Play_as_Novick [Vietnam]

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Simulation whereby you play as an advisor to US President over Vietnam.

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Play_as_Novick [Vietnam]

  1. 1. Starter Vietnam – What does it mean to you?
  2. 2. Learning outcome By the end of the lesson we will have.... Examined the decisions of successive US governments in Vietnam by...............
  3. 3. PLAY as GAMES
  4. 4. Play as Mike Novick ..... advisor to the President.......or if you like you could play as ......
  5. 5. Audrey Raines......
  6. 6. So, what does the job entail....?
  7. 7. START with 100 health rating! 100
  8. 8. It is 1963. You are just appointed to your new role....Senior Foreign Policy Advisor to the President Time to brush-up on some history. Page 353
  9. 9. NEWS ALERT!
  10. 10. You rush back to Washington whereby you receive the latest TV footage of what has happened in Dallas today.
  11. 11. Scenario # 1 – LBJ sworn in
  12. 12. Scenario # 1 – LBJ sworn in
  13. 13. Scenario # 1 – LBJ sworn in The new President, Lyndon Baines Johnson [LBJ] has just been sworn in on Air Force One . He makes his way back to Washington and requests a meeting with you. He asks for your opinion on what the late President, JFK, thought about Vietnam. Good job you had time to swot up on that history. What do you tell him?
  14. 14. Scenario # 1 – LBJ sworn in A JFK was just about to order a whole new raft of measures to tackle the increasing problem in Vietnam – notably 10,000 new troops. B The late President was wary about getting involved in Vietnam and could see it becoming more problematic in the future. C JFK was not particularly interested, but you know that guerrilla warfare is on the increase in 1963 VOTE NOW
  15. 15. Scenario # 1 – LBJ sworn in A JFK was just about to order a whole new raft of measures to tackle the increasing problem in Vietnam – notably 10,000 new troops. Lose 10 points. JFK had been wary of getting involved in Vietnam – and you’ve got off to a bad start with the new President giving him duff advice!
  16. 16. Scenario # 1 – LBJ sworn in B The late President was wary about getting involved in Vietnam and could see it becoming more problematic in the future. Gain 3 points. Very sound advice. Actually LBJ knew full well what JFK’s views were. He was just testing you out. You are beginning to win the trust of the new incumbent.
  17. 17. Scenario # 1 – LBJ sworn in C JFK was not particularly interested, but you know that guerrilla warfare is on the increase in 1963 + 0 zero! JFK did care about Vietnam. Although the President does take note about your obvious knowledge of the situation and is impressed!
  18. 18. Scenario # 1 – LBJ sworn in What really happened....? JFK and LBJ didn’t really get on that well. Moreover the new President certainly took on the issue of Vietnam more fully than his predecessor. This may have been down to the increase in guerrilla war in 1963 and 1964 and tension between North and South Vietnam.
  19. 20. You’re settling into life quite nicely under the new President. He calls you into his office and asks for you to brief him on two topics. The Domino Theory and policy of Containment. What’s your answer? Scenario # 2 – Domino theory
  20. 21. Scenario # 2 – Domino Theory A It dates back to President Eisenhower who coined the phrase to explain countries falling to Communism. B It dates back to Winston Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech and has been used by successive US governments to justify American intervention around the world. C Domino Theory relates to the US government giving aid such as the Berlin Blockade during the Cold War. They give the aid – and then like a domino countries become more profitable and begin to spend money (usually on US goods!) VOTE NOW
  21. 22. Scenario # 2 – Domino Theory A It dates back to President Eisenhower who coined the phrase to explain countries falling to Communism. Gain 10 points. Well done! You obviously know your stuff Advisor! The President is very impressed – and it has become apparent to him that you are to be trusted. LBJ is certainly very pro-Domino Theory
  22. 23. Scenario # 2 – Domino Theory B It dates back to Winston Churchill’s ‘Iron Curtain’ speech and has been used by successive US governments to justify American intervention around the world. Gain 0 + zero. It is true that Churchill set the tone for the policy – but the actual phrase came from a speech by President Eisenhower in 1954 referring to Communism in Indochina.
  23. 24. Scenario # 2 – Domino Theory C Domino Theory relates to the US government giving aid such as the Berlin Blockade during the Cold War. They give the aid – and then like a domino countries become more profitable and begin to spend money (usually on US goods!) Lose 10 points. Oh dear! LBJ raises his eyebrows at you over his glasses. He actually firmly believes in the policy of containment and the Domino Theory. He just wanted to suss out your views on it – but the fact you haven’t got a clue means he is less likely to turn to you in the future!
