US Civil War 1861- 65

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US Civil War 1861- 65

  1. 1. Starter What does the country of America mean to you? Brain-storm anything that comes into your head…positive or negative! The United States of America
  2. 2. Is America really the land of the free? Key question # 1
  3. 3. Essays
  4. 4. Glue A3 sheets
  5. 5. The last two weeks....
  6. 6. American Civil War History Route Planner
  7. 7. The Key Question # 2 “ In name alone lies the only similarity between the English and American Civil Wars” Anon How far do you agree with this statement?
  8. 8. The Big Picture Cause Event Consequence
  9. 9. Learning outcome EXPLORED SOME OF THE CAUSES FOR THE AMERICAN CIVIL WAR
  10. 10. I talk to people when I need help. I can explain what needs doing and why. I know how to deal with problems. I can see what needs improving. I use different viewpoints to reach a shared solution. I can support other people in their views and beliefs. I work well with others. I listen to others’ points of view. I change my behaviour to suit the situation. I respect other people’s differences. I take responsibility. I help others by giving them useful advice. I can generate ideas and possibilities. I ask questions to find out more. I can see how ideas or pieces of information fit together. I challenge ideas and assumptions that I make or that others make. I test ideas. I change ideas when I need to. I can see what has worked well and what hasn’t worked well. I know my targets and what I have to do to meet them. As I work, I can see how well I am doing. I listen to the advice of adults and people in my class. I learn from my mistakes. I let people know how I learn best. I like a new challenge. I work to goals and commit myself to tasks. I get to lessons on time with the equipment I need. I take risks and deal with them sensibly. I plan my own time and work to deadlines. I am able to deal with change. Effective Participator Team worker Creative thinkers Reflective Learner Self-Manager I can spot questions and problems that need answering and solving. I can plan and carry out a piece of research. I can look at things from different points of view. I can think about how important or relevant some information is. I can see how decisions or events are influenced by different points of view, beliefs or circumstances. I can back up points of view using arguments and evidence. Independent Enquirer
  11. 11. Effective participator I talk to people when I need help. I can explain what needs doing and why. I know how to deal with problems. I see what needs to be improved. I work with others to reach solutions. I can support other people in their views and beliefs. Team worker I work well with others. I listen to others’ points of view. I know how to behave in formal and informal situations. I respect other people’s differences. I take responsibility for my role within the group. I help others by giving them useful advice. Creative Thinker I come up with ideas. I ask questions. I see how ideas or pieces of information fit together. I challenge ideas and assumptions that I make or that others make. I can and will test ideas. I change ideas when I need to. R eflective Learner I can see what has worked well and what hasn’t worked well. I know my targets and what I have to do to meet them. As I work, I can see how well I am doing. I listen to the advice of adults and people in my class. I learn from my mistakes. I share what I have learnt in different ways for different people. Self-Manager I like a new challenge. I work towards goals and commit myself to tasks. I get to lessons on time with the equipment I need. I am not afraid to have a go at new things. I plan my own time and work to deadlines. I am able to deal with change. Independent Enquirer I can spot questions and problems that need answering and solving. I can plan and carry out a piece of research. I can look at things from different points of view. I can think about how important or relevant some information is. I can see how decisions or events are effected by different points of view, beliefs or circumstances. I can back up points of view.
  12. 13. The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the thirteen "United Colonies" which expelled royal officials in 1775, set up the Second Continental Congress, formed an army, and declared their independence as a new nation, the United States of America, in 1776 . The war was the culmination of the political American Revolution, whereby the colonists overthrew British rule A bit of background…..
