Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (Azerbaijani: آذربایجان Azərbaycan) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Its bounded by Caspian Sea to the east, Russias Daghestan region to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia and Turkey to the southwest, and Iran to the south. Azerbaijan is a home to various ethnicities, majority of which are Azerbaijani, a Turkic ethnic group which numbers close to 9 million in the independent Republic of Azerbaijan.
During Median and Persian rule, many Caucasian Albanians adopted Zoroastrianism and then switched to Christianity prior to coming of Muslim Arabs and more importantly Muslim Turks. The Turkic tribes are believed to have arrived as small bands of ghazis whose conquests led to the Turkification of the population as largely native Caucasian and Iranian tribes adopted the Turkic language of the Oghuz and converted to Islam over a period of several hundred years. After more than 80 years of colonization under the Russian empire in the Caucasus, the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was established in 1918. The state was invaded by Soviet forces in 1920 and remained under Soviet rule until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
Music of Azerbaijan builds on folk traditions that reach back nearly 1,000 years. For centuries Azerbaijani music has evolved under the badge of monody, producing rhythmically diverse melodies.Azerbaijani music has a branchy mode system, where chromatisation of major and minor scales is of great importance. As is the case also with Arabic and Turkish and even more evidently, much of the musical terminology of Azerbaijani cultures is of Persian origin.
The classical music of Azerbaijan is called mugam (more accurately spelled muğam), and draws on the music of the Iranian-Arab-Turkish maqam. It is usually a suite with poetry and instrumental interludes. The sung poetry sometimes includes tahrir segments, which use a form of singing similar to yodelling. The poetry is typically about divine love and is most often linked to Sufi Islam.Mugam created in ancient Iran territory and developed in Azerbaijan republic and Iran Azerbaijan provinces since Safavid(The most branch of mugam which called by bayat(like bayat-e- kurd,bayate-shiraz, bayat-e-turk...)created by an Azerbaijani tradition(Bayat which have music talents)in different provinces of Iran like kurdisatn, shiraz, isfahan. The most of royal musicians in palaces of ancient Iran kings in provinces were Bayat and there is no relation between Persian and mugam because of different morality and life philosophy between Persians and ancient Iran traditions. Azerbaijan has a wide range of music and music styles but the most popular is rap music. In 2011, Azerbaijan won the Eurovision song contest by rap. In contrast to the mugam traditions of Central Asian countries, Azeri mugam is more free-form and less rigid; it is often compared to the improvised field of rap. 
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National clothes of Azerbaijan are the result of material and moral culture of the peoplewho lived through numerous difficulties in their lives. Closely associated with the historyof people, the clothes are one of the most important sources in the investigation ofculture of that people. Clothes mainly reflect the national peculiarities and ethnicattributes of people. Clothes play a great role in solution of the matters regardingethnogeny, they help to settle the problems of cultural-historical relations and mutualinfluence between the folks. They depend on the level of the development of naturaleconomy and geographical conditions.
The history of folk creation, ethnographicand artistic qualities find their reflection onthe clothes. This peculiarity is revealed inclothes of different form and in theirdecorations, art needlework and weaving.During archeological digs in the territory ofAzerbaijan the archeologists found outbronze needle and awl referred to thebeginning of the bronze age (III millenniumb.c.). Those findings prove that, the ancientAzerbaijanis could sew for themselves.Small clay statutes found in Kultepe (the 2ndmillennium BC) and barmagchills sealsfound in Mingechevir (V century BC) providesome information about the style of clothesduring that period. Silk clothes found inMingachevir catacombs are referred to theV-VI centuries AD. A number of goldenaccessories and plates made of clay in theform of shoe found in Azerbaijan andreferred to the III-IV centuries b. c. provethat Azerbaijanis have ancient materialculture.
The Culture of Azerbaijan has developedunder influence under Turkish , Islamicand European cultures, includingCaucasian and Turkic heritage as well asRussian influences due to its formerstatus as a Soviet republic. Today,western influences, including globalizedconsumer culture, are strong.
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Nizami Ganjavi (Persian: نظامی ;گنجویKurdish: Nîzamî Gencewî, , نیزامی گهنجهویNezāmi-ye Ganjavi; Azerbaijani: Nizami Gəncəvi, ;1411 نظامی گنجویto 1209),Nizami Ganjei, Nizami, or Nezāmi (Persian: ,)نظامیwhose formal name was Niẓām ad-Dīn Abū Muḥammad Ilyās ibn-Yūsuf ibn-Zakkī, was a 12th- centuryPersian poet. Nezāmi is considered the greatest romantic epic poet in Persian literature, who brought a colloquial and realistic style to the Persian epic. His heritage is widely appreciated and shared by Afghanistan, Azerbaijan,Iran, Kurdistan region and Tajikisan.
The Baku Ateshgah (from Persian: آتشگاه Atashgāh > Azerbaijani: Atəşgah) or "Fire Temple" is a castle-like ancient Hindu religious structure in Surakhani, a suburb of greater Baku, Azerbaijan. "Atash" (( آتشis the Persian word for fire. The pentagonal complex, which has a courtyard surrounded by cells for monks and a tetrapillar- altar in the middle, was built during the 17th and 18th centuries. It was abandoned after 1883 when oil and gas plants were established in the vicinity. The complex was turned into a museum in 1975 and now receives 15,000 visitors a year. It was nominated for World Heritage Site status in 1998 and was declared a state historical- architectural reserve by decree of the Azeri President on 19 December 2007.