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Training on Competency-Based Behavioural Interview (CBBI)

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The purpose of this training report is to discuss the design, delivery and evaluation of a training session based on personnel recruitment using the Competency Based Behavioural Interview process ...

The purpose of this training report is to discuss the design, delivery and evaluation of a training session based on personnel recruitment using the Competency Based Behavioural Interview process (CBBI).

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Training on Competency-Based Behavioural Interview (CBBI) Training on Competency-Based Behavioural Interview (CBBI) Document Transcript

  • MSc. Occupational & Organisational PsychologyTraining & DevelopmentTraining on Competency-Based Behavioural Interview (CBBI)Written by:Paula Oates Alison Kingston Roland Teye Maria McNally Eirini KarafyllidouSupervised by: Mark HollowaySubmission Date: 28/ 04/ 2008<br />TABLE OF CONTENTS<br />Executive Summary ...........................................................................................3<br />Introduction ........................................................................................................5 <br />Design & Materials ........................................................................................... 9<br />Delivery ............................................................................................................ 12<br />Evaluation .........................................................................................................14<br />References .........................................................................................................18<br />Appendix I (Training Session Plan) ................................................................20<br />Appendix II (Handout A PowerPoint Presentation).......................................21 <br />Appendix III (Handout B) ................................................................................34<br />Appendix IV (Evaluation Questionnaire Sample) ..........................................40<br />Appendix V (Evaluation Questionnaire Results) ...........................................42<br />Appendix VI (CD Recording of the Session) ..................................................44<br />EXECUTIVE SUMMARY<br />Purpose of the Report<br />The purpose of this training report is to discuss the design, delivery and evaluation of a training session based on personnel recruitment using the Competency Based Behavioural Interview process (CBBI).<br />Context<br />The interview is one of the most popular tools for recruitment throughout the world (Ferris, Berkson & Harris, 2002). Interviews are a flexible tool, they can be structured with predetermined items and questions, or they can have a more relaxed format (Searle, 2003). In both public and private sectors, the interview is usually one of the final and most critical stages of recruitment (Cook, 1998). The interview is usually the deciding factor of which the applicant is given the job. Therefore, using the right interview technique is expected to provide the greatest amount of knowledge about each applicant, and can limit the likelihood of wrong person-job fit which can have huge organisational and financial implications if the wrong candidate is selected (Cooper and Anderson, 2002). <br />This was an area that The Rivers Hospital indicated they could improve on, therefore, the training session was aimed at training the staff to use the CBBI process. This is because CBBI can produce assessments of applicants that are shown to be reliable and highly associated with success as an executive (McClelland, 1998).<br />Training Method<br />Training was delivered to the management team of The Rivers Hospital through a one hour training session which involved the use of PowerPoint, flip charts, handouts and role play to enhance the learning ability and recall of the staff. The training session was constructed using the following key stages<br />The Rivers Hospital advised that they would like training to take place to enhance staff interviewing techniques.<br />Research was conducted using the internet, University Library, and relevant academic journals.<br />The fundamental ethos of the CBBI was the foundation on which the training session was designed and delivered.<br />Evaluation of Training<br />The training session had a positive outcome for both the trainers and trainees. This was for a variety of reasons, some of which are listed below;<br />The techniques used in the training session allowed the trainees to learn in a way that they create links and associations themselves which makes training much more effective than just lecturing at people (Downs and Perry, 1984).<br />For example, visual imagery was used. People can use mental images of the study outline to organise, retrieve and perform tasks (Purdy and Luepnitz, 1982).<br />The material of the training session was delivered in chunks, aiding trainee understanding and memory retention of the material.<br />The training session was highly structured; limiting the impact that IQ can have on a person’s learning ability.<br />However, evaluating the impact of the training session can be problematic. Although ‘happy sheets’ were used to evaluate the training session, their findings can be misleading. For example, 92% of trainees indicated that they enjoyed the training session. However, Arnold (2005) suggests that this may simply be due to the trainees enjoying a break from their usual routine.<br />It can also be problematic to assess how much knowledge the trainee has gained as assessing the trainees gained knowledge about CBBI would have to take place over a number of months, would have to include observable changes, and could be affected by external factor, for example, trainee maturation.<br />INTRODUCTION<br />The ever-increasing competitiveness of the working environment today’s companies are facing together with few the need of trained individuals who are able to perform a job more effectively, the demand for training is greater. Arnold, (2005) argues that that training is an effective way of positively changing behaviour of individuals in the workplace and therefore ‘training activities are now a continual feature of organisational life’ (pp. 358). This report aims to describe the design, delivery and evaluation of a short training session relevant to the process of personnel selection.