Municipal-level Civic Center 城市绿色空间网络 垃圾处理 City of 300,000 people organized around Civic Centers and PODS
  76. 76. 街区市民中心 步行导向型市区的市民中心 街区 步行导向型市区 城市级市民中心 市区市民中心 30 万人口的城市一个围绕着市民中心安排的城市的概念性规划A conceptual plan of a city organized around Civic Centers
  77. 77. 快速直达环路 快速直达干道 居住 商业 市民中心 水面 工业 都市农业 人口在 30 万以上城市的交通概念规划Transportation Concept Plan for a city of 300,000 people
  78. 78. Managed Growth: An original town becomes a District of the new City; original villages become Communities within a new District可控增长:一个现有的城镇发展成为一个新城市的社区;现在的村庄发展成为一个新市区里的小区。 District Heavy Industry Civic Center 市民中心小区及 Industry 1 Heavy 1,2,3,4 原来都是村庄 1,2,3, and 4 4 市民中心 城市级 2 are Original Villages Original City Civic Town Center Urban Forest Heavy Industry CBD 3 步行距离的社区 + 市民中心 Walking-Distance Community with Civic Center 例子:七个新市区、一个现有市区(白色)和一个城市级市民中心 Example: Seven New Districts, One Existing District (white) and a City-Level Civic Center
  79. 79. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  80. 80. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  81. 81. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  82. 82. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  83. 83. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  84. 84. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  85. 85. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  86. 86. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  87. 87. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  88. 88. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  89. 89. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  90. 90. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  91. 91. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  92. 92. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  93. 93. Walking-Distance Community with Mashriqu’l-Adkar Industry Town Mashriqu’l-AdkarUrban Forest
  94. 94. 步行距离的社区 + 市民中心 Walking-Distance Community with Civic Center CBD Heavy Industry 市民中心小区及 Town Civic Center Urban Forest 小镇 / 区:四个社区和一个区级市民中 心Small Town / District : Four Communities and a District-Level Civic Center
  95. 95. 市民中心小区及 Industry Town Civic Center CBD CBD Urban Forest Walking-Distance Community with POD Civic Center 步行距离的社区 + 市民中心 Yuan Shang Du 大城镇 / 小城市:二个市区,每市区各有一个市民中心Large Town / Small City: Two Districts each with District-Level Civic Center
  96. 96. 可控增长:一个现有的城镇发展成为一个新城市的社区;现在的村庄发展成为一个新市区里的小区。Managed Growth: An original town becomes a District; original villages become Communities within a District Heavy Industry Original town becomes CBD CBD Original village becomes a POD 市民中心 城市级 Heavy City Civic Industry Center Walking-Distance Community with Civic Center 步行距离的社区 + 市民中心 District Civic Center Urban Forest 市民中心小区及 城市:六个市区和一个城市级市民中心 City: Six Districts and a City-Level Civic Center
  97. 97. 步行距离的社区 + 市民中心 Walking-Distance Community with Civic Center 市民中心小区及District Civic Center 市民中心 City Civic Center Urban Forest Heavy Industry 城市:十二个市区和一个城市级市民中心 City: Twelve Districts and a City-Level Civic Center
  98. 98. 市民中心小区及 步行距离的社区 + 市民中心District Civic Center Walking-Distance Community with Civic Center 市民中心 City Civic Center CBD CBD Urban Forest 城市:十二个市区和一个城市级市民中心 City: Twelve Districts and a City-Level Civic Center
  99. 99. 围绕市民中心安排的一组人群定居点A Group of Human Settlements organized around Civic Centers
  100. 100. 谢谢 ! Thank you!

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