J417 Ck Grids Paper I


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Paper I revision grids - based on the specification key questions - to go with the Year 11 Revision pack

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J417 Ck Grids Paper I

  1. 1. J417 OCR Modern World History B Paper I – A971 – International Relations 1919-39 & German Depth Study 1918-45 http://gcsehistory.wetpaint.com
  2. 2. J417 Paper I – International Relations: The inter-war years 1919-39 <ul><li>Versailles (1919) [BRAT] </li></ul><ul><li>June 28 th 1919 at Versailles, just outside Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had to accept B lame for WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Germany had to pay £6,600 million in R eparations </li></ul><ul><li>Germany forbidden to have an airforce, submarines, a navy of only 6 ships and an A rmy of 100,000 men. Conscription was banned </li></ul><ul><li>Germany lost T erritory – Rhineland, Alsace-Lorraine, Saar, Colonies to UK/FRA </li></ul><ul><li>David Lloyd-George (UK) </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted:- </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise between FRA & </li></ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul><ul><li>Expand British Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Justice but not revenge </li></ul><ul><li>Make GER pay, but not at expense of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Got:- </li></ul><ul><li>GER colonies and smaller GER Navy </li></ul><ul><li>Said Treaty too harsh and would cause War in 25 years time </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- - What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles? - Why did the victors not get everything they wanted? - What were the immediate reactions to the peace settlements? - Could the Treaties be justified at the time? <ul><li>AUSTRIA - St Germain 10 th Sept 1919 </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations agreed, never set </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted size of AUS army </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantled AUS-HUG Empire </li></ul><ul><li>HUNGARY – Trianon 4 th June 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Reparations but not paid </li></ul><ul><li>Dismantled AUS-HUG Empire </li></ul><ul><li>BULGARIA – Neuilly – 27 Nov 1920 Reparations and land </li></ul><ul><li>TURKEY – Sevres – 10 Aug 1920 Limited army </li></ul><ul><li>Lausanne 24 th July 1923 imposed on the Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>George Clemenceau [FRA] </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted:- </li></ul><ul><li>Revenge on GER </li></ul><ul><li>Punish GER for death and destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Make GER pay reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Weaken GER militarily so FRA never under threat again </li></ul><ul><li>Got:- </li></ul><ul><li>Terms of Treaty – BRAT </li></ul><ul><li>But wanted Treaty to be harsher and GER to be split into smaller countries </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate reactions to the Treaties </li></ul><ul><li>Germany felt humiliated </li></ul><ul><li>Angry about tiny army </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of territory was unfair </li></ul><ul><li>Angry at Clause 231 re-blame </li></ul><ul><li>French people thought not harsh enough </li></ul><ul><li>British people thought differently to Lloyd George who was concerned </li></ul><ul><li>US Senate refused to sign Treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Woodrow Wilson [USA] </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted:- </li></ul><ul><li>14 points </li></ul><ul><li>End to disputes – peace and LON </li></ul><ul><li>Self Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Got:- </li></ul><ul><li>LON </li></ul><ul><li>Self-determination for E.Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Some of 14 points did not make it </li></ul><ul><li>Senate refused to join LON so USA stayed out </li></ul>Big Question:- Were the Peace Treaties of 1919-23 fair?