<br />A recently developed interview technique, the Competency-Based Behavioural Interview (CBBI), was presented to a team of managers at a hospital located in Hertfordshire. No training needs analysis preceded this intervention, as would normally be the case, because the client’s request was specifically to inform the managers on the latest interview methods. Therefore, the training intervention was designed to help the organisation enhance the personnel selection methods currently used by introducing a more advantageous alternative, that being the CBBI process. <br />Personnel selection methods- The Interview<br />Among the most popular assessment methods for selection or placement purposes is the interview (Newel & Tansley, 2001). There exist different types of interview (for example, structured/ unstructured, conventional/ behaviour- based) and each may assess very different competencies and skills (Moscoso, 2000). Moreover, the criterion- related validity (In the case of personnel selection, the relevant criteria are usually indicators of job success) for each is not the same. Traditional unstructured interviews have been used so far to help form a general impression about the candidate. They were serving merely a purpose of discussing with the candidate about the particular position and the organisation in general. Many unrelated to the job questions could be asked for getting ‘a feel’ for the candidate, rather than assessing her suitability for the job with relation to the specific requirements of the advertised post (Porteous, 1997). Contrasting this, structured interviews are preceded with a detailed job analysis and subsequent identification of specific requirements for a post, based on which the structure of the interview is formed. Interviewer bias is reduced with the standardisation of the questions. Furthermore, there is consistent evidence that structured interviews give better criterion- related validity than unstructured interviews (Huffcut & Arthur, 1994). <br />The Situational interview<br />For interviews of highly structured format, the situational interview approach was developed (Latham, Saari, Pursell & Campion, 1980). The basic assumption behind this approach is that intentions and behaviour are related. Initially behaviours, critical for successful performance, are identified by using the critical incidents technique through the phase of a systematic job analysis. Later, target behaviours are translated into questions about hypothetical but relevant to the job situations. ‘Template’ answers to each question are created against which the candidate’s answers are compared and evaluated. <br />In this way interviewer bias is lessened, since the function of the structure is to focus the interviewer’s attention and judgement on particularly salient features, so that candidate attributes that are irrelevant to job success do not interfere and influence decision making in terms of employee selection. Research studies indicate that situational interviewing has high predictive validity, for example, Salgado (1999) reported an average coefficient of .50. <br />The Competency-Based Behavioural Interview<br />A variant of the situational interview is the behavioural description interview (Janz, 1982). In contrast to the situational interview which requires that candidate answer questions in terms of how they might have behaved, the behavioural description interview requires them to explain how they actually behaved in the past when they encountered particular incidents. The basic assumption here is that past behaviour predicts future behaviour; therefore a candidate’s future job performance could be estimated with adequate accuracy by assessing their past performance on relevant tasks. Moreover, the difficulties of translating job requirements into personal attributes and characteristics (when using the traditional approach to personnel selection), can be minimised by using the ‘competency analysis’. Competencies are not underlying attributes (e.g. openness) that lead to behaviours; neither are they the outcomes of behaviours. They are understood as ‘behaviours that are instrumental in the delivery of desired results and outcomes’ (Robertson, Bartram & Callinan, 2002). For example, ‘accepting innovation’ is a competency that involves identifying new solutions to old problems. Therefore, with ‘competency analysis’ the focus is on naming observable behaviours that are necessary for performing successfully and not on tasks, roles and responsibilities as is the case with the traditional approach. Another advantage of the CBBI is that the candidates who did not actually exhibit a specific behaviour in the past would find it very difficult to invent one. <br />The training session reported here provided information to the trainees on the whole process of selection, from planning to assessing candidates to making and validating hiring decisions. The process described aims at constructing a competency model for a specific type of job at a particular organisation. It is, therefore, highly context dependent and being customised to the specific needs of a particular organisation. <br />Interview planning phase<br />Stages of the planning phase were identified as follows:<br />Developing a competency profile. Initially, current job incumbents of known performance levels are asked to provide information about situations of good or bad performance (critical incident technique, Flanagan, 1954). Responses from ‘high performers’ as well as ‘low or average performers’ are then compared and differences in responses in terms of competencies used by the incumbents are identified. The competencies directly associated with the high performers are those that constitute the set of ‘target competencies’ required for the specific post in the same organisation. Sample replies from incumbents who are known to be at different levels of overall job performance help by producing a competency model (Maile & Brooks, 2000). The replies of candidates will be assessed on each of the model’s relevant dimensions. <br />Developing a standardised rating scale. A Likert –type rating scale is developed and its standardisation is again based on the level of a particular