Civil War Causes

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Civil War Causes

  1. 1. Starter Look at the words on the left – which are key words that can be used in History. Can you think of any other way to spell them that sound the same as you would say them? [ Homophones ] Heir Son Rode Sea Pour Hair Their
  2. 2. Starter Look at the words on the left – which are key words that can be used in History. Can you think of any other way to spell them that sound the same as you would say them? [ Homophones ] Heir Son Rode Sea Pour Hair Their Air Sun Road See Poor Hare There
  3. 3. Fill in the CAUSE or CONSEQUENCE boxes. Remember there can be more than one (1) for both – so don’t worry if you can think of more! EXT – add some more Causes, Events and Consequences below.... Starter Cause(s) Event Consequence(s) A crash on the M6 motorway Queensbridge School receives a ‘Good’ OfSTED Princess Diana dies in Paris Madeline McCann goes missing Henry VIII breaks with the Catholic Church William wins the Battle of Hastings
  4. 4. H/W
  5. 5. Marking feedback <ul><li>Underline </li></ul><ul><li>Starters in sideways [Rashidi] </li></ul><ul><li>Comments are meant to be read </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament x 100 in red book </li></ul><ul><li>Cut off the bottom bit if you can </li></ul><ul><li>Score needs to be constant – not just : “stay same” keep a number </li></ul>
  6. 6. Marking feedback <ul><li>Your written work was good </li></ul><ul><li>NC focus </li></ul>
  7. 7. Marking feedback <ul><li>Your written work was good </li></ul><ul><li>NC focus </li></ul><ul><li>People haven’t filled in green folder grid for QB Friars/ Merits </li></ul><ul><li>Admin time: Comment Wall </li></ul>
  8. 8. How could the English kill their King?
  9. 10. Evaluate the decisions Charles made via an interactive decision making simulation Learning outcome
  10. 11. I talk to people when I need help. I can explain what needs doing and why. I know how to deal with problems. I can see what needs improving. I use different viewpoints to reach a shared solution. I can support other people in their views and beliefs. I work well with others. I listen to others’ points of view. I change my behaviour to suit the situation. I respect other people’s differences. I take responsibility. I help others by giving them useful advice. I can generate ideas and possibilities. I ask questions to find out more. I can see how ideas or pieces of information fit together. I challenge ideas and assumptions that I make or that others make. I test ideas. I change ideas when I need to. I can see what has worked well and what hasn’t worked well. I know my targets and what I have to do to meet them. As I work, I can see how well I am doing. I listen to the advice of adults and people in my class. I learn from my mistakes. I let people know how I learn best. I like a new challenge. I work to goals and commit myself to tasks. I get to lessons on time with the equipment I need. I take risks and deal with them sensibly. I plan my own time and work to deadlines. I am able to deal with change. Effective Participator Team worker Creative thinkers Reflective Learner Self-Manager I can spot questions and problems that need answering and solving. I can plan and carry out a piece of research. I can look at things from different points of view. I can think about how important or relevant some information is. I can see how decisions or events are influenced by different points of view, beliefs or circumstances. I can back up points of view using arguments and evidence. Independent Enquirer
  11. 12. Effective participator I talk to people when I need help. I can explain what needs doing and why. I know how to deal with problems. I see what needs to be improved. I work with others to reach solutions. I can support other people in their views and beliefs. Team worker I work well with others. I listen to others’ points of view. I know how to behave in formal and informal situations. I respect other people’s differences. I take responsibility for my role within the group. I help others by giving them useful advice.
  12. 13. In 1649 the King of England, Charles I, was beheaded. Since 1642 he had been involved in a bitter Civil War with Parliament. In this simulation you will take the role of King Charles, and will make a number of decisions about how to run your country. We will examine your decisions compared to the rest of the class! After making each decision you will be told what the result of it was, and how it compares to what Charles really did. At the end of the game you will be told how likely it is that your decisions would have plunged England into a bitter Civil War! The Big Picture You will start with a score rating of 100
  13. 14. A B D C
  14. 15. Where is this?