  13. 14. Oh, say, can you see, by the dawn's early light, What so proudly we hailed at the twilight's last gleaming? Whose broad stripes and bright stars, thro' the perilous fight' O'er the ramparts we watched, were so gallantly streaming. And the rockets red glare, the bombs bursting in air, Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. Oh, say, does that star-spangled banner yet wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave?  On the shore dimly seen, thro' the mists of the deep, Where the foe's haughty host in dread silence reposes, What is that which the breeze, o'er the towering steep, As it fitfully blows, half conceals, half discloses? Now it catches the gleam of the morning's first beam, In full glory reflected, now shines on the stream; 'Tis the star-spangled banner: oh, long may it wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. And where is that band who so vauntingly swore That the havoc of war and the battle's confusion A home and a country should leave us no more? Their blood has wash'd out their foul footstep's pollution. No refuge could save the hireling and slave From the terror of flight or the gloom of the grave, And the star-spangled banner in triumph doth wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave. Oh, thus be it ever when free men shall stand, Between their loved homes and the war's desolation; Blest with vict'ry and peace, may the heav'n-rescued land Praise the Power that has made and preserved us as a nation. Then conquer we must, when our cause is just, And this be our motto: "In God is our trust"; And the star-spangled banner in triumph shall wave O'er the land of the free and the home of the brave
  14. 15. Comparison grid (Similarities and Differences) American Civil War English Civil War <ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology (i.e why was it being fought?) </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term/ Short-term factors </li></ul><ul><li>EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Battles / death toll / Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Technology / weaponry / Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>CONSEQUENCES </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Short term consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term consequences </li></ul>
  15. 18. The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a major war between the United States (the &quot;Union&quot;) and eleven Southern states which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America, led by President Jefferson Davis. The Union, led by President Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party, rejected any right of secession and opposed the expansion of slavery into territories owned by the United States. Fighting commenced on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a United States (federal) military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina, located in the Confederate States of America During the first year, the Union asserted control of the border states and established a naval blockade as both sides raised large armies. In 1862 large, bloody battles began, causing massive casualties as a result of incompatibility between new weapons and old battlefield tactics.
  16. 19. The American Civil War (1861–1865) was a major war between the United States (the &quot;Union&quot;) and eleven Southern states which declared that they had a right to secession and formed the Confederate States of America, led by President Jefferson Davis. The Union, led by President Abraham Lincoln and the Republican Party, rejected any right of secession and opposed the expansion of slavery into territories owned by the United States. Fighting commenced on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a United States (federal) military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina, located in the Confederate States of America 3 x causes 2 x key people
  17. 20. Date :- April 12th 1861 – April 9th 1865 Location : Principally in Southern States Result : Union victory, reconstruction, abolition of slavery Combatants : United States of America (The Union) vs Confederate States of America (Confederacy) http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Civil_War
  18. 21. Comparison grid (Similarities and Differences) American Civil War English Civil War <ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology (i.e why was it being fought?) </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term/ Short-term factors </li></ul><ul><li>EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Battles / death toll / Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Technology / weaponry / Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>CONSEQUENCES </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Short term consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term consequences </li></ul>
  19. 22. Date :- April 12th 1861 – April 9th 1865 Location : Principally in Southern States Result : Union victory, reconstruction, abolition of slavery Combatants : United States of America (The Union) vs Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Starter Fill in the following information from last lesson…. Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  20. 23. Learning outcome By the end of this session we will have… Learnt about two of the famous battles
  21. 24. Battles of the Civil War Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  22. 25. So, what’s the connection? Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  23. 26. So, what’s the connection? Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  24. 27. Date :- Location : Result : Combatants : Starter Fill in the following information from last week regarding the American Civil War…. Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  25. 28. Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  26. 29. Battles of the Civil War <ul><li>The Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) </li></ul><ul><li>The Battle of Gettysburg </li></ul>By the end of the lesson we will have...revisited the following Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  27. 