competency that the ‘high performers’ are exhibiting. For example, if current job incumbents who are assessed as ‘high performers’ perform successfully with an average or low competency of ‘communicating ’, then this average or low level will be used as a point of reference. Candidate employees for the same post will be assessed against this point of reference and will therefore need to have that specific competency of the same average or low level. In other words, a low level is acceptable since the current ‘high performers’ of the organisation have low levels of the same and yet they perform successfully. <br />Designing open- ended questions. Open- ended questions that target the critical competencies identified at the first stage are formed. For example, for testing the competency of ‘communicating’ an appropriate question would be: ‘Give me an example of a difficult or sensitive situation that required extensive communication. What did you do and what was the outcome?’ <br />Assessing candidates<br />The assessing candidates phase involves using the aforementioned competency model, for deciding on the suitability or the ‘person- job fit’ for each candidate. The competency model for a particular position consists of a set of certain competencies exhibited by the ‘high performers’ at a certain level for successful job performance. The candidates’ competencies will be assessed against this model whose levels of certain competencies are similar or close to those indicated by the model will be hired. <br />Validation of the assessment<br />The CBBI process can be validated by using external interviewers of incumbents without being informed of who the ‘high’ and ‘average or low’ performers are. If the interviewer differentiates ‘high performers’ from ‘average or low performers’ based on the model produced in previous stages, then it can be considered as a valid tool to be used for personnel selection purposes.<br />Lastly, the selection of the CBBI (against other interview approaches) to be introduced to the clients was based on a review of the following standard criteria for using personnel selection methods (Robertson, Bartram & Callinan, 2002): <br />1. ‘Selection methods should provide information about the qualities that have been identified as important for the job’ (pp.116). With CBBI the likelihood of irrelevant information distorting the assessment is minimised. Assessment is based only on the type and level of specific competencies a candidate is required to possess. <br />2. ‘Assessments based on the method should be indicative of candidate’s likely job success.’ (pp.116). The predictive validity could be as high as .39 (Ballantyne & Povah, 2004).<br />3. ‘The information about candidates produced by a method should not be unfairly influenced by characteristics that are not relevant to job success.’ (pp.116). Again, the selection decision is based only on the extent to which a candidate possesses desirable (as identified from the particular competency model) competencies. All candidates are assessed on the same standard criteria. <br />4. ‘The method should be acceptable to candidates and consistent with the organisation’s norms and values.’ (pp.116). Face validity of the CBBI is high since the questions asked are related to the said position. <br />DESIGN & MATERIALS <br />For the purposes of the present training programme, the following materials were used: <br />A. Training Session Plan (Appendix I). It served to inform the trainees of what will they should expect of the session and when. This was aimed at reducing the amount of expectation and anxiety of the trainees. <br />B. PowerPoint Presentation (Handout A, Appendix II) to:<br />maintain the focus of trainees<br />reinforce key components of verbal messages<br />illustrate complex concepts <br />aid trainees’ comprehension <br /> The presentation incorporated 40 slides in total. ‘Chunking’ was employed in the training design as research suggests that the amount of information short memory can hold is seven plus or minus two items at a time (Miller, 1956). It has also been indicated that, when a second channel (imagery) is added to what people hear, their retention goes up 50 per cent whereas hearing was found to only produce 20 per cent retention (Beebe & Beebe, 1997). Human information processing theories like Paivio’s Dual Coding Theory can be used as bases to explain the influence PowerPoint has on learning and retention. Paivio (1987) suggested that there are two subsystems of information processing; imagery and verbal. Furthermore, Peeks (1987) found that, when pictures and text are presented together, the level of information retention is improved. Due to the fact that people have different cognitive abilities, it was important to structure the presentation in other to ensure that, equal learning took place (structured help). The PowerPoint presentation illustrated information in a hierarchical order which allowed for structured learning, together with the use of colour, and graphics. People can use mental images of the study outline to organize, retrieve and perform task. Purdy and Luepnitz’s (1982) research showed that participants who looked at images had significantly greater recall than those who just saw words. Their research amongst other forms the bases for the inclusion of images in a PowerPoint slides presentation. <br />C. Flip Chart<br />Flip charts are one of the very useful tools available to trainers. They may aid learning through capturing comments from the trainees, focusing on the key thoughts, highlighting information, demonstrating reference for later use and are often used to enable the trainers to write and display their thoughts during the session. <br />The use of the flip chart was necessary as the training group wanted the trainees to be involved in the session. The flip chart was used to elaborate on important points in accordance with the suggestion that elaboration enriches encoding, which ultimately aids retention and recall (Craik and Tulving, 1975).<br /> <br />D. Handouts<br />Handouts where given to the present trainees to allow them to practice and to use them for revision purposes following the session. The participants had two sets of handouts, handout A (Appendix II) served as a learning guide containing all PowerPoint slides used.