  24. 25. Scenario # 2 – Domino Theory What really happened? LBJ became a huge believer in the Domino Theory and also the policy of containment. The policy was a corner stone of much of the US government’s foreign policy in the early stages of the Cold War. The phrase Domino Theory was coined by Eisenhower in 1954 talking about Communism in Indochina. The Policy of Containment came from Kennan’s long telegram in 1947 – often dubbed the X-article.
  25. 26. Scenario # 3 – Gulf of Tonkin It is August 1964. You have just received a memo and rush into see LBJ. You show him the piece of paper.....
  26. 27. Scenario # 3 – Gulf of Tonkin To: US Foreign Policy Advisor to LBJ From: USS Maddox Commander Date: August 1 st 1964 Message: We have noticed suspicious action in the Gulf of Tonkin. Several suspicious looking North Vietnamese boats are patrolling the waters near to our fleet.
  27. 28. Scenario # 3 – Gulf of Tonkin
  28. 29. Scenario # 3 – Gulf of Tonkin A Mr President. I suggest we open fire on these ships. They’re obviously up to no good. Moreover we could always ‘spin’ the story to state they fired the first shot if it comes out. B Mr President. I suggest we order USS ship to the area. Have our troops on red-alert for any possible attack. If we are shot at / then give immediate instruction for retaliatory fire. C Mr President. Our mere presence in the waters could be seen as provocative to the North Vietnamese. Tell our ships to withdraw to international waters immediately. VOTE NOW
  29. 30. Scenario # 3 – Gulf of Tonkin A Mr President. I suggest we open fire on these ships. They’re obviously up to no good. Moreover we could always ‘spin’ the story to state they fired the first shot if it comes out. Gain zero 0 points! This is a bit of a risky strategy, that could easily backfire and end up with a bigger problem that we all have to deal with. The N.Vietnamese ships are well within their right to be there after all.
  30. 31. Scenario # 3 – Gulf of Tonkin B Mr President. I suggest we order USS ship to the area. Have our troops on red-alert for any possible attack. If we are shot at / then give immediate instruction for retaliatory fire. Gain 3 points. Probably the most sensible option. Our ships are already there – and we do have USS Freedom docked in a nearby port ready for action. At least this way we don’t run the risk of a diplomatic incident.
  31. 32. Scenario # 3 – Gulf of Tonkin C Mr President. Our mere presence in the waters could be seen as provocative to the North Vietnamese. Tell our ships to withdraw to international waters immediately. Lose 15 points. Quite a sensible strategy but the President raises his eyes at you. He privately confides in others that he thinks you could be part of a Communist conspiracy to overthrow his Presidency with comments like this! You’re meant to be the advisor to the US President.
  32. 33. Scenario # 3 – Gulf of Tonkin What really happened? The Gulf of Tonkin Incident defined the beginning of large-scale involvement of U.S. armed forces in Vietnam. It was a pair of supposed attacks carried out by naval forces of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) against two American destroyers, the USS Maddox and the USS Turner Joy . The incident occurred on August 2 and 4, 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin. The outcome of the incident was the passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted President Lyndon Johnson the authority to assist any Southeast Asian country whose government was considered to be jeopardized by "communist aggression". The resolution served as Johnson's legal justification for escalating American involvement in the Vietnam Conflict, which lasted until 1975. In 2005, it was revealed in an official NSA declassified report that the Maddox first fired warning shots on the August 2 incident and that there may have been no North Vietnamese boats at the August 4 incident.
  33. 34. Scenario # 3 – Gulf of Tonkin
  34. 35. Scenario # 4 – Congress Following the exchange of fire. LBJ calls you into his office “For all I know they could have been shooting at whales out there...” “ But I realise we’ve been pushed into a corner. We have made up a pack of lies about aggression towards our troops.” “ How do I respond? Can we use this to our advantage?” What is your response to him
  35. 36. Scenario # 4 – Congress A We could just put the incident on the back-burner. The fact is the press, public, and the world seems to have bought our story about our ships being attacked. Let’s keep a low profile on this one. B We could use the situation to rush a bill through Congress. This could give the Executive branch the power to declare war / send more troops without having to go cap in hand to the Legislative branch. A bit risky, but in times of crisis you can use your full Executive powers. C We should call in the leader of the House of Representatives and Senate who are Democratic and get them to draft a bill to see whether they will support extending the Executive powers. VOTE NOW
  36. 37. Scenario # 4 – Congress A We could just put the incident on the back-burner. The fact is the press, public, and the world seems to have bought our story about our ships being attacked. Let’s keep a low profile on this one. Gain 5 points. A sensible option. Particularly as it seems you have got away with the Gulf incident. However the President speaks to other close advisers and drafts a bill to go through Congress. Your position is becoming more, and more, sidelined.
