What Did The Social Reformers Set Out To Achieve?

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  • 1. Starter Ranks these products in order of 1-4 – in terms of which one(s) you like the best (i.e. 1= yummy!, 4= uurgh!) Now come up some advertising slogans for each of the four products based on your rankings!
  • 2. What did the Social Reformers set out to do? http://www.rowntrees.co.uk/commercials/
  • 3. Lesson objectives:
    • To examine in greater depth what the Social Reformer’s aims were.
    • To Examine what Seebohm Rowntree’s study uncovered.
  • 4. Starter:
    • Look at the following 7 answers.
    • I want you to come up with the questions.
    • For example – What major event started in 1914? – the answer would be WW1.
    • WW1 Liberal Party. Prime Minister
    • Empire. Reform.
    • self-help poor Wealthy.
  • 5. Summary of the Social Reformer’s aims and objectives:
    • Seebohm Rowntree was one of the leading Social Reformers.
    • Rowntree published a book called ‘Poverty’ that was based on research about his home town of York.
    • The study provided massive amounts of stats on poverty.
    • Poverty usually caused by old age, sickness etc.
    • Poverty not usually caused by laziness as many rich people liked to believe.
    • Poor people were often more likely to be vulnerable to trade cycles and therefore more likely to be made unemployed with little notice.
    • The state should introduce policies to protect the most vulnerable – the young, very old, the ill and the unemployed.
  • 6. Task 1 – Use the grid to examine sources 3, 4, 5 and 6 on pages 51 and 52. Source 6 Source 5 Source 4
    • The source gives a degree of insight into poverty during the period through the eyes of a key political figure.
    • The source does have limitations, such as not telling us what Lloyd George intended to do about such poverty.
    • The main message of the source is that Lloyd George clearly saw that poverty was not due to laziness but other social ills such as old age, bad health, and unemployment etc. The source therefore gives us insight into L.G. views.
    • It also shows us that Lloyd George admired the German system in which certain groups in society had a degree of protection.
    • The source is a transcript of Lloyd George speaking in 1890.
    • There is no reason to be particularly wary of the transcript as it is simply a quote from a key figure of the time and not an opinion of a historian in which bias may be involved to any degree.
    Source 3 Does it give a little or a lot of insight into Poverty during the period? And what limitations does this source have? What is the main message or information in the source? What is the source and should we be wary of it for any reason? If so why? Sources
  • 7. Task 1 – Use the grid to examine sources 3, 4, 5 and 6 on pages 51 and 52.
    • I think the source gives us a lot of insight into poverty during the period.
    • We cannot tell if the same would have been experienced by men and women alike.
    • The main message of the source is that those living close to the poverty line experience real fluctuations in wealth during their life time.
    • It shows us that the most vulnerable were sometimes able to climb above the poverty line but that at certain period s they dropped below it and were unable to change their predicament.
    • Rowntree’s poverty line graph.
    • Hunt’s interpretation from our mini-exam overestimated amount of food needed for a working class family to be healthy
    Source 6
    • It gives a lot of insight, telling us what someone, living on the poverty line, faces each day.
    • Again it doesn’t tell us if all people living on the poverty line were forced to live in such a way.
    • The main message of source 5 is that people living on the poverty line are severely restricted in what they can do.
    • E.G. the bread winner can never have a day of work.
    • An extract from Seebohm Rowntree’s study of town life in 1901.
    • Again no reason to be wary of it.
    Source 5
    • This gives us a significant degree of insight into poverty in the town of York at the time.
    • Rowntree based his study in York and it may not therefore be representative of the whole of England, we just don’t know.
    • That 5% of those in poverty were there because of unemployment.
    • 10% of poverty was due to death of wage earner.
    • 5 % of poverty was due to illness or old age.
    • 22% of poverty was due to low wages.
    • 52% of poverty was due to large families.
    • The source is an array of pictures that illustrate Rowntree’s findings.
    • There is no reason to doubt the source although one may argue that Rowntree’s findings were not accurate.
