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Revision grids for J417 Modern World History

Revision grids for J417 Modern World History

Paper 1 A971

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    J417 Ck Grids J417 Ck Grids Presentation Transcript

    • J417 OCR Modern World History B Paper I – A971 – International Relations 1919-39 REVISION GRID http://gcsehistory.wetpaint.com
    • J417 Paper I – International Relations: The inter-war years 1919-39
      • Versailles (1919) [BRAT]
      • June 28 th 1919 at Versailles, just outside Paris
      • Germany had to accept B lame for WWI
      • Germany had to pay £6,600 million in R eparations
      • Germany forbidden to have an airforce, submarines, a navy of only 6 ships and an A rmy of 100,000 men. Conscription was banned
      • Germany lost T erritory – Rhineland, Alsace-Lorraine, Saar, Colonies to UK/FRA
      • David Lloyd-George (UK)
      • Wanted:-
      • Compromise between FRA &
      • USA
      • Expand British Empire
      • Justice but not revenge
      • Make GER pay, but not at expense of trade
      • Got:-
      • GER colonies and smaller GER Navy
      • Said Treaty too harsh and would cause War in 25 years time
      KEY QUESTIONS:- - What were the motives and aims of the Big Three at Versailles? - Why did the victors not get everything they wanted? - What were the immediate reactions to the peace settlements? - Could the Treaties be justified at the time?
      • AUSTRIA - St Germain 10 th Sept 1919
      • Reparations agreed, never set
      • Restricted size of AUS army
      • Dismantled AUS-HUG Empire
      • HUNGARY – Trianon 4 th June 1920
      • Reparations but not paid
      • Dismantled AUS-HUG Empire
      • BULGARIA – Neuilly – 27 Nov 1920 Reparations and land
      • TURKEY – Sevres – 10 Aug 1920 Limited army
      • Lausanne 24 th July 1923 imposed on the Ottoman Empire
      • George Clemenceau [FRA]
      • Wanted:-
      • Revenge on GER
      • Punish GER for death and destruction
      • Make GER pay reparations
      • Weaken GER militarily so FRA never under threat again
      • Got:-
      • Terms of Treaty – BRAT
      • But wanted Treaty to be harsher and GER to be split into smaller countries
      • Immediate reactions to the Treaties
      • Germany felt humiliated
      • Angry about tiny army
      • Loss of territory was unfair
      • Angry at Clause 231 re-blame
      • French people thought not harsh enough
      • British people thought differently to Lloyd George who was concerned
      • US Senate refused to sign Treaty
      • Woodrow Wilson [USA]
      • Wanted:-
      • 14 points
      • End to disputes – peace and LON
      • Self Determination
      • Got:-
      • LON
      • Self-determination for E.Europe
      • Some of 14 points did not make it
      • Senate refused to join LON so USA stayed out
      Big Question:- Were the Peace Treaties of 1919-23 fair?
    • J417 Paper I – International Relations: The inter-war years 1919-39
      • AIMS / POWERS of the League
      • Based in Geneva, Switzerland – neutral country
      • Collective Security
      • Encourage Disarmament
      • Impose economic sanctions
      • Encourage trade
      • Using armed forces from the countries to settle disputes
      • Manchuria 1931-33
      • Japan invaded Manchuria 1932
      • Japan refused to follow the LON’s instruction to leave
      • Lytton Commission spent a year fact-finding whilst the invasion continued
      • Japan just withdrew from the LON – demonstrated how weak the LON was
      • UK more concerned with Singapore to get involved
      • Abyssinia 1935
      • Mussolini (ITA) got ready to invade Abysinia – LON talked to him but he sent troops to Africa
      • Mussolini ignored LON who banned weapon sales and put sanctions on rubber and metal
      • UK and FRA secretly signed Hoare Laval pact to give Abyssinia to ITA after Abyssinia appealed to LON who did nothing
      KEY QUESTIONS:- -What were the aims of the League? - How successful was the League in the 1920s? - How did weaknesses in the League’s organisation make failure inevitable? - How far did the Depression make the work of the League more difficult? - Why did the League fail over Manchuria and Abyssinia?