  37. 38. Scenario # 4 – Congress B We could use the situation to rush a bill through Congress. This could give the Executive branch the power to declare war / send more troops without having to go cap in hand to the Legislative branch. A bit risky, but in times of crisis you can use your full Executive powers. Gain 10 points! An inspired decision. The President is really impressed with your clever knowledge that Congress is so preoccupied with the Civil Rights legislation that such an extension of executive powers can be passed almost through the back door!
  38. 39. Scenario # 4 – Congress C We should call in the leader of the House of Representatives and Senate who are Democratic and get them to draft a bill to see whether they will support extending the Executive powers. Lose 15 points! A poor decision Advisor! The two leaders are busy drafting Civil Rights legislation at this time following MLK’s “I have a dream” speech in 1963. Anyway they would never, knowingly, agree to such a power shift from the Legislative branch to the Executive one.
  39. 40. Scenario # 4 – Congress What really happened? The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was a joint resolution of the U.S. Congress passed in August 1964 in direct response to a minor naval engagement known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. It is of historical significance because it gave U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson authorization, without a formal declaration of war by Congress, for the use of military force in Southeast Asia. The Johnson administration subsequently cited the resolution as legal authority for its rapid escalation of U.S. military involvement in the Vietnam conflict.
  40. 41. US Presidential Election 1964
  41. 42. US Presidential Election 1964
  42. 44. Scenario # 5 – Operation Rolling Thunder LBJ is quite pleased with himself that he has managed to get such powers following the Tonkin resolution and also he’s won the Presidency and the support of the public. It is now Feb 1965. LBJ calls you into his office – he’s got three options to put towards you. Which of them is the most appealing to you?
  43. 45. Scenario # 5 – Operation Rolling Thunder A We order a massive Air Force and Navy operation alongside the South Vietnamese Air Force. It would destroy the North’s transportation system, industrial base and air defences. B We try to persuade our NATO allies, such as the UK, to provide more troops, and planes, in order to counter the ‘domino theory’ of South Vietnam falling to the Communists. C We launch a pre-emptive series of air strikes against USSR and China planes who are delivering supplies to the people of North Vietnam. This will cut off a major supply line of weaponry and food to our opponents. VOTE NOW
  44. 46. Scenario # 5 – Operation Rolling Thunder A We order a massive Air Force and Navy operation alongside the South Vietnamese Air Force. It would destroy the North’s transportation system, industrial base and air defences. Gain 5 points! You are well aware that General Westmoreland has said that 23,000 troops are not enough to cope against the NLF (National Liberation Front). The plan is for the sustained bombing raids to only last 8 weeks anyway.
  45. 47. Scenario # 5 – Operation Rolling Thunder B We try to persuade our NATO allies, such as the UK, to provide more troops, and planes, in order to counter the ‘domino theory’ of South Vietnam falling to the Communists. Lose 20 points! LBJ cannot believe you could come up with such an idea. The fact is no one else from NATO want to get involved in a conflict not on their doorsteps. Get back to the books Advisor and swot up quickly!
  46. 48. Scenario # 5 – Operation Rolling Thunder C We launch a pre-emptive series of air strikes against USSR and China planes who are delivering supplies to the people of North Vietnam. This will cut off a major supply line of weaponry and food to our opponents. Gain 0 zero points! An interesting tactic – but coming so soon after the Cuban Missile Crisis a risky one. We know these two are supplying our enemies but diplomatically it might look a bit dodgy if we set out a policy in order to actually target them!
  47. 49. Scenario # 5 – Operation Rolling Thunder What really happened? On March 8, 3,500 US marines arrived in South Vietnam. They were the first 'official' US combat troops to be sent to the country. This dramatic escalation of the war was presented to the American public as being a short-term measure and did not cause much criticism at the time. A public opinion poll carried out that year indicated that nearly 80% of the American public supported the bombing raids and the sending of combat troops to Vietnam. What really happened?
  48. 50. Scenario # 5 – Operation Rolling Thunder What really happened? On March 8, 3,500 US marines arrived in South Vietnam. They were the first 'official' US combat troops to be sent to the country. This dramatic escalation of the war was presented to the American public as being a short-term measure and did not cause much criticism at the time. A public opinion poll carried out that year indicated that nearly 80% of the American public supported the bombing raids and the sending of combat troops to Vietnam. What really happened?

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