QED528: Educational Psychology PBL Presentation Scenario 2 Group Members: HoSi Hui Pragalath S/O Sadasivam RenukaSelvaRajoo ShirinBinteShaikMuhyideen Ting Zheng Xi Jason
Problem statements/issues 1) Lack of intrinsic motivation 2) Low self-esteem 3)Lack of social development
Problem area 1: Teachers
Theories to explain for Jeremy's lack of self-esteem: Attribution Theory (Weiner, 1979) Concept of "attribution" The attributions are more related to one’s (past) experiences Theory suggests that people attribute success/failure to 4 factors: ability & effort (dispositional) luck & difficulty (situational) Cause of failure: Jeremy’s teachers: attributed his failure to his lack of effort(internal). Jeremy himself: attributed his failure to his ability (external). http://faculty.weber.edu/pstewart/6030/6030.html
AT applied to JEREMY’s case
Mr Tan: So, you are the odd one out againhuh, Jeremy.
Ms Low: What is wrong with you? The rest of the class don't give me any problems. You are the only one!I get complaints from every subject teacher that you don't pay attention in class! Why can't you be like the others?
Teachers as contributing component: through harsh/insensitive comments, reinforces his poor self-perception over time “It's me. Me only. I am a problem. I am the only one with problems.” Jeremy http://www.cartoonstock.com/directory/t/thought_bubble_gifts.asp
AT applied to JEREMY’s case Jeremy's poor academic performance also perpetuates his low self-esteem & perceptions of his own academic ability Idea of "stability" (Weiner et al., 1983) Failure ascribed to a stable cause like low ability will lead to decreased motivation (Tan et al., 2011p.336) "Pygmalion Effect" (Rosenthal and Jacobson, 1968) "I already tried so hard but I still cannot perform. Maybe I really just can't do it."
Problem Area 2: Peers
Importance of Peers Erikson's Psychosocial Development (Tan, et al 2010) Identity VS Role Confusion (Adolescence, 12 to 18 years) Point of Reference: Peer (conformity & social acceptance) Cohesive sense of self in social groups
Children who are rejected by their peers, who experience more loneliness and social isolation, are more likely to become disaffected from academic activities and eventually leave school. (Sage& Kindermann, 1999). Importance of Peers
Importance of Peers “Peers are the most potent influence on their [students’] day-to-day behaviors in school (e.g., how much time they spend on homework, if they enjoy coming to school each day, how they behave in the classroom)” (Steinberg, Dornbusch, and Brown 1992, p.727)
Importance of Peers Adolescents who reported higher felt security with their peers also showed higher identity integration and general self-esteem. (Ryan et al, 1994)
Jeremy:Rejected Peer Status
Jeremy: A Rejected Peer Jeremy ostracized in class because he is different (e.g. rich) and does not participate in class events. Relational aggressive behaviour: Teasing, ridiculing, ignoring Jeremy
Maslow Hierarchy of NeedsBelonging Needs Jeremy wished he could leave the class immediately. He has never felt that he belonged here. Then again, he has never felt that he belonged anywhere. He is so used to being alone. During recess time, he would always sit and eat alone.
Jeremy: A Rejected Peer Classmates ridicule Jeremy when he makes mistakes
Maslow Hierarchy of NeedsEsteem Needs Self-esteem Esteem Jeremy gets from his peers Feels inferior, weak, helpless and worthless
Jeremy: A Rejected Peer Inadequate social skills: inability to interact and get along with others
Jeremy: A Rejected Peer Loneliness: Sharing his problems with Dino, his toy dinosaur Withdrawn: Refuses to participate in group discussion despite Misha’s continued attempts Reactive aggressive Behaviour: against teacher, after she embarrassed him in front of the whole class.
Problem Area 3: Parents The Impact of Parenting Styles on Student Motivation and Self Esteem
Parenting Styles Motivation Self-Esteem Jeremy’s Case
Parenting Styles Baumrind’s Theory : Authoritarian Authoritative Permissive
Impact of Parenting Style on Student motivation Parental Involvement: “the extent to which a parent is dedicated to, takes an interest in, is knowledgeable about, and is actively participating in the child’s life” (Hoang, 2007: 3) Greatly impacts a child’s school experience (Coleman and McNeese, 2009). Affects the academic achievement of children (Pomerantz et al, 2007).
Impact of Parenting Style on Student motivation Authoritarian parents Children are more extrinsically motivated. Permissive parents Children are less motivated and independent. Authoritative parents Children are more intrinsically motivate, as they feel that they have greater control over their education (Hoang, 2007)
Impact of Parenting Styles on Student’s Self-Esteem Parental involvement affects the academic achivement of their children. Parenting styles influence the self-esteem of students. (Smith, 2006) Authoritative parents Higher self-esteem Authoritarian parents Lower Self Esteem Permissive Parents Lower Self Esteem
Jeremy’s Case Parenting Style: Authoritarian Demanding – Jeremy has to produce good academic results. Excessive control over Jeremy’s life Not emotionally responsive
Jeremy’s Case Authoritarian Parents Lack of Motivation Low Self-Esteem
Problem Area 4: Self The Impact of Self on Student Motivation and Self Esteem
Identity Diffusion: Marcia’s Identity Status Theory Low self esteem Willing to accept an identity given to him by others forming an identity of himself as an outcast and a good-for-nothing Self-fulfilling prophecy influenced by teachers, peers and parents
Identity Diffusion: Marcia’s Identity Status Theory Lack of ideological and vocational direction reflects apathy and a lack of concern about directing his present and future life passive and affective: remains quiet and unresponsive despite the taunts of his friends Reclusive: chooses not to interact with his friends or any human beings in general but his soft toy instead
Identity Diffusion: Marcia’s Identity Status Theory Cognitive Performance No differences in intelligence across identity statuses Exhibits withdrawal in the face of challenges Impulsive behaviour which could translate into poor academic achievement
Erikson’s Psychosocial Development Theory Industry and Inferiority/ Identity and Role Confusion Jeremy’s psychosocial development has been adversely affected by stages of his life there may be problems/failures in his childhood during the age of 7 to 11 that has caused him to feel inferior This may subsequently result in his lack of self-esteem and self-worth
Robins and Trzesniewski(2005)
Solutions - Teachers Teachers can try to be more understanding of Jeremy's situation (introvert, low self-esteem), + Be more sensitive (more cautious when making comments and remarks), + Be more encouraging (good guess, Jeremy but this may not be the best answer. do you want to give it another try?) recognize his efforts at trying.