<br />It also included a step by step manual on how to conduct the Competency-based Behavioural Interview (CBBI) together with an exercise to assess the level of understanding of the trainees in relation to the competencies within a particular role. Handout A also included tips for the trainees to remember when employing CBBI. Handout B (Appendix III) incorporated a list of competencies and open questions recommended to be asked when conducting a Competency-based Behavioural Interview. All this information was made available to the trainees ensuring that learning and retention took place.<br />E. Evaluation Questionnaire<br />To assess the impact of the training session, an Evaluation Questionnaire (Appendix IV) was used consisting of six questions incorporating a Likert-type rating scale along with other questions, which required written input from the trainees. The present trainees where asked to select the level to which they agree, disagree or remained neutral. For example, “The training session was a positive experience”, the trainees were asked to indicate to what extent they agreed with the statement. The results of the evaluation were used to assess the value of the training programme and to identify future improvements.<br />F. Role Play<br />For the purposes of demonstrating undesired behaviour at interviews, role play was employed the present training session using role play aimed at improving the retention and recall levels of the present trainees as it included both verbal and visual information. The role play also intended to illustrate the idea of interviewing in a more accessible way. <br />This was based on the fact that elaboration enriches encoding of information, which results in better retention and recall rates. The role play was also used to raise the arousal levels of the participants as the present training session was in the afternoon, when the trainees’ arousal levels are known to be low. It was important to keep the trainees attention focused on the programme and the inclusion of some comedy within the role play enabled this. <br />G. Stationery<br />Stationery was provided for the trainees to aid their completion of the various exercises in the hand book and enabled them to take notes during the training session. Note taking is often regarded as a learning aid and is known to help encoding according to Martin and Carlson (2007). Encoding specificity refers to the way we encode information as it determines our ability to retrieve this information later.<br />H. Dictaphone<br />As a requirement, the group had to produce evidence of the training session taking place. A dictaphone was used to record the training session for these purposes. Trainees’ fully informed consent for video recording the session was sought before the session commenced. <br />DELIVERY <br />“Training activities are designed to bring about changes in people’s behaviour through the <br /> acquisition of knowledge and skills, therefore the way in which the training is delivered has <br /> an important impact upon the extent to which the knowledge and skills are acquired.”<br />Arnold (2005), pp. 364<br />The training session took place at the client’s organisation. As suggested by Arnold (2005), the trainers stated the programme’s objectives at the start of the session by saying ‘OK, so the objectives of the training are…’(Appendix VI- CD Recording of the Session). <br />Rapport<br />Rapport was established through the trainers’ introduction followed by asking the trainees to introduce themselves and state their position upon arrival ‘So, if you just tell me your names and what your position is in the company.’ (Appendix VI- CD Recording of the Session) thus making the trainees feel included encouraging them to take part in the training session. <br />Structured Help<br />The present trainers ensured that the all trainees start from the same level of CBBI knowledge by structuring the delivery of the programme in a hierarchical manner with the lowest to the highest level of learning. This facilitated all types of the trainees’ cognitive ability. The trainers achieved this by starting the session with ‘what is CBBI? Who already knows about CBBI?’ (Appendix … CD Recording of the Session). This served to established the trainees’ level of knowledge. A full explanation of CBBI followed ensuring that all trainees started from the same point. This approach is also recommended by Arnold (2005). <br />Social Learning Theory (SLT)<br />Although there is now generally accepted theory of learning in psychology (Arnold, 2005), the present training programme delivery employed Social Learning Theory (SLT) where ‘key cognitive processes, such as expectancies about what might happen and the capacity of individuals to learn without direct experience, are seen as having a crucial role to play in learning’ (Arnold, 2005, p. 366). <br />SLT incorporates three distinct stages. First stage is normally used to attract trainees’ attention through performing the target behaviour. This was done by role play focusing on good and bad behaviour concerning CBBI technique. <br />In the second stage, learning takes place through the trainees’ observation. Here the present trainers presented the CBBI model and its use ‘…in order to use CBBI, you need to…’ (Appendix VI- CD Recording of the Session). The trainers drew key points from their modelling. <br />The third stage of SLT concentrates on the trainees’ learning strengthening through practice and rehearsal. At this point in the session, the present trainers asked the trainees to practice their CBBI technique skills by identifying different competencies for a particular position in their organisation, ‘what competencies would you say are required for this post?’ (Appendix VI- CD Recording of the Session). The trainees were also encouraged to practice their skills in when they return to their work, ‘when you interview next time…’ (Appendix VI- CD Recording of the Session).