  3. 3. J417 Paper I – International Relations: The inter-war years 1919-39 <ul><li>AIMS / POWERS of the League </li></ul><ul><li>Based in Geneva, Switzerland – neutral country </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Security </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage Disarmament </li></ul><ul><li>Impose economic sanctions </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage trade </li></ul><ul><li>Using armed forces from the countries to settle disputes </li></ul><ul><li>Manchuria 1931-33 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan invaded Manchuria 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan refused to follow the LON’s instruction to leave </li></ul><ul><li>Lytton Commission spent a year fact-finding whilst the invasion continued </li></ul><ul><li>Japan just withdrew from the LON – demonstrated how weak the LON was </li></ul><ul><li>UK more concerned with Singapore to get involved </li></ul><ul><li>Abyssinia 1935 </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini (ITA) got ready to invade Abysinia – LON talked to him but he sent troops to Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Mussolini ignored LON who banned weapon sales and put sanctions on rubber and metal </li></ul><ul><li>UK and FRA secretly signed Hoare Laval pact to give Abyssinia to ITA after Abyssinia appealed to LON who did nothing </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- -What were the aims of the League? - How successful was the League in the 1920s? - How did weaknesses in the League’s organisation make failure inevitable? - How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult? - Why did the League fail over Manchuria and Abyssinia? <ul><li>SUCCESSES </li></ul><ul><li>Upper Silesia 1921 </li></ul><ul><li>Refugees in Turkey 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Greece and Bulgaria 1925 </li></ul><ul><li>Humanitarian aid – Third world, water and leprosy </li></ul><ul><li>AND FAILURES IN 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>Vilna 1920 </li></ul><ul><li>Invasion of the Ruhr 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Italy and Albania 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>Turkey 1923 </li></ul><ul><li>STRUCTURE and ORGANISATION </li></ul><ul><li>Not all nations were members </li></ul><ul><li>Had to rely on collective security </li></ul><ul><li>Dominated by UK and FRA – Japan left </li></ul><ul><li>USA did not join </li></ul><ul><li>Too slow to take action </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions had to be unanimous – all members states had equal voting rights – fine when in agreement, but cumbersome when not </li></ul>Depression – made countries try to get more land and power. Not interested in committing money and troops to the LON. Article III- Disarmament -1925 appointed a commission to look at disarmament but it failed ILO – International Labor Organisations had some successes (see 1920s) Court of International Justice – limited powers and successes (see Successes/Failures) Big Question:- To what extent was the League of Nations a success?
  4. 4. J417 Paper I – International Relations: The inter-war years 1919-39 <ul><li>Increasing militarism of GER, ITA and JAPAN </li></ul><ul><li>1931-33 Manchuria with JAPAN – wanted a larger Empire </li></ul><ul><li>1933 – Hitler assumes power in GER – rebuilds militarily – against TOV </li></ul><ul><li>1935 – Abyssinia and MUSSOLINI ITA – who wanted a new Empire to match that of the Roman one </li></ul><ul><li>APPEASEMENT – see events from Munich Conference to Sept 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Some British people approved of Hitler’s policies </li></ul><ul><li>British people hoped a strong GER would stop growth of Communist Russia </li></ul><ul><li>Many people felt events in Europe were not Britain’s business </li></ul><ul><li>Many British people wanted peace </li></ul><ul><li>Many British agreed that TOV was unfair </li></ul><ul><li>Winston Churchill one of the few to oppose Chamberlain </li></ul><ul><li>BUT caused Hitler to believe he could do anything, gave Britain time to rearm, gave UK the high moral ground </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- - What were the long-term consequences of Peace Treaties 1919-23? - What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s? - How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939? - Was the policy of Appeasement justified? - How important was the Nazi-Soviet pact? - Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in 1939? <ul><li>RHINELAND </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler invaded the Rhineland 7 MARCH 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Broke TOV </li></ul><ul><li>It was a bluff – GER army only had 22,000 men </li></ul><ul><li>Had orders to retreat if challenged </li></ul><ul><li>Britain and France did nothing </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler got away with it! </li></ul><ul><li>NAZI-SOVIET PACT </li></ul><ul><li>Summer 1939 Hitler plans to take over Poland </li></ul><ul><li>First the Germans in Danzig demanded union, Hitler threatened war </li></ul><ul><li>Chamberlain promised the Poles UK would help out if attacked </li></ul><ul><li>August 1939 – Hitler made a secret pact with USSR – thought this would stop UK and FRA if GER attacked Poland and wanted to avoid war on two fronts. </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin had to buy time to avoid war and build up armed forces. Had to choose between GER and UK/FRA – chose GER as USSR would share POLAND </li></ul><ul><li>SAAR </li></ul><ul><li>TOV had put the Saar under the control of the LON for 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>1935 inhabitants voted to return to GER </li></ul><ul><li>Many historians cite this as the first step to war </li></ul><ul><li>AUSTRIA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA & POLAND </li></ul><ul><li>1938 Hitler took over AUSTRIA after encouraging Austrian Nazis to demand union with GER </li></ul><ul><li>11 MARCH 1938 – Hitler invades </li></ul><ul><li>Broke TOV – UK and FRA did nothing </li></ul><ul><li>1938 Hitler tried to take over SUDETENLAND by encouraging Sudeten Nazis to demand union. Hitler made plans to invade CZECHOSLOVAKIA </li></ul><ul><li>MUNICH 29 SEPT 1938 – Neville Chamberlain appeased Hitler - Britain and France gave Sudetenland to GER </li></ul><ul><li>15 th March 1939 – Hitler’s troops marched into Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Sept 1939 Hitler invades POLAND </li></ul>Big Question:- Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?