    Source 4
    • The source gives a degree of insight into poverty during the period through the eyes of a key political figure.
    • The source does have limitations, such as not telling us what Lloyd George intended to do about such poverty.
    • The main message of the source is that Lloyd George clearly saw that poverty was not due to laziness but other social ills such as old age, bad health, and unemployment etc. The source therefore gives us insight into L.G. views.
    • It also shows us that Lloyd George admired the German system in which certain groups in society had a degree of protection.
    • The source is a transcript of Lloyd George speaking in 1890.
    • There is no reason to be particularly wary of the transcript as it is simply a quote from a key figure of the time and not an opinion of a historian in which bias may be involved to any degree.
    Source 3 Does it give a little or a lot of insight into Poverty during the period? And what limitations does this source have? What is the main message or information in the source? What is the source and should we be wary of it for any reason? If so why? Sources
  • 8. Seebohm Rowntree.
    • Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree was born in York on 7th July, 1871. He was the third child of Joseph Rowntree and Emma Seebohm. He was educated at the York Quaker Boarding School and Owen College, Manchester . In 1897 Rowntree was appointed as a director of his father's successful business in York. Like his father, Seebohm believed it was his duty to help the poor and disadvantaged. On Sundays he taught at the York Adult School. He also visited the homes of his students and obtained first-hand knowledge of their problems. In the 1860s Joseph Rowntree , had carried out two major surveys into poverty in Britain. Inspired by his father's work and the study by Charles Booth , Life and Labour of the People in London (1889), Seebohm Rowntree decided to carry out his own investigations into poverty in York . Rowntree spent two years on the project and the results of his study, Poverty, A Study of Town Life , was published in 1901. In his study, Rowntree distinguished between families suffering from primary and secondary poverty. Primary poverty, he argued, was where the family lacked the earnings sufficient to obtain even the minimum necessities, whereas families suffering from secondary poverty, had earnings that were sufficient, but were spending some of that money on other things. Whereas some of these were "useful", others, like spending on alcohol, was "wasteful". Rowntree's study provided a wealth of statistical data on wages, hours of work, nutritional needs, food consumed, health and housing. The book illustrated the failings of the capitalist system and argued that new measures were needed to overcome the problems of unemployment, old-age and ill-health. Rowntree, a strong supporter of the Liberal Party , hoped that the conclusions that he had drawn from his study would be adopted as party policy. David Lloyd George , President of the Board of Trade, met Rowntree in 1907 and the two became close friends. The following year Lloyd George became Chancellor of the Exchequer and introduced a series of reforms influenced by Rowntree, including the Old Age Pensions Act (1908) and the National Insurance Act (1911). David Lloyd George asked Rowntree to carry out a study of rural conditions in Britain. His report, The Land , published in 1913, argued that an increase in small landholdings would make agriculture more efficient and productive. In 1913 Rowntree also published How the Labourer Lives , a detailed study of fifty-two farming families. Seebohm Rowntree believed that healthy and well-fed workers, were also efficient workers. Working closely with his father, Joseph Rowntree , Seebohm introduced a series of reforms at his own company. One change was an increase in wages for the 4,000 people the company employed. Seebohm argued that employers who refused to pay decent wages should be put out of business as their existence was bad for the "nation's economy and humanity". In his book The Human Needs of Labour (1918) Rowntree argued strongly for a government enforced minimum wage and the introduction of family allowances.
    • In the 1930s Seebohm Rowntree carried out a second survey of York . In Progress and Poverty (1941), Rowntree argued that the city had experienced a fifty per cent reduction in poverty since his first study. He also pointed out that in the 1930s the main cause of poverty was unemployment, whereas in the 1890s it had been low wages. However, he argued that there was still much to be done and the conclusions of his report helped influence the policies of the post-war Labour Government . As a person said at the time, Rowntree's work made him the "Einstein of the Welfare State". Rowntree published a third study of York in 1951. In Poverty and the Welfare State , Rowntree argued that the measures introduced by the Labour Government between 1945 and 1951 were dealing successfully with the worst aspects of poverty that he had recorded in his earlier studies. Benjamin Seebohm Rowntree died on 7th October, 1954.