  15. 18. You have just become King, and it is time to make your first speech to Parliament. You realise that Parliament is very important for your power, because it raises money for you in the form of taxes. Crowds cheer as you make your way into the Palace of Westminster, dressed in all your robes of state. The House of Commons all stand up as you enter, and you take your seat at the far end of the Chamber (see picture). Everyone sits down and waits in silence to hear what you have to say. What is the main message of your speech likely to be?
  16. 19. A I’ve been chosen by God to rule this country, and it’s Parliament’s duty to obey my orders so the country can be united and strong. B I’ve been given this job by the people of my Kingdom, and I plan to reach all my decision by close consultation with Parliament. This will be done even if it means decisions are taken more slowly. Attitude to Parliament
  17. 20. A I’ve been chosen by God to rule this country, and it’s Parliament’s duty to obey my orders so the country can be united and strong. Attitude to Parliament Lose 10 points Parliament is not very impressed with your speech, which seems unnecessarily aggressive. There are lots of mumbles of discontent as you march out. You may be storing up problems for the future! Parliament is not very impressed with your speech, which seems unnecessarily aggressive. There are lots of mumbles of discontent as you march out. You may be storing up problems for the future!
  18. 21. B I’ve been given this job by the people of my Kingdom, and I plan to reach all my decision by close consultation with Parliament. This will be done even if it means decisions are taken more slowly. Attitude to Parliament Add 5 to your total Parliament is very impressed with your speech. You seem to be a King who respects them and they just hope that you will stick by your promises. Well done – add 5 to your score!
  19. 22. What really happened? In reality, Charles said that he had been chosen by God to rule the country, and that it was the duty of Parliament to obey his orders so that the country could be strong and united. He called this idea &quot; Divine Right &quot; - in other words, a right given by God.
  20. 23. Marriage
  21. 24. Marriage – know of anyone who has tied the knot recently?
  22. 25. Marriage
  23. 26. Marriage It is 1625. Following your speech to Parliament, you get down to the everyday business of government, which you find very tiring. Your best friend, the Duke of Buckingham (a former favourite of your father), notices how worn out you are and takes you out for the day horse-riding. Eventually, you are deep in the countryside and you stop for a bite to eat. Climbing off his horse, Buckingham passes you his drinking flask and asks if you have given any more thought to getting married now that you are King.
  24. 27. Marriage A – I’ll marry an English Protestant, so that Parliament can see I’m reliable and trustworthy B – I plan to stay single. Children could grow up and steal my throne from me! C – I’ll marry a French Catholic so that Parliament can see that I’m friendly to all other countries and other religions. That will also bring in more money and influence via trade.
  25. 28. Marriage A – I’ll marry an English Protestant, so that Parliament can see I’m reliable and trustworthy This is probably the most sensible option. Catholic countries won't be happy, but at least your own Parliament will be convinced that you can be relied upon to protect the Church of England. Puritans too are less likely to be angered by this policy. Well done - the chances of Civil War have not risen! Don’t lose any points!
  26. 29. Marriage B – I plan to stay single. Children could grow up and steal my throne from me! This might be a sensible option in the short term, but in the long term it means that the country will face all sorts of problems about finding a new King after you are gone. When MP's get to hear of your decision they are very worried - a lot of them can remember the problems created by Elizabeth's refusal to marry Lose 3 points
  27. 30. Marriage C – I’ll marry a French Catholic so that Parliament can see that I’m friendly to all other countries and other religions. That will also bring in more money and influence via trade. This is not a very wise choice. Parliament is absolutely appalled that their King is getting married to a CATHOLIC! They are incredibly suspicious that you are maybe a Catholic yourself, and will be keeping a very close eye on you from now on... Lose 10 points from your total!
  28. 31. What really happened? Charles not only married a CATHOLIC , but a FRENCH one! This was not popular at all in Parliament. Many people thought that maybe Charles himself was a secret Catholic. The new Queen's name was Henrietta Maria (shown here with her son, the future Charles II). Charles was besotted with her beauty and soon the new Queen was to have a firm hold, and influence, over the King.