30. I talk to people when I need help. I can explain what needs doing and why. I know how to deal with problems. I can see what needs improving. I use different viewpoints to reach a shared solution. I can support other people in their views and beliefs. I work well with others. I listen to others’ points of view. I change my behaviour to suit the situation. I respect other people’s differences. I take responsibility. I help others by giving them useful advice. I can generate ideas and possibilities. I ask questions to find out more. I can see how ideas or pieces of information fit together. I challenge ideas and assumptions that I make or that others make. I test ideas. I change ideas when I need to. I can see what has worked well and what hasn’t worked well. I know my targets and what I have to do to meet them. As I work, I can see how well I am doing. I listen to the advice of adults and people in my class. I learn from my mistakes. I let people know how I learn best. I like a new challenge. I work to goals and commit myself to tasks. I get to lessons on time with the equipment I need. I take risks and deal with them sensibly. I plan my own time and work to deadlines. I am able to deal with change. Effective Participator Team worker Creative thinkers Reflective Learner Self-Manager I can spot questions and problems that need answering and solving. I can plan and carry out a piece of research. I can look at things from different points of view. I can think about how important or relevant some information is. I can see how decisions or events are influenced by different points of view, beliefs or circumstances. I can back up points of view using arguments and evidence. Independent Enquirer
  28. 31. R eflective Learner I can see what has worked well and what hasn’t worked well. I know my targets and what I have to do to meet them. As I work, I can see how well I am doing. I listen to the advice of adults and people in my class. I learn from my mistakes. I share what I have learnt in different ways for different people. Self-Manager I like a new challenge. I work towards goals and commit myself to tasks. I get to lessons on time with the equipment I need. I am not afraid to have a go at new things. I plan my own time and work to deadlines. I am able to deal with change. Independent Enquirer I can spot questions and problems that need answering and solving. I can plan and carry out a piece of research. I can look at things from different points of view. I can think about how important or relevant some information is. I can see how decisions or events are effected by different points of view, beliefs or circumstances. I can back up points of view.
  29. 32. Admin session T.O.T.P. Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  30. 33. Admin session T.O.T.P. Overall % Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  31. 34. Admin session Feedback from assessment #4 Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  32. 35. Admin session ‘ Customer satisfaction’? <ul><li>Sajadul </li></ul><ul><li>Francisca </li></ul><ul><li>Ghufran </li></ul><ul><li>Omar </li></ul><ul><li>Kyle </li></ul><ul><li>Zeshan </li></ul><ul><li>Saghir </li></ul><ul><li>Poppy & Chorina! </li></ul>Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  33. 36. Admin session Marking feedback: red books T Underline Don’t miss space out Sheets @ the back please! Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  34. 37. Admin session Marking feedback: Parliament lucky to win essays Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  35. 38. Parliament lucky essay <ul><li>ATQ </li></ul><ul><li>Headings </li></ul><ul><li>Pictures </li></ul><ul><li>Keywords – spelling </li></ul><ul><li>Dates </li></ul><ul><li>Charles returned to OXFORD </li></ul>Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  36. 39. Parliament lucky essay <ul><li>I disagree/ agree : Poppy strongly disagreed!  </li></ul><ul><li>N.M.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Staple: wrong order </li></ul><ul><li>Scots: ‘mad nutters’ </li></ul><ul><li>H/W grids up to date </li></ul>Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  37. 40. Admin M Merits Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  38. 41. Parents’ Evening Red books, Blue books, folders, Assessments all in order. Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  39. 42. Parents’ Evening Glued in sheets, underlined, or thrown away, [bar A3 sheet on US/Eng Civil War], staple in essay Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter
  40. 43. Name:- Date April 12 , 1861 – April 9 , 1865 Location Principally in the Southern United States Result Union victory; Reconstruction ; slavery abolished Casusbelli Confederate attack on Fort Sumter Level at start of History Enterprise Ass 1 /25 Ass 2 /25 Ass 3 /25 Ass 4 /25 Total Ass % QB Friars Monastery report Level Charles to blame for the outbreak of the Civil War - Level Parliament was lucky to win the Civil War Level American / English comparison timed essay Level Merits Level at the End of History enterprise + Sub-levels over the History enterprise
  41. 44. Antietam
  42. 45. The Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg) <ul><li>GENERAL ROBERT E. LEE'S first invasion of the North culminated with the Battle of Antietam, in Maryland (or Sharpsburg, as the South called it). </li></ul><ul><li>The battle took place on Wednesday, September 17, 1862, just 18 days after the Confederate victory at Second Manassas, 40 miles to the southeast in Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Not only was this the first major Civil War engagement on Northern soil, it was also the bloodiest single day battle in American history. </li></ul>To view the magnitude of the losses , consider that Antietam resulted in nine times as many Americans killed or wounded (23,000 soldiers) as took place on June 6, 1944--D-day, the so-called &quot;longest day&quot; of World War II.* Also consider that more soldiers were killed and wounded at the Battle of Antietam than the deaths of all Americans in the Revolutionary War, War of 1812, Mexican War, and Spanish-American War combined. <ul><li>The battle also became a turning point, an engagement that changed the entire course of the Civil War. Antietam not only halted Lee's bold invasion of the North (see Why Lee Invaded Maryland ) but thwarted his efforts to force Lincoln to sue for peace. It also provided Lincoln with the victory he needed to announce the abolition of slavery in the South. And with that proclamation of Emancipation , Lincoln was able to broaden the base of the war and may have prevented England and France from lending support to a country that engaged in slavery. It effectively sealed the fate for the confederacy. </li></ul>
  43. 46. What was D-Day?