  • 9. Task 2
    • Answer the following questions on Seebohm Rowntree in as much detail as possible.
    • What was the family business of Seebohm Rowntree?
    • Seebohm Rowntree believed it was his duty help the poor. What things did he do to achieve this?
    • Explain, in detail, what primary and secondary poverty were according to Seebohm.
    • What was the difference between primary and secondary poverty?
    • How did Rowntree influence politics?
    • In what ways did Seebohm change conditions for workers working in his own factories?
    • What ‘nick’-name was given to Rowntree? Why was he given this name?
  • 10. Task 3
    • Expert groups: How effective were the Liberal reforms?
    • Group 1 = Children
    • Group 2 = The Old
    • Group 3 = The Unemployed
    • Group 4 = National Insurance Act
    • Group 5 =Reactions
  • 11. Task 3
      • 1 1 1 1 1
      • 2 2 2 2 2
      • 3 3 3 3 3
      • 4 4 4 4 4
      • 5 5 5 5 5
  • 12. H/W
    • Produce a CV for S.Rowntree
    • Take a look at the example one on the back of your sheet
    • Produce the CV as though he was applying for a job in 1953.
  • 13. Example Curriculum Vitae.
    • Christopher Jones
    • 24 Mansfield Drive,
    • Chedlee,Manchester,
    • M23 4DJ.
    • PROFILE:
    • A Mathematics graduate who is keen to find a position as a Trainee Accountant. Reliable, trustworthy, numerate and meticulous. Worked for a firm of chartered accountants last Summer and gained a good understanding of what is required of an accountant. Able to work on own initiative or as part of a team and can deal with administrative duties competently.
    • EDUCATION:
    • 2002 - 2005 BSc. (Hons) 2.2 in Mathematics at Warwick University.Subjects studied: Business Studies, Computer Studies, Calculus, Geometry & Topology and Catastrophe Theory.
    • 1995 - 2002Chedlee High School.
    • 3 GCE A Levels: Mathematics [B], Economics [C], Chemistry [C].
    • 6 GCSEs: Mathematics [A], English Language [B], Chemistry [B], Physics [B], Geography [B], Economics [B].
    • EXPERIENCE:
    • Summer 2004 JOHNSON & STEVENS
    • Administrative Assistant
    • A vacation job working for a large firm of accountants. Responsibilities and achievements:
    • Assisted the Senior Partner who was conducting audits on major companies in the area.
    • Handled incoming telephone calls to the Senior Partner from other companies and members of the public.
    • Organised and maintained the Senior Partner's filing system.
    • Typed reports on an IBM Compatible PC using the WordPerfect word-processor.
    • Devised a new filing system to maintain the files held by the department.
    • Solved users PC problems including sorting out spreadsheets, explaining how to use complex features in word-processing packages.
    • Summer 2003
    • CHEDLEE COMMUNITY CENTRE
    • Co-ordinator
    • A vacation job at a community centre for the elderly. Responsibilities and achievements:
    • Organised a local advertising drive that increased the number of elderly people coming to the centre by 20%.
    • Organised games for people attending in the afternoons.
    • Escorted some of the elderly people to and from the centre.
    • COMPUTER SKILLS:
    • IBM Compatible PCs running Microsoft Windows, MS-DOS, WordPerfect, Word for Windows, Lotus 1-2-3 and Microsoft Visual C.
    • ADDITIONAL INFORMATION:
    • Driving Licence: Full, clean.
    • INTERESTS:
    • Interests at Warwick University included organising a charity quiz for RAG, which raised £5000. Badminton, cinema and theatre.
    • REFEREES:
    • Professor William Jackson, Department of Mathematics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL.
    • Mr Jack Lord, Personnel Manager, Johnson & Stevens, 124 High Street, Chedlee, Manchester M23 3LD.