  29. 32. Buckingham
  30. 33. Buckingham It is 1626. Following your wedding, Buckingham tells you of his exciting (but expensive) plan to attack the Spanish with a fleet of ships. You love the idea, and although Parliament is not very keen, it eventually gives you the money for the operation. Buckingham sets off, but within a few days you get reports that he has made a complete pig's ear of the whole thing. Some ships have been sunk by the Spanish galleons, many men have been killed, and Buckingham is sailing back to England in disgrace. Parliament is furious, and is demanding that Buckingham be put into prison as soon as he gets back.
  31. 34. Buckingham A – Agree to Parliament’s demands. Buckingham messed up – he should pay the penalty! B – Refuse to punish Buckingham. He is a loyal friend. Instead put some MPs in prison to show who the real boss is around here! C – Send Buckingham to Court – (run by Parliament) and let them decide what to do with him after hearing all the evidence
  32. 35. Buckingham A – Agree to Parliament’s demands. Buckingham messed up – he should pay the penalty! You do not rate very highly as a friend, but at least you are realistic. By sacrificing Buckingham you are able to distance yourself from his failure and not take too much blame. Don’t lose any points from your score
  33. 36. Buckingham B – Refuse to punish Buckingham. He is a loyal friend. Instead put some MPs in prison to show who the real boss is around here! Buckingham breathes a sigh of relief, but Parliament is absolutely outraged by your behaviour. Lose 10 points
  34. 37. Buckingham C – Send Buckingham to Court – (run by Parliament) and let them decide what to do with him after hearing all the evidence A clever move, in a way - you avoid siding either with Buckingham or Parliament. However, neither side is happy with this. It looks like you haven't got the guts to decide what should be done for yourself Lose just 3 points from your score
  35. 38. What really happened? Charles stood by his friend. This saved the life of Buckingham , but Parliament was furious with the way that the King clearly didn't care about what it wanted. In the end, Charles's support didn't save Buckingham , who was assassinated a couple of years later. Charles was deeply upset, but most MPs were secretly glad that he was out of the picture at last.
  36. 39. Petition of Right It is 1628. Following the disastrous Spanish campaign, Parliament produces the the Petition of Right , which says that the King will have to deal much more closely with Parliament in future and ask their permission before reaching any important decisions. You initially refuse to sign, but it becomes clear that if you do not sign then Parliament will not be willing to give you any more money. What do you do?
  37. 40. Petition of Right
  38. 41. Petition of Right A – Sign it, but ignore it completely afterwards. At least this way Parliament will think they’re got one over you – but you’ll know differently! B – Sign it, and stick to it. After all Parliament represents the will of the people and you’ve had enough fallings out recently. C – Send in your troops to Parliament and bully them a bit. You’re the boss around here – and you’re getting a tad fed up with Parliament thinking differently!
  39. 42. Petition of Right A – Sign it, but ignore it completely afterwards. At least this way Parliament will think they’re got one over you – but you’ll know differently! With a great show of reluctance, you sign the Petition of Right and then leave Parliament. They are very happy that you have been prepared to compromise like this. It is only a matter of time, though, before they realise that you have no intention of sticking to the Petition... Lose 5 from your total
  40. 43. Petition of Right B – Sign it, and stick to it. After all Parliament represents the will of the people and you’ve had enough fallings out recently. You sign the Petition, and stick by it. Many people are surprised that you give in so easily to the demands of Parliament, and think that you are a bit spineless. Parliament, though, is overjoyed. It seems that you have managed to avoid leading the country any closer to Civil War on this occasion - well done! Don’t lose anything from your total
  41. 44. Petition of Right C – Send in your troops to Parliament and bully them a bit. You’re the boss around here – and you’re getting a tad fed up with Parliament thinking differently! This does not do anything to improve your reputation. All you do is appear aggressive and bossy. The fact remains that Parliament is where you will get your money from, and you cannot afford to anger them too much. Lose 15 from your total!