  44. 47. The Battle of Gettysburg <ul><li>This most famous and most important Civil War Battle occurred over three hot summer days, July 1 to July 3, 1863, around the small market town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. It began as a skirmish but by its end involved 160,000 Americans. </li></ul><ul><li>Before the battle, major cities in the North such as Philadelphia, Baltimore and even Washington were under threat of attack from General Robert E. Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia which had crossed the Potomac River and marched into Pennsylvania. </li></ul><ul><li>The Union Army of the Potomac under its very new and untried commander, General George G. Meade , marched to intercept Lee. </li></ul>After much fierce fighting and heavy casualties on both sides, the Federals were pushed back through the town of Gettysburg Confederate James Longstreet argued that the Union position was near impregnable however Lee begged to differ. A fierce battle raged for an hour with much brutal hand to hand fighting, shooting at close range and stabbing with bayonets. For a brief moment, the Rebels nearly had their chosen objective, a small clump of oak trees atop Cemetery Ridge. But Union reinforcements and regrouped infantry units swarmed in and opened fire on the Rebel ranks. The battered, outnumbered Rebels finally began to give way and this great human wave that had been Pickett's Charge began to recede as the men drifted back down the slope. The supreme effort of Lee's army had been beaten back, leaving 7,500 of his men lying on the field of battle. On November 19, President Lincoln went to the battlefield to dedicate it as a military cemetery – The Gettysburg address – symbolises the definition of democracy itself.
  45. 48. Gettysburg address Government of the people, by the people and for the people
  46. 49. Gettysburg address
  47. 50. Democracy? Pakistan
  48. 51. Two battles: Date Location Casualties Key figures Result
  49. 52. Comparison grid (Similarities and Differences) American Civil War English Civil War <ul><li>CAUSES </li></ul><ul><li>Ideology (i.e why was it being fought?) </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term/ Short-term factors </li></ul><ul><li>EVENTS </li></ul><ul><li>Battles / death toll / Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Technology / weaponry / Tactics </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>CONSEQUENCES </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Short term consequences </li></ul><ul><li>Long Term consequences </li></ul>
  50. 53. Pair work You each have been given different sheet colours. Read your sheet colour, use the highlighter pens to draw out the main facts.
  51. 54. Individual work in your books…
  52. 55. H/W Moviemaker due in next Wednesday 9 th May Read through sheet on the battle of Chickamauga / Chattanooga
  53. 56. Starter Complete the speech / thought bubbles for the Queen and President Bush
  54. 57. H/W Moviemaker due in next Wednesday 9 th May Read through sheet on the battle of Chickamauga / Chattanooga
  55. 58. Folders Stop the graffiti and/or doodling please
  56. 59. Lesson 3: Britain’s role in the War Where has the Queen been recently? http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/6633591.stm
  57. 60. Learning outcome Explained some of the reasons why Britain didn’t get involved in the American Civil War By the end of the lesson we will have…..