  5. 5. J417 Paper I – Germany 1918-1945 <ul><li>Establishment of the Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Kaiser abdicated 1918 </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 1919 President Ebert </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic republic – using PR = coalition govts </li></ul><ul><li>Berlin is so dangerous the new government has to meet in small town of Weimar </li></ul><ul><li>Day to day government the responsibility of the Chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural achievements </li></ul><ul><li>Roaring ’20s hit Germany under Stresemann </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee shops, cinema, café culture </li></ul><ul><li>New houses built </li></ul><ul><li>Labour exchanges to pay unemployed money </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity in architecture – Gropius </li></ul><ul><li>Art –Klee and Dix </li></ul><ul><li>Films </li></ul><ul><li>Caberet – M. Dietrich </li></ul><ul><li>Books - Remarque </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- <ul><li>Economic distress and hyperinflation </li></ul><ul><li>To cope with reparations problem Ebert printed more money = hyperinflation </li></ul><ul><li>Prices went sky high – Nov 1923 £ = 14 bn marks! </li></ul><ul><li>1924 new Chancellor Stresemann created the centenary and USA loaned money (Dawes Plan) </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying weaknesses of the Republic </li></ul><ul><li>PR causing problems </li></ul><ul><li>Parties did form coalition but did not cooperate causing governments to break down </li></ul><ul><li>Elections 1919,1920,1924 x 2, 1928 </li></ul><ul><li>Wages rose as did industrial production but was all dependent on the USA and 800 million mark loans </li></ul><ul><li>Small business and farmers suffered </li></ul><ul><li>Public service wages did not rise at the same rate as industrial workers </li></ul><ul><li>Political disorder 1920-23 </li></ul><ul><li>Jan 1919 – Spartacist Revolt by Communists. </li></ul><ul><li>Army and Freikorps arrested and killed Communist leaders </li></ul><ul><li>March 1920 – Freikorps – Kapp Putsch </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary people went on strike to show opposition to Kapp in Germany – Kapp gave up and fled </li></ul><ul><li>Passive Resistance in Ruhr 1932 </li></ul><ul><li>The Stressemann era – recovery at home and abroad </li></ul><ul><li>No more riots or crisis 1924-29 </li></ul><ul><li>Army, Civil Service and Judiciary all co-operated with the government </li></ul><ul><li>Stresemann was a leading member of every govt. </li></ul><ul><li>1925 new President - Paul von Hindenburg – former war hero who was popular </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign relations expert </li></ul><ul><li>1925 Locarno Treaties </li></ul><ul><li>1926 LON + USA Young Plan </li></ul>Big Question:- Was the Weimar Republic doomed from the start?