Solutions - Peers Teacher to talk to Jeremy’s classmates Opportunities for cooperative learning: assign groups Establish rules governing acceptable classroom behaviour
Solutions - Parents Counselling for the parents Suggest ways in which they can adopt a more authoritative parenting style, instead of an authoritarian one. Give Jeremy greater autonomy and independence Boost his self-esteem Lower their expectations of his academic performance
Solutions - Parents Reduce his tuition and give him more time to spend on non-academic activities Parents have to spend more time with Jeremy. Parents should have more positive beliefs about Jeremy’s potential.
Solutions - Self Give Jeremy counseling on the following How to socialize with other people Studying strategies
References Abrams, K., Theberge S.K. and Orv C.K. (2005), Children and Adolescents Who Are Depressed: An Ecological Approach. Professional School Counseling (8)3, pp. 284-92. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1974). Developmental research, public policy, and the ecology of childhood (1974). Child Development, 45, pp. 1-5. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments by Nature and Design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Coleman, B., McNeese, M.N. (2009) From home to school: The relationship among parental involvement, student motivation, and academic motivation, International Journal of Learning, 16 (7), pp. 459-470. Cote, J.E. and Schwartz, S.J. (2002) Comparing psychological and sociological approaches to identity: identity status, identity capital, and the individualization process. Journal of Adolescence, 25, pp. 571–586.
References Dede P. & John R. (2001). Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory Retrieved from: pt3.nl.edu/paquetteryanwebquest.pdf [Assessed on 20 September 2011] Hoang, T.N. (2007) The relations between parents and adolescent motivation, International Journal of Whole Schooling, 3 (2), pp. 1-21. Huitt, W. (2007). Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from: http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/regsys/maslow.html[Assessed on 20 September 2011] Karkkainen, R., Raty, H. and Kasanen, K. (2011). 'Parents' Perceptions of the Malleability of their child's Academic Competencies', Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, Vol.55(3), pp.213-224. Marcia, J.E. (1980) Identity in Adolescence. In: Adelson, J. (ed.) Handbook of Adolescent Psychology, New York: Wiley and Sons, pp. 159-187.
References Maslow, A. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. McArthur, J. (2011). '"What Happened?" Teaching Attribution Theory through Ambiguous Prompts', Communication Teacher, Vol.25(1), pp.32-36. McDougall, P., Hymel, S., Vaillancourt, T., & Mercer, L. (2001). The consequences of childhood rejection. In M. R. Leary (Ed.), Interpersonal rejection. (pp. 213-247). New York, NY: Oxford University Press. Pomerantz, E.M., Moorman, E.A. & Litwack, S.D. (2007) The How, Whom and Why of Parental Involvement in Children’s Academic Lives, Review of Educational Research, 77 (3), pp. 373-410. Robins, R.W. and Trzesniewski, K.H. (2005) Self-esteem development across the lifespan. Current Directions in Psychological Science,14(3), pp. 158-162.
References Ryan, R. M., Stiller, J. D., & Lynch, J. H. (1994). Representations of relationships to teachers, parents, and friends as predictors of academic motivation and self-esteem. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, pp. 226 –249. Sage, N. A., & Kindermann, T. A. (1999). Peer networks, behavior contingencies, and children’s engagement in the classroom. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 45, pp. 143–171. Smith, G.J. (2006) Parenting effects on self efficacy and self-esteem in Late Adolescence and how those factors impact adjustment into college. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Eastern Psychological Association (78th, Philadelphia, PA, March 23-25, 2007. Steinberg, L., Dornbusch, S. M., & Brown, B. B. (1992). Ethnic differences in adolescent achievement. American Psychologist, 47, pp. 723–729. Tan, O.S., Parsons, R.D., Hinson, S.L. and Sardo-Brown, D. (2011). Educational Psychology: A Practitioner-Researcher Approach An Asian Edition (2nd Ed). Singapore: Thomson, pp.333-339.
References Weiner, B. (1972). Theories of Motivation: From mechanism to cognition. Chicago: Rand McNally. Weiner, B., Graham, S., Taylor, S. and Meyer, W. (1983). Social Cognition in the classroom, Educational Psychologist, Vol.18, pp..109-104. Williams, K. D., Joseph P. F., William von H. (2005). The Social Outcast: Ostracism, Social Exclusion, Rejection, and Bullying. Psychology Press.