<br />According to research in SLT (Bandura, 1977b, for example), the learning improves when models or trainers modelling the desired behaviour are the same sex and race. This was achieved particularly as 11 out of 12 trainees were female as well as 4 out of 5 trainers. <br />Although SLT does not fit all types of training interventions, particularly those modelling work tasks is not suitable, in creativity and innovation, for example, (Arnold, 2005) modelling the technique of CBBI was believed to aid the trainees’ learning. <br />Sequencing of Material<br />Sequencing of material was used during the present session in order to help the present trainees to develop new skills and knowledge. Arnold (2005) highlights the importance of sequencing, which can sometimes be dictated by the trainees meaning they can control the pace of the training delivery. This was partly achieved by the present trainers asking ‘is there anything else you’d like me to elaborate on?’ (Appendix VI- CD Recording of the Session).<br />Throughout the session, the present trainees were encouraged to reflect, question and think by the trainers asking questions such as ‘do you have any questions so far?’ (Appendix VI- CD Recording of the Session).<br />The theories and delivery techniques were all designed to help the present trainees to acquire new skills and knowledge. <br />EVALUATION<br />Although research suggests that training is an effective way of positively changing behaviour of individuals in the workplace (Arnold, 2005), evaluation provides an insight into the value of a training programme and potential improvements. <br />Despite the importance of training evaluation, according to Patrick (1992) only about 10 per cent of companies actually undertake an on-the-job evaluation post training, while longitudinal analyses of training effectiveness are even less frequent amongst organisations. <br />Kirkpatrick’s (1967) Model<br />Kirkpatrick’s (1967) model for training evaluation is probably still the most popular way of evaluating a training intervention. It comprises of four hierarchical levels of data collection. <br />The first level, ‘reaction’, is normally where most organisations would end their data collection according to Arnold (2005). Although the data collected here mostly represents the trainee’s views of the training, which may reveal very little about its overall effectiveness, most organisations stop after collecting this kind of information immediately following a training programme.<br />Evaluation Questionnaire<br />For the purposes of the present assignment, this was also the case. The trainees were asked to fill in a questionnaire regarding their views of training immediately following the end of the session in order to ensure 100 per cent response rate. This was achieved and the data collected were subsequently analysed (Appendix V- Evaluation Questionnaire Results ). <br />The trainees responded positively overall. 92 per cent agreed they enjoyed the session, for example. Although this type of data is valuable, it can be misleading as suggested by Arnold (2005). He points out that often the reason why the trainees enjoy the training is because they simply welcome a break from their routine at work, ‘none of this feedback tells us whether the training was actually effective in terms of promoting new learning’ (Arnold, 2005, p. 370). <br />To avoid this, Arnold suggests asking the trainees about their perceived difficulty and usefulness of the training. This was partly achieved by asking the present trainees if using CBBI could improve the quality and efficiency of their recruitment process, to which 69 per cent responded by indicating ‘Agree’ (Appendix IV - Evaluation Questionnaire Sample and Appendix V- Evaluation Questionnaire Results).<br />Pre- and Post-Tests<br />The next level of Kirkpatrick’s model is ‘learning’. Here, the focus is on collecting data concerned with assessing whether or not the trainees attained the immediate outcomes of the training (Arnold, 2005). Although the present trainers attempted to ask the trainees questions in order to assess the level of their knowledge during the session, the assessment at this level often requires some kind of pre- and post-programme testing in order to ascertain the level of the trainees’ understanding. This would typically be done in a form of a test covering the material of the session, CBBI knowledge, as a pre-test being compared to a post-session knowledge of the CBBI. Care must be taken in order to use the same assessment method and tester thus decreasing the chances of threats to internal validity through inadequate instrumentation. As Arnold (2005) points out, data collected at this level is typically gathered immediately after training, suggesting that the period in which the trainees retained the new information should also be considered as it contributes to the success of the programme. Therefore, it would be advisable to assess the specific knowledge of the CBBI potentially gained by the present trainees after a period of time, for example, six months. <br />However, assessing the trainee’s knowledge alone would be insufficient. The application of knowledge, or how the trainees behave in the workplace following the training, builds on the sophistication of the second level of the model. The third level is ‘behaviour’, which look at to what extent the trainees actually apply the newly learnt skills in their workplace. One of the techniques for data collection at this level is manager’s assessment and feedback of the trainees. The present trainees could have been asked to report on their staff that attended the present training programme. However, this could be less effective than directly observing the present trainees at interviews, for example, as managers may down-play or exaggerate any potential training benefits of their staff (Arnold, 2005).<br />Organisational Factors & Obstacles<br />Furthermore, the actual behaviour of the present trainees at interviews following the training would also require unlearning previously learnt behaviours in their organisation and the revision of the organisational recruitment practices, which could be the biggest obstacle for the present training programme to be effective, mainly due to the short-term financial cost for the company. <br />The fourth level of the Kirkpatrick’s model is ‘results’. It is concerned with the assessment of the training’s impact on the organisation. Perhaps unsurprisingly, only two investigations at this level have been identified by a meta-analysis of training studies conducted by Alliger and Janak (1997). This is due to the ambiguity of the factors contributing to the changes in the organisational effectiveness. It is extremely difficult to identify whether training is the sole factor in something as complex as this. <br />In the present