  42. 45. What really happened? Charles signed the Petition of Right, but had no intention whatsoever of sticking to it. Parliament soon realised this, and leading MPs like John Pym (right) now began to feel that Charles was not a man who could be trusted. Charles had got away with it this time – but had blotted his copy book a further time with Parliament!
  43. 46. Economic problems What is this building?
  44. 47. Economic problems The Bank of England
  45. 48. Economic problems What character is ‘Jack’ in this film?
  46. 49. Economic problems Birmingham Liverpool Manchester Southampton Norwich Hull
  47. 50. Economic problems It is 1629. You are fed up with Parliament trying to boss you around, and have it dissolved. However, you still need the money which Parliament usually gives you, and so you decide to raise some Ship Money – and you say it is to protect the people against Pirates! This is a tax which is usually paid by towns on the coast during a war so that ships can be built to protect them. Where shall you impose Ship Money?
  48. 51. Economic problems A – Costal towns. I won’t raise as much cash, but at least I’ll not be offending people! B – Costal and inland towns all over the country. I’ll raise loads of ‘dosh’ this way! C – Costal towns first. Then gradually implement it to inland towns in the form of a new tax. I should be able to manage my finances this way!
  49. 52. Economic problems A – Costal towns. I won’t raise as much cash, but at least I’ll not be offending people! A sensible policy, although the coastal towns are very angry about the tax because the country isn't even at war! Lose 5 points from your health
  50. 53. Economic problems B – Costal and inland towns all over the country. I’ll raise loads of ‘dosh’ this way! A terrible error. The country isn't even at war to start with, and of what use will ships be for Midland counties?! It is quite clear to the public that this is just an easy way for you to raise money without having to go to Parliament. Lose 10 points from your health
  51. 54. Economic problems C – Costal towns first. Then gradually implement it to inland towns in the form of a new tax. I should be able to manage my finances this way! It makes a lot of sense to introduce the policy gradually to see how badly people react. Nevertheless, the country isn't even at war to start with, and of what use will ships be for Midland counties?! It is quite clear to the public that this is just an easy way for you to raise money without having to go to Parliament. Lose 8 points from your health
  52. 55. What really happened? Charles imposed Ship Money firstly on the coastal counties, then on the inland counties as well. This was deeply resented, because not only was the country not at war, but even if it was then the inland counties would hardly need ships to protect them! One man, John Hampden , refused to pay the money, and was taken to court. The judges were on Charles's side and decided that Hampden had to pay.
  53. 56. What really happened?
  54. 57. Religious problems (a) Thomas Cramner Henry VIII Thomas Cromwell
  55. 58. Religious problems (a) William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury
  56. 59. Religious problems (a) It is 1637. William Laud , your Archbishop of Canterbury, is trying to make the Church of England more popular by making Churches more decorative and beautiful. Many Puritans feel that Laud is actually a Catholic in disguise and very soon lots of pamphlets start appearing which say so. Eventually you arrest three people in connection with this named Prynne, Burton and Bastwick . What do you do with them?
  57. 61. Religious problems (a) A – Execute them. Religion has causes enough problems over the years for Monarchs and we don’t want these people causing even more problems. B – Imprison them. In that way they won’t become martyrs. C – Disfigure them. In that way they will look stupid, and will scare people off trying anything like this again!
  58. 62. Religious problems (a) A – Execute them. Religion has causes enough problems over the years for Monarchs and we don’t want these people causing even more problems. You have Prynne, Burton and Bastwick burnt at the stake as heretics. This certainly frightens a lot of people, but in the long term you are seen as being brutal and unreasonable. Even worse, a lot of people now become convinced that you are a Catholic, like &quot;Bloody Mary&quot;! Lose 10 points from your health
  59. 63. Religious problems (a) B – Imprison them. In that way they won’t become martyrs. Prynne, Burton and Bastwick are thrown into the Tower of London. Probably the most sensible option. This will not make you popular with the Puritans, but at least you will manage to keep their ideas from spreading quite so fast. Lose 3 points from your health
  60. 64. Religious problems (a) C – Disfigure them. In that way they will look stupid, and will scare people off trying anything like this again! You have the three offenders tortured very nastily and then released. This certainly frightens a lot of people into silence, but secretly many people think that you are now very unreasonable and maybe even a secret Catholic yourself. They want revenge! Lose 8 points from your health
  61. 65. What really happened? Charles decided to humiliate Prynne, Burton and Bastwick. He had their ears cut off with blunt knives so that they would not be able to hear any more nasty things about Laud. Many of the King's opponents thought that this was far too brutal, and suggested that maybe Laud was a cannibal who was going to eat the ears for dinner! (see picture)
  62. 66. What really happened?