  58. 61. Last time out…..
  59. 62. Britain’s role in the War Realising that the Confederacy’s best hope of success was if Britain and/or France joined the war on its side, Jefferson Davis tried to secure European recognition and support. However, neither Britain nor any other foreign power ever recognised the Confederacy, never mind intervened on its behalf. Historians debate whether this was the result of good fortune, Northern diplomatic skill, or Southern diplomatic incompetence
  60. 63. Britain’s role in the War Britain’s attitude to the War Only Britain could mount a serious challenge to the Union. Prior to 1861, relations between the two countries had been influenced by mutual resentments that had festered since the American Revolution. But there were many good reasons for not getting involved. War with the North might easily result in the loss of Canada. It would definitely result in the loss of valuable markets and investments. Britain had become increasingly dependent on North American grain. The impact of a ‘cotton-famine’ would be minimal compared to a ‘wheat famine’. Furthermore opinion, back in Britain, was far from united. Diplomatic incidents 1.Confederate Hopes and Actions The Confederate government pinned hope on ‘King Cotton’ – believing Britain and France would be forced to recognise the Confederacy and break the blockade of the need for ‘white gold’. (75% of the Cotton used in the textile industry was from the Confederate) A cotton embargo was introduced but it failed. European warehouses were full of stocks of cotton purchased in 1859-60. During 1863 the situation largely improved as a result of increased imports of raw cotton from India, China and Egypt. 2.Union diplomacy Northern politicians (from Lincoln downwards) are often praised for their dealings with Britain. Charles Francis Adams, the US Minister in London, is seen as playing a crucial role. 3.The problem of neutral rights The main difficulty between Britain and the Union was the issue of neutral rights at sea. In previous wars it was Britain which was concerned with problems associated with maintaining a blockade of Continental Europe. “ They who in quarrels interpose, will often get a bloody nose”. Prime Minister Lord Palmeston Given his cautious policy and the fact no vital interests were at stake it was always unlikely Britain would get involved in the Civil War. Only if the Confederacy looked like winning would Britain recognise the Confederacy. Yet only if Britain recognised the Confederacy and went to war on her side, was it likely that the Confederacy would achieve success.
  61. 64. Task - SWOT S.W.O.T.
  62. 65. It’s not the same as……
  63. 66. S.W.O.T. ? -
  64. 67. Task - SWOT S.W.O.T. In your books, I want you to imagine you’re one of Palmeston’s diplomatic advisors. Produce a SWOT analysis on the idea of going in and supporting the Confederacy.
  65. 68. Starter Look at these lyrics connected with the Civil War – then answer the questions… I was born a rebel Down in Dixie on a Sunday morning Yeah with one foot in the grave And one foot on the pedal I was born a rebel Even before my fathers’ fathers’ They called us all rebels Burned our cornfields And left our cities levelled I can still see the eyes Of those blue bellied devils When I’m walking round tonight Through the concrete and metal 1.What side does the writer of the song support in the Civil War? 2.How does he use language to sum up what has happened his family’s way of life? 3.What does ‘a rebel’ mean? 4.Who are the ‘blue-bellied’ devils?
  66. 69. Starter Look at these lyrics connected with the Civil War – then answer the questions… I was born a rebel Down in Dixie on a Sunday morning Yeah with one foot in the grave And one foot on the pedal I was born a rebel Even before my fathers’ fathers’ They called us all rebels Burned our cornfields And left our cities levelled I can still see the eyes Of those blue bellied devils When I’m walking round tonight Through the concrete and metal
  67. 70. Starter Look at these lyrics connected with the Civil War – then answer the questions… I was born a rebel Down in Dixie on a Sunday morning Yeah with one foot in the grave And one foot on the pedal I was born a rebel Even before my fathers’ fathers’ They called us all rebels Burned our cornfields And left our cities levelled I can still see the eyes Of those blue bellied devils When I’m walking round tonight Through the concrete and metal
  68. 71. Last lesson Pods
  69. 72. By the end of the lesson we will have….. Learning outcome Investigated the results of the War
  70. 73. Impact of the War In March 1865 Lincoln talked of the ‘fundamental and astounding’ change which had occurred as a result of the war. If Northerners viewed the Civil War as revolutionary, Southerners had even more cause to do so. A Memphis newspaper editor declared in 1865, “the events of the last five years have produced an entire revolution in the entire Southern country.” Modern historians tend to disagree. Few would argue that the Civil War greatly affected most Americans’ lives in the 1860s. But did it have long-term repercussions?