organisation, other factors like trained staff’s motivation, management encouragement or peer support could all contribute to the organisational success. <br />Individual Factors<br />Self-efficacy or the individual’s belief in his or her ability has been widely researched in terms of training. Stevens and Gist (1997), for example, found that high levels of self-efficacy are associated with faster learning and greater likelihood of transferring the individual’s new skills into workplace. As Arnold (2005) points out, self-efficacy ‘is not concerned with the skills that individuals have, but with their judgements of what they can do with whatever skills they possess’ (p. 375). It is therefore worth mentioning that no personality questionnaire was administered prior to the training session in order to tease out how the present trainees would rate themselves on this personality construct. Therefore, this would have been valuable data to collect prior to the training. <br /> Learning<br /> The techniques used in the training session allowed the present trainees to learn in a way that they create links and associations themselves which makes training much more effective than just lecturing at people (Downs & Perry, 1984). For example, visual imagery was used.  People can use mental images of the study outline to organize, retrieve and perform task (Purdy and Luepnitz, 1982). <br /> The training session was highly structured thus limiting the impact that IQ can have on an individual’s learning ability.<br />Criticisms of the Model<br />One of the biggest criticisms of the Kirkpatrick’s (1967) model is based on the argument concerned with its hierarchical nature (Arnold, 2005). This would mean that the individual’s enjoyment of the training is directly associated with the training’s success and changes in behaviour are dependent upon the individual’s knowledge acquisition. However, Arnold (2005) argues that it is possible to actually dislike the training, especially if it is too demanding and yet learn a new skill or understand the material and not apply it in the workplace. Similarly, as the data collected post-training mainly concentrated on this area, for example, 62 per cent of the trainees agreed that the training was a positive experience (Appendix V - Evaluation Questionnaire Results), it may not mean that the trainees have learnt something as a result. This is also supported by Alliger et.al. (1997).<br />Success<br />The success of the training programme in the present organisation would therefore depend on various factors including organisational and individual ones. Although very difficult to collect and interpret, evaluation data at all four levels of the Kirkpatrick’s (1967) model would have been beneficial. However within the limitations of the present assignment, it was felt that the evaluation carried out was appropriate, practical and an achievable way to assess the training programme’s overall value highlighting potential improvements. <br />REFERENCES<br />Alliger, G. M., Tanenbaum, S. I. Bennett, W. Jr., Traver, H. and Shotland, A. 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Hunter and Hunter (1984) revisited: Interview validity for entry- level jobs. Journal of applied Psychology, 79, pp. 184-190.<br />Janz, T. (1982). Initial comparisons of patterned behaviour description interviews versus unstructured interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 67, pp. 557-580.<br />Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1967). Evaluation of training. In Arnold, J. (2005), (Ed.) Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace, 4th ed, Pearson Education Limited.<br />Maile, J. & Brooks, C.K. (2000). Competency- Based, Behaviourally Focused Interviewing: A model Process. Presentation at 24th Annual IPMAAC Conference on Professional Personnel Assessment. June 3-7, Washington, DC. Last retrieved on 10/ 03/ 2008, from: http://www.ipmaac.org/conf/00/<br />Martin, G.N., Carlson, N.R. & Buskist, W.  (2007). Psychology.  Third European edition.  Harlow: Prentice Hall Europe.<br />McClelland, D. C. (1998). Identifying competencies with behavioural-event interviews. Psychological Science, 9, pp. 331-339.<br />Miller, G. A., (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: Some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychology Review, 63, pp. 81-97.<br />Moscoso, S. (2000) Selection interview:A review of validity evidence, adverse impact and applicant reactions. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 6, pp.240.<br />Newell, S. & Tansley, C. (2001). International uses of selection methods. In C.L. Cooper & I.T. Robertson (Ed), International Review of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, pp. 195-213. Chichester: Wiley. <br />Paivio, A. 1986. Mental representations: A dual coding approach. New York: Oxford University<br />Press.<br />Patrick, J (1992) Training: Research and practice. London, Academic Press.<br />Peek, J. 1987. The Role of Illustrations in Processing and Remembering Illustrated Text. In D. M. Willows & H.A. Houghton, The Psychology of Illustration, (Volume 1): Basic Research. New York: Springer.<br />Porteous, M. (1997). Occupational Psychology. London: Pentice Hall.<br />Purdy, J. E & Luepnitz, R. R. (1982). Immediate and long-term retention for pictorial and verbal stimuli. Perceptual and motor skills, 55, pp. 285-93.<br />Robertson, I., Bartram D. & Callinan M. Personnel Selection and Assessment (2002). In P.Warr (Ed) Psychology at work (pp.100- 152). Penguin Group.<br />Salgado, J.F. (1999). Personnel selection methods. In C.L. Cooper & I.T.Robertson (Ed), International review of industrial and organisational psychology, 14. Chichester: Wiley.<br />Searle, R. H. (2003). Selection and Recruitment: A Critical Text (3rd ed). Milton Keynes. Palgrave MacMillan.<br />Stevens, C. K. and Gist, M. (1997). Effects of self-efficacy and goal orientation training on negotiation skill maintenance: What are the mechanisms?. In Arnold, J. (2005), (Ed.) Work Psychology: Understanding Human Behaviour in the Workplace, 4th ed, Pearson Education Limited.