  6. 6. J417 Paper I – Germany 1918-1945 <ul><li>Early years of the Nazi Party </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in Bavaria 1919 by Drexler </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler joined, membership card no 53 </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler soon took control using SA storm troopers </li></ul><ul><li>Very anti-the TOV </li></ul><ul><li>Did not believe in democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Reichstag Fire and Enabling Act </li></ul><ul><li>Early Feb – concentration camps opened – political opponents taken there </li></ul><ul><li>27 Feb Reichstag Fire – communists inc V D Lubbe arrested </li></ul><ul><li>24 March – Enabling Act gave EMERGENCY POWERS for four years without going to President. Made Hitler a dictator in Law </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- <ul><li>The political, social and economic crisis 1929-33 </li></ul><ul><li>Wall St Crash </li></ul><ul><li>Huge unemployment –late 1932 = 6 million </li></ul><ul><li>Germans lost savings when banks collapsed </li></ul><ul><li>Weimar govt cut welfare payments </li></ul><ul><li>Shanty towns and begging for food </li></ul><ul><li>Nazis offered solutions and people at last began to listen </li></ul><ul><li>How Hitler became Chancellor 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>Late 1932 – Hindenburg and von Paper decided to do a deal with Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Offered post of Vice-Chancellor but Hitler refused </li></ul><ul><li>30 Jan 1933 – Hitler made Chancellor </li></ul><ul><li>Hindenburg thought he could control Hitler – how wrong he was! </li></ul><ul><li>Change of tactics after the Putsch </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 1923 in Munich, Bavaria </li></ul><ul><li>Disaster – army did not support him </li></ul><ul><li>Sent to prison for 5 years </li></ul><ul><li>In prison wrote Mein Kampf </li></ul><ul><li>Served only 9 months </li></ul><ul><li>On coming out he reorganised the Nazi Party into districts. </li></ul><ul><li>1928 100,000 members less than 3% of the vote </li></ul><ul><li>Growing support 1928-33 </li></ul><ul><li>Disillusionment with Weimar democracy </li></ul><ul><li>1928 – 12 seats, 1930 107, July 1932 – 230, Nov 1932, 196 </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of communism </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi propaganda campaign was good – used press and radio and adverts </li></ul><ul><li>Meetings were organised – SA and SS looked smart </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler was a wonderful speaker </li></ul><ul><li>Big Business bank rolled him </li></ul>Big Question:- How was Hitler able to dominate Germany by 1933?
  7. 7. J417 Paper I – Germany 1918-1945 <ul><li>Night of the Long Knives & death of Hindenburg </li></ul><ul><li>Spring – Ernst Rohm wanted Hitler to join the army and the SA under Rohm’s command </li></ul><ul><li>30 June NOTLK </li></ul><ul><li>SS troopers arrested 400 SA leaders </li></ul><ul><li>Around 90 arrested inc Rohm were murdered </li></ul><ul><li>19th Aug – Hindenburg died – Hitler combined Chancellor/President = Fuhrer </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition from other quarters:- </li></ul><ul><li>Church groups </li></ul><ul><li>Communists </li></ul><ul><li>Passive resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Kristallnacht – Nov 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish properties were smashed and synagogues were burnt. 100 Jews killed, and 30,000 arrested </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- <ul><li>SS and Gestapo </li></ul><ul><li>Early in 1933 Nazis took control of courts, judges and lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>SS began life as Hitler’s bodyguards – </li></ul><ul><li>After SA was destroyed – SS became a huge organisation under Heinrich Himmler </li></ul><ul><li>The SS had many sub-units such as the Death’s Head Unit which ran the concentration camps </li></ul><ul><li>Gestapo under Reinhard Heydrich role was to root out possible enemies of Nazism. </li></ul><ul><li>When war broke out they rounded up 162,000 people into protective custody </li></ul><ul><li>Opposition to Nazi Rule </li></ul><ul><li>The Swing Movement – anti everything </li></ul><ul><li>Heavily into American culture, jazz music and sexual intercourse </li></ul><ul><li>The Edelweiss Pirates </li></ul><ul><li>Small groups of young people who used the edelweiss flower