  71. 74. American System of Government Power
  72. 75. Impact of the War : 5 areas Emancipation of the Slaves The main evidence in support of the war being revolutionary is that it resulted in the emancipation of 4 million slaves. It is difficult to see how this would have occurred without the Civil War. Southern slaveholders had billions of dollars invested in slavery. While the emancipation of the slaves affected 4 million ex-slaves and 350,000 slave holders it had little impact on most Americans. Arguably no great race revolution occurred. Blacks remained the poorest ethnic group in the USA and by the start of the c20th had lost most of their Civil and Political rights. National Survival Arguably the main result of the Civil War was that it ensured that the Union survived as a single nation. Did this create the modern United States? No American, since 1865, has doubted where sovereignty lies. Although many Southerners retuned to the fold after 1865, many think of themselves first and foremost as Southerners. The Balance of Government Arguably the Civil War effectively changed the whole emphasis of the Constitution – resulting in power for the President rather than individual states. <ul><li>The Economic Effects </li></ul><ul><li>The War had massive economic effects </li></ul><ul><li>[ Beard ] triumph for industrialism and free labour capitalism over slave labour plantation </li></ul><ul><li>The extent to which the War affected the Southern economy is open to debate </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to Southern economy – railroads, farms, livestock was quickly repaired post ’65 </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanisation didn’t continue at Northern levels </li></ul>Political & Social effects The main effect was to limit the power grip of Southern states on the offices of government (House, Senate, President, Supreme Court) Also saw the dominance of the Republican Party of the Democrats Social effects = limited Loss of 620,00 young men was negated by increased immigration Opportunities for women were quickly closed again
  73. 76. Starter – can you think of any adjectives to describe these two University History Professors? (i.e. stuffy!) Adjectives: describing words! Last lesson
  74. 77. Re-cap – what were the results of the war?
  75. 78. Has anyone ever seen this?
  76. 79. Historians debate! ‘ Big Battalions’ – According to Lee the Confederacy lost the war not because it fought badly or because Its soldiers lacked courage – but simply because the enemy had more guns. Unable to fight a perfect war, the Confederacy fell before the superior resources of the enemy. ‘ Divisions’ Historians such as Owsley claim that the Confederacy , lost due to divisions in the south – particularly 3 groups that were alienated namely planters, non-slaveholding whites and slaves ‘ Lack of Will’ [ Coultier ] The South could have won if its people had possessed the will to make the sacrifices for victory. The South didn’t generate a great deal of nationalism – although slavery was a nationalistic issue ‘ Leadership’ Superior leadership is often seen as the main reason for Union victory. It is generally accepted that the Confederacy benefited from better generalship in the first half of the war. There was superior Northern leadership in the management of military supply. Davis’ government is usually charged with failing to control the Confederacy’s economy. [Potter] If the Union and Confederacy had changed Presidents then the result may have been different
  77. 80. Balloon debate Imagine you are in a balloon with one of the four reasons given by the historiography. The air is coming out fast. You have to saved one of them, and discard three. 1. Firstly put them in rank order. 2.Then write a paragraph explaining why you have ranked them in the order you chose, and why you have chosen the most important reason to save.