<br />APPENDIX I (Training Session Plan)<br />COMPETENCY-BASED BEHAVIOURAL INTERVIEW (CBBI) TRAINING SESSION PLANDATE: 28-March-08Timetable:14.00 to 14.05 Welcome and introduction14.05 to 14.10 Why use CBBI14.10 to 14.20 Role play depicting a bad interview process14.20 to 14.25 How can we improve the interview process14.25 to 14.40 A model based process of CBBI skills14.40 to 14.50Anatomy of the behavioural part of the CBBI process14.50 to 14.55 Question Time 14.55 to 15.00Refreshments <br />Appendix II PowerPoint Presentation<br />Slide 1_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Slide 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38_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Slide 39_____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________<br />Appendix III (Handout B)<br />Vacancy required competencies<br />Friendly person= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Self- motivated= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Computer literate= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Communication skills= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Interpersonal skills= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Reception duties= ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Administrative work= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Quality service to customers= ------------------------------------------------------------------<br />Do you think the words used here capture the full range of competencies necessary for the job?<br /> <br />Can you think of any other competencies necessary for performing the job adequately?<br />A. Core Competencies1<br />Adaptability = the ability to change or be changed to fit changed circumstances<br />Client Focus = Understand the client by anticipating and responding to client needs; fulfil client expectations without compromising the integrity of the company;<br />Communication = the activity of communicating; the activity of conveying information<br />Organizational Awareness = employees have an in depth understanding of the company’s structure, priorities and processes. <br />Problem Solving and Judgment= capability of generating adequate solutions to problems and the capability of judging or assessing a person or situation or event; <br />Results Orientation = Driving to achieve results while pursuing the highest standards; maximising the use of resources and moving from basic results orientation to managing for results, to linking results.<br />Teamwork = capability for cooperative work within a team<br />B. Role Specific Competencies2<br />Developing Others = cause to grow and differentiate in ways conforming to its natural development; make others progress, unfold, or evolve; create by training and teaching;<br />Impact and Influence = have an effect upon; having power to influence another towards organisational goals;<br />Innovation = the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new; a creation (a new device or process);<br />Leadership = Demonstrates the ability to carry out the organisation’s vision to manage changes, to make sound and timely decisions and be accountable for them, and to lead, build and motivate the team to achieve planned results<br />Relationship Building = the act of constructing mutual dealings or connections among persons or groups, ones that promote co-operation and productivity;<br />Resource Management = Organising and managing information, people, and other resources to achieve established goals and results.<br />Self-Management= the act of managing one self<br />Strategic Thinking= the process of thinking related to or concerned with strategy and systematic planning;<br />Open-Ended Questions<br />A. Core Competencies<br />Adaptability <br />Tell me about a time when you changed your priorities to meet others' expectations.<br />Describe a time when you altered your own behaviour to fit the situation.<br />Tell me about a time when you had to change your point of view or your plans to take into account new information or changing priorities. <br />Client Focus <br />Give an example of how you provided service to a client/stakeholder beyond their expectations. How did you identify the need? How did you respond?<br />Tell me about a time when you had to deal with a client/stakeholder service issue.<br />Describe a situation in which you acted as an advocate within your organization for your stakeholder’s needs, where there was some organizational resistance to be overcome. <br />Communication <br />Describe a situation you were involved in that required a multi-dimensional communication strategy.<br />Give an example of a difficult or sensitive situation that required extensive communication.<br />Tell me about a time when you really had to pay attention to what someone else was saying, actively seeking to understand their message. <br />Organizational Awareness <br />Describe the culture of your organization and give an example of how you work within this culture to achieve a goal.<br />Describe the things you consider and the steps you take in assessing the viability of a new idea or initiative.<br />Tell me about a time when you used your knowledge of the organization to get what you needed. <br />Problem Solving and Judgment <br />Tell me about a time when you had to identify the underlying causes to a problem.<br />Describe a time when you had to analyze a problem and generate a solution.<br />Tell me about a situation where you had to solve a problem or make a decision that required careful thought.  What did you do? <br />Results Orientation <br />Tell me about a time when you set and achieved a goal. <br />Tell me about a time when you improved the way things were typically done on the job.<br />Describe something you have done to improve the performance of your work unit.<br />Describe something you have done to maximize or improve the use of resources beyond your own work unit to achieve improved results. <br />Teamwork <br />Tell me about a time when you worked successfully as a member of a team.<br />Describe a situation where you were successful in getting people to work together effectively.<br />Describe a situation in which you were a member (not a leader) of a team, and a conflict arose within the team. What did you do? <br />B. Role Specific Competencies<br />Developing Others <br />Tell me about a time when you coached someone to help them improve their skills or job performance.  What did you do?<br />Describe a time when you provided feedback to someone about their performance.<br />Give me an example of a time when you recognized that a member of your team had a performance difficulty/deficiency.  