as a symbol against Nazism </li></ul><ul><li>When war started in 1939 – they stepped up their opposition </li></ul><ul><li>In Dec 1942 – Nazis sent 739 Pirates to labour camps, and in 1944 the leaders of the Cologne Pirates were hanged </li></ul><ul><li>The use of culture, mass media and propaganda </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler’s vision for Germany – Volkemeinshaft </li></ul><ul><li>March 1933 Reich Ministry for Popular Enlitlement and Propaganda under Goebbels </li></ul><ul><li>Film, Radio used </li></ul><ul><li>Impressive rallies and meetings </li></ul><ul><li>Reich Chamber of Culture – anyone who published/worked in the arts had to belong to it </li></ul><ul><li>Youth groups </li></ul><ul><li>Such as the Hitler Youth and BDM </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled the schools – inc curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of physical exercise and subjects were tailored to Nazi ideals </li></ul><ul><li>Youth organisations were attractive – holidays, sports equipment and comradeship </li></ul><ul><li>Nazi propaganda targeted young people </li></ul>Big Question:- The Nazi regime: How effectively did the Nazis control Germany 1933-45?
  8. 8. J417 Paper I – Germany 1918-1945 <ul><li>Hitler Youth and Lge of German Maidens </li></ul><ul><li>HJ – organised into corps under adult leaders – which caused problems post 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to prep schools and the scout movement </li></ul><ul><li>BDM – girl branch of the HJ </li></ul><ul><li>From the age of 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Membership compulsory from 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion to the War Economy </li></ul><ul><li>1942 Albert Speer put in charge of German industry </li></ul><ul><li>1942 serious food shortages </li></ul><ul><li>Housing shortage caused by bombing </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – Goebbels put in charge of the German Home Defence Lge – had to organise teenagers and old men to fight the invading Soviet, American and UK troops </li></ul>KEY QUESTIONS:- <ul><li>Effectiveness of economic policies </li></ul><ul><li>Strength through Joy – provided leisure opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>The Beauty of Labour organisation improved working conditions in industry (e.g.washrooms) </li></ul><ul><li>The Reich Food Estate – gave farmers guaranteed markets and prices </li></ul><ul><li>Middle classes happy – Communism removed </li></ul><ul><li>Big Business happy – no Trades Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Huge public spending created an economic boom </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of the Second World War </li></ul><ul><li>Food rationing began in Sept 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Nov 1939 – clothes were rationed </li></ul><ul><li>SS looted countries Nazis invaded – food, raw materials and other resources were sent back </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Aryan Germans were encouraged to settle in new conquered territories </li></ul><ul><li>SS became increasingly powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Women and Family policies </li></ul><ul><li>On coming to power forced professional women to quit their job </li></ul><ul><li>Banned from Civil Service in 1933 </li></ul><ul><li>BDM – taught about health and housekeeping </li></ul><ul><li>Women offered cheap loans and grants if they married and had kids </li></ul><ul><li>An honours system set up for couples with kids – 8 the top award </li></ul><ul><li>Birth rate 15 per 1000 in 1933 to 20 per 1000 in 1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Rearmament </li></ul><ul><li>Created an economic boom </li></ul><ul><li>Increased national pride </li></ul><ul><li>1933 left the LON disarmament conference </li></ul><ul><li>1935 announced rearmament </li></ul><ul><li>Over next 6 years – 8000 tanks, warships and aircraft </li></ul><ul><li>By 1939 – German army had 950,000 men </li></ul><ul><li>Hitler overturned the TOV </li></ul><ul><li>Rhineland 1936 </li></ul><ul><li>Anschluss with Austira 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>Munich Agreement 1938 </li></ul><ul><li>1939 Hitler invades rest of Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>August 1939 Nazi-Soviet pact </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Sept – invades Poland </li></ul>Big Question:- The Nazi regime: What was it like to live in Nazi Germany?