  78. 81. Starter Over the past six lessons we’ve looked at various aspects of the American Civil War. List at least one area you can remember below…. Background – causes of the War Famous battles Britain’s role in the War Abolition of slavery [PODs lesson] Result(s) of the war Historiography
  79. 82. We’re going to do the timed 35 minute GCSE test today! Learning outcome
  80. 83. Learning outcome <ul><li>Give you time to review our 6 lessons </li></ul><ul><li>Complete the timed GCSE-style essay </li></ul>
  81. 84. You have got 5 minutes to review your sheets from your folders and get any information you may need onto your A3 sheet
  82. 85. You won’t be allowed to have anything out on your desk for the timed-GCSE style test apart from the A3 sheet
  83. 86. Mr Kumar
  84. 87. “ In name alone lies the only similarity between the American, and English, Civil War.” Anon Discuss.
  85. 88. Essay lessons 8.Comparison: Technological / Social / Political / Religious / Economic 9.Comparison as above. 10.Essay : Introduction 11.Essay : Main body 12.Essay: Main body and conclusion
  86. 89. WAA :- A-Level text books Referencing Harvard Bibliography
  87. 90. <ul><li>If you mention the county of ‘America’ – what does it mean to you? </li></ul>
  88. 91. What does the country of America mean to you?
  89. 92. Starter American States What do the following abbreviations stand for? MA Massachusetts RI Rhode Island NY New York PA Pennsylvania NJ New Jersey CT Connecticut DE Delaware NH New Hampshire MD Maryland NC North Carolina SC South Carolina VA Virginia http:// www.globalcomputing.com/states.html
  90. 93. Can you list the 12 states we mentioned on the starter map? http:// www.nationalarchives.gov.uk/museum/item.asp?item_id =28 http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/question_of_sport/default.stm
  91. 94. Writing the essay
  92. 95. Writing the essay What has he done at the very start of his essay? He has referred to the essay title and given his own opinion
  93. 96. Mark scheme Essay title:- “The American War of Independence was a war for Revolution rather than Independence. How far do you agree? Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8 Shows a limited understanding of the terms ‘Independence’ and ‘Revolution’. Is able to briefly describe how the British exercised control over the US. Puts most of the key events (i.e. Olive Branch petition) in the correct chronological order. Does not mention the historical debate between Lynch and Brinton. Does not write a conclusion – and does not answer the question. Provides little factual accuracy (i.e. Battle of Great Bridge) Essay is not coherent and not structured in paragraphs. No use of connectives. Not as per Level 3 - this essay is written in paragraphs and shows a developing structure. Begins to touch on the historical debate between Lynch and Brinton. Begins to highlight some of their writing with key factual information – i.e. the names of the states involved, key figures, and dates of Battles ( Dec 9 th 1775 Battle of Great Bridge). Essay is more coherent than a level 3 – and begins to use some connectives in their paragraphs. Describes the ‘revolution and independence’. As per level 4, with more analysis about the historiography between Lynch and Brinton. A good level of factual information is beginning to be included – no inaccuracies and full detail on dates of Battles and the roles of key people such as Horatio Gates, King George III etc). Essay is well structured with sound, coherent, paragraphs and it actually answers the question. Generally uses connectives well throughout. Makes links between the different aspects of the timeline and perhaps ranks events in terms of a turning point. As per level 5 with complete analysis of the historiography. Good use of quotes from the variety of sources given. A clear, signposted structure to the essay showing the reader where they are going. Answers the question and gives an opinion – but discusses both sides of the Revolution / Independence debate. Makes links between single events / key individuals and perhaps ranks them in order of importance. No chronological errors. As per level 6 with complete analysis of the historiography and the key events of the history of independence. A sound understanding of all of the issues involved (i.e. issue of taxation without representation) Begins to show evidence of cross-comparison with other aspects of history studied (i.e. English Civil War). Evidence of wider-reading around the subject – perhaps mentioning US Civil War. Discusses importance of Independence Day and US system of checks and balances in government As per level 7, but a higher degree of sophistication and links in with the theoretical debate to do with Paine, Locke and Rousseau and the French Revolution. Sound grammar, punctuation and 100% factually accurate.
  94. 97. Writing the essay Connectives
  95. 98. Writing the essay Conclusion

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