What did you do? <br />Impact and Influence <br />Describe a recent situation in which you convinced an individual or a group to do something.<br />Describe a time when you went through a series of steps to influence an individual or a group on an important issue.<br />Describe a situation in which you needed to influence different stakeholders with differing perspectives. <br />Innovation <br />Describe something you have done that was new and different for your organization, that improved performance and/or productivity.<br />Tell me about a time when you identified a new, unusual or different approach for addressing a problem or task.<br />Tell me about a recent problem in which old solutions wouldn't work.  How did you solve the problem? <br />Leadership <br />Tell me about a time when you had to lead a group to achieve an objective.<br />Describe a situation where you had to ensure that your " actions spoke louder than your words" to a team.<br />Describe a situation where you inspired others to meet a common goal. <br />Relationship Building <br />Describe a situation in which you developed an effective win/win relationship with a stakeholder or client. How did you go about building the relationship?<br />Tell me about a time when you relied on a contact in your network to help you with a work-related task or problem.<br />Give me an example of a time when you deliberately attempted to build rapport with a co-worker or customer. <br />Resource Management <br />Describe a situation in which you took a creative approach to resourcing to achieve a goal.<br />Tell me about a time when you had to deal with a particular resource management issue regarding either people, materials or assets.<br />Describe the options you would consider to resource a project or goal if you did not have the available resources within your own span of control.<br />Describe a situation in which you established a partnership with another organization or stakeholder to achieve a mutual goal. What steps did you take to ensure the partnership was effective? <br />Self-Management <br />Describe the level of stress in your job and what you do to manage it.<br />Describe a time when you were in a high pressure situation.<br />Describe a time when things didn't turn out as you had planned and you had to analyze the situation to address the issue. <br />Strategic Thinking <br />Describe a challenge or opportunity you identified based on your industry knowledge, and how you developed a strategy to respond to it.<br />Describe a time you created a strategy to achieve a longer term business objective.<br />Describe a time when you used your business knowledge to understand a specific business situation. <br />Appendix IV (Evaluation Questionnaire Sample)<br />Training EvaluationAs we come to the end of the training course, we would like you to participate in a final evaluation by answering the questions below. As trainers, we also need to learn from this experience. Completing the training evaluation questionnaire will provide essential information on how this training could be improved. Please read the following questions and circle the most appropriate answer to each of them, which gives the extent to which you either agree or disagree with the statements. 1) I enjoyed the training session Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree2) The training session was a positive experience.Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree3) I understood the content of the training session.Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree4) The training session was delivered in a way that I could relate to. Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree5) Through the training session, I have gained skills and knowledge about CBBI.Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree 6) I feel that CBBI can improve the quality and efficiency of the recruitment process.Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree7) Do you feel that the CBBI process can be facilitated by yourself?8) If not, why? (Please elaborate)9) What do you feel were the good and bad parts of the training session?10) How could the training session be improved?Please return this form to the main reception desk after completionThank you for your participation!!!<br />Appendix V (Evaluation Questionnaire Results)<br />Training Evaluation Summary<br />ITEMStrongly disagreeDisagreeNeutralAgreeStrongly Agree1) I enjoyed the training session   1212) The training session was a positive experience  3823) I understood the content of the training session   1214) The training session was delivered in a way that I could relate to  11115) Through the training session, I have gained skill and knowledge about CBBI  4816) I feel that CBBI can improve the quality and efficiency of the recruitment process  391<br />7) Do you feel that the CBBI Process could be facilitated by yourself?<br />“Possibly”<br />“In an ideal world it would be great financial restraints!”<br />“Probably already doing it in a round about way”<br />“Yes. I already do standard questions and scores to be fair at interview. I will now investigate developing a competency profile, however, it could be extremely lengthy for all the jobs on the ward”<br /> “Yes” – x4<br />“Possibly we may have similar process in place”<br />“I think it already is to a degree but not using a model”.<br />8) If not, why? (Please elaborate)<br />“Financial restraints” <br />9) Please provide an overall comment on this training session be it positive or negative<br />“It would be interesting to compare how we do now to this concept”<br />“I really enjoyed it”<br />“Given it was a nerve wracking experience, all did well”<br />“Could all introduce yourselves”<br />“Good handouts”<br />“Interesting”<br />“Extremely enjoyable session, just the right length of time”<br />“Very positive”<br />“Interesting”<br />“Good”<br />“Well Presented”<br />“Would like this to be a longer session<br />10) If this training session could be improved, how and why?<br />“It was fine”<br />“More equality of delivery”<br />“Take a bit longer or speak a little slower”<br />“No improvement”<br />“Very well delivered but could speak more slowly”<br />“Maybe extend the time to go through processes a bit more”<br />“No, very enjoyable”<br />Appendix VI (CD Recording of the Session)<br />