  63. 67. Religious problems (b) It is 1637. Archbishop Laud visits you in your palace, bringing with him a New Prayer Book which includes a few Catholic-style touches. &quot;Your Majesty,&quot; he says, &quot;with this book we could strengthen our Church by making it more decorative and beautiful; and with Prynne, Burton and Bastwick now dealt with there is no reason for it to fail&quot;. You are very interested, but become a bit concerned when Laud suggests that it should also be imposed in Scotland. &quot;Surely that would be dangerous, Laud?&quot; you say. &quot;Why?&quot; he asks. &quot;Because the Scots are even stronger Protestants than the English, and could react really badly. Maybe we should just limit it to England for now&quot;. &quot;But your Highness!&quot; replies Laud, &quot;If we don't impose it on the Scots, then they would have a different religion to the rest of your Kingdom, which would never do!&quot; You realise that what he says also makes sense. What do you do?
  64. 68. Religious problems (b) A – Don’t impose it at all. The Scots have a bit of a history of rebellion and it may be more trouble than it’s worth trying to force the book on them. B – Impose it quickly, and firmly. If you don’t then England and Scotland would have two different religions – that’ll never do in your Kingdom!
  65. 69. Religious problems (b) A – Don’t impose it at all. The Scots have a bit of a history of rebellion and it may be more trouble than it’s worth trying to force the book on them. This makes sense in a way, although you end up with England and Scotland having different religions. It will not be long before the Scots start pressing for independence on other issues too. Lose 5 points
  66. 70. Religious problems (b) B – Impose it quickly, and firmly. If you don’t then England and Scotland would have two different religions – that’ll never do in your Kingdom! Firmness can also be stubbornness. The Scots are furious at being told to use what they see as a Catholic Prayer Book, and start to rebel against you. Lose 10 points
  67. 71. What really happened? Charles decided to impose the Prayer Book swiftly and firmly in Scotland. This was a terrible mistake, as the Scots were very strong Protestants and thought that the book was a piece of Catholic evil. When priests tried to read it out, there were riots
  68. 72. Religious problems (b)
  69. 73. What really happened?
  70. 74. Bishop’s War with Scotland
  71. 75. Bishop’s War with Scotland It is 1640. The Scots no longer have any sense of loyalty to you, and eventually you agree with Laud and the Bishops that war must be declared. Unfortunately, the Scots smash your armies to pieces! They are now in the North of England, and you have to pay them £850 per day just to stop them from coming any further! You simply can't raise this much money, and have to call Parliament to ask for some extra cash. Parliament, though, is furious with you for imposing Ship Money and following Laud's ideas - they accuse you of trying to cut down the English Church.The MP's say that in return for the money you must hand over Laud and your favourite soldier, Strafford, for execution as traitors
  72. 76. Bishop’s War with Scotland A – Hand over Laud and Strafford to Parliament. You haven’t really got any choice! B – Refuse to hand over them. They’re your mates and you rate them as soldiers after all. If things get a bit hairy later on – you may need to rely on them both!
  73. 77. Bishop’s War with Scotland A – Hand over Laud and Strafford to Parliament. You haven’t really got any choice! Painful, but realistic. Laud and Strafford are handed over and swiftly executed by Parliament - but at least you are able to keep the Scots under control. Nevertheless, it is becoming clear that Parliament is getting the upper hand and is becoming incredibly bossy. Lose 3 points from your total
  74. 78. Bishop’s War with Scotland B – Refuse to hand over them. They’re your mates and you rate them as soldiers after all. If things get a bit hairy later on – you may need to rely on them both! What's the point?! Parliament simply gets more angry, and you know that you will have to agree unless you want the Scots to march to London and take your throne! All that happens is that you have to give them up for execution anyway, after falling out even more with Parliament Lose 10 points from your total!