      • SUCCESSES
      • Upper Silesia 1921
      • Refugees in Turkey 1923
      • Greece and Bulgaria 1925
      • Humanitarian aid – Third world, water and leprosy
      • AND FAILURES IN 1920s
      • Vilna 1920
      • Invasion of the Ruhr 1923
      • Italy and Albania 1923
      • Turkey 1923
      • STRUCTURE and ORGANISATION
      • Not all nations were members
      • Had to rely on collective security
      • Dominated by UK and FRA – Japan left
      • USA did not join
      • Too slow to take action
      • Decisions had to be unanimous – all members states had equal voting rights – fine when in agreement, but cumbersome when not
      Depression – made countries try to get more land and power. Not interested in committing money and troops to the LON. Article III- Disarmament -1925 appointed a commission to look at disarmament but it failed ILO – International Labor Organisations had some successes (see 1920s) Court of International Justice – limited powers and successes (see Successes/Failures) Big Question:- To what extent was the League of Nations a success?
    • J417 Paper I – International Relations: The inter-war years 1919-39
      • Increasing militarism of GER, ITA and JAPAN
      • 1931-33 Manchuria with JAPAN – wanted a larger Empire
      • 1933 – Hitler assumes power in GER – rebuilds militarily – against TOV
      • 1935 – Abyssinia and MUSSOLINI ITA – who wanted a new Empire to match that of the Roman one
      • APPEASEMENT – see events from Munich Conference to Sept 1939
      • Some British people approved of Hitler’s policies
      • British people hoped a strong GER would stop growth of Communist Russia
      • Many people felt events in Europe were not Britain’s business
      • Many British people wanted peace
      • Many British agreed that TOV was unfair
      • Winston Churchill one of the few to oppose Chamberlain
      • BUT caused Hitler to believe he could do anything, gave Britain time to rearm, gave UK the high moral ground
      KEY QUESTIONS:- - What were the long-term consequences of Peace Treaties 1919-23? - What were the consequences of the failures of the League in the 1930s? - How far was Hitler’s foreign policy to blame for the outbreak of war in 1939? - Was the policy of Appeasement justified? - How important was the Nazi-Soviet pact? - Why did Britain and France declare war on Germany in 1939?
      • RHINELAND
      • Hitler invaded the Rhineland 7 MARCH 1936
      • Broke TOV
      • It was a bluff – GER army only had 22,000 men
      • Had orders to retreat if challenged
      • Britain and France did nothing
      • Hitler got away with it!
      • NAZI-SOVIET PACT
      • Summer 1939 Hitler plans to take over Poland
      • First the Germans in Danzig demanded union, Hitler threatened war
      • Chamberlain promised the Poles UK would help out if attacked
      • August 1939 – Hitler made a secret pact with USSR – thought this would stop UK and FRA if GER attacked Poland and wanted to avoid war on two fronts.
      • Stalin had to buy time to avoid war and build up armed forces. Had to choose between GER and UK/FRA – chose GER as USSR would share POLAND
      • SAAR
      • TOV had put the Saar under the control of the LON for 15 years
      • 1935 inhabitants voted to return to GER
      • Many historians cite this as the first step to war
      • AUSTRIA, CZECHOSLOVAKIA & POLAND
      • 1938 Hitler took over AUSTRIA after encouraging Austrian Nazis to demand union with GER
      • 11 MARCH 1938 – Hitler invades
      • Broke TOV – UK and FRA did nothing
      • 1938 Hitler tried to take over SUDETENLAND by encouraging Sudeten Nazis to demand union. Hitler made plans to invade CZECHOSLOVAKIA
      • MUNICH 29 SEPT 1938 – Neville Chamberlain appeased Hitler - Britain and France gave Sudetenland to GER
      • 15 th March 1939 – Hitler’s troops marched into Czechoslovakia
      • 1 st Sept 1939 Hitler invades POLAND
      Big Question:- Why had international peace collapsed by 1939?