  75. 79. What really happened?
  76. 80. What really happened? Charles had little choice in the matter. He sacrificed Laud and Strafford, who were both executed. The executions drew massive crowds outside the Tower of London, as both men were widely hated. Charles was deeply upset about the whole business .
  77. 81. What really happened?
  78. 82. The 5 members It is 1642. Parliament recently passed the Grand Remonstrance , which limited your powers still further. However, it only just got through Parliament - 159 people voted in favour, but 148 voted against it. Many MP's are clearly coming over to your side and think that Parliament is getting too big for its boots. Some of your advisors suggest that this is a good time to arrest the leading Five Members of Parliament who are against you so that you can get back in control. What do you say?
  79. 83. The 5 members A – Burst into Parliament tomorrow and grab the 5 unawares! B – Forget the idea – it will just cause more trouble than it’s worth! C – Use a few spies to work out when the 5 members will be in Parliament, then go ahead and grab them there!
  80. 84. The 5 members A – Burst into Parliament tomorrow and grab the 5 unawares! A terrible mistake. Although you succeed in arresting the 5 Members , all those MP's who had been supporting you are now convinced that you are evil. Parliament is re-united against you and your situation looks worse than ever. Lose 3 points
  81. 85. The 5 members B – Forget the idea – it will just cause more trouble than it’s worth! A wise move. In this way you will encourage more MP's to come over to your side and not scare them off by acting too harshly, although a few others think that you are weak and unable to stand up to Parliament. Gain 5 points
  82. 86. The 5 members C – Use a few spies to work out when the 5 members will be in Parliament, then go ahead and grab them there! You send the spies, but some of them must have been double-agents, because the 5 Members get to hear of the plan to arrest them and vanish. When you burst into Parliament they are already gone and you look a complete fool. Lose 15 points
  83. 87. What really happened?
  84. 88. What really happened? Charles decided to use a few spies to work out when the 5 Members would all be in Parliament, but some of them must have been double-agents, because the 5 Members got to hear of the plan to arrest them and vanished. When Charles burst into Parliament they were not there and the Speaker refused to tell the King where they were, saying &quot;I have neither eyes to see nor ears to hear in this place.&quot; Charles had no option but to leave again, looking a complete idiot.
  85. 89. The 5 members
  86. 90. The Irish and the 19 propositions
  87. 91. The Irish and the 19 propositions
  88. 92. The Irish and the 19 propositions The Irish are in open rebellion against you because they can see that you are having problems. You go to Parliament and tell them how important it is to send an army over there to deal with them. They agree, but you are shocked when they present you with a list of Nineteen Propositions which demand that control of the army should be in the hands of Parliament and that even the education of your children should be in their hands.
  89. 93. The Irish and the 19 propositions A Give into their demands. It’s important that the country gets back to normal whatever the personal cost to me B Refuse. It would be humiliating and leave you powerless
  90. 94. The Irish and the 19 propositions A Give into their demands. It’s important that the country gets back to normal whatever the personal cost to me In the circumstances, this is probably the best you can do, although it is only making Parliament ever more arrogant Add 3 to your score
  91. 95. The Irish and the 19 propositions B Refuse. It would be humiliating and leave you powerless By refusing to accept you prove that you have a great deal of principle, but it means that any chance of compromise is over. War is now inevitable. Lose 15 points
  92. 96. What really happened? Charles completely refused to surrender control of the army, saying that to do so would make him &quot;a mere phantom of a King&quot;. At this point both sides realised that there was no hope of agreement, and that a war was now inevitable. In August 1642 Charles raised his standard at Nottingham and appealed to all loyal subjects to join him in a war against Parliament. The Civil War had begun.
  93. 97. Total up your health rating!
  94. 98. Let’s review the video footage

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