Starter Yesterday we looked at the life of Edward the Confessor. I want you to write an obituary for him. Imagine it was to appear in a fictional newspaper from the time. It should be no more than 75 words and sum up the life of the dead person. It should probably be quite positive towards him.
Starter Yesterday we looked at the life of Edward the Confessor. I want you to write an obituary for him. Imagine it was to appear in a fictional newspaper from the time. It should be no more than 75 words and sum up the life of the dead person. It should probably be quite positive towards him Date 6 th January 1066 Yesterday our great leader, Edward, died leaving behind him a trail of uncertainty. The King left no heirs to the throne, so therefore England is left reeling in turmoil. Edward was born in 1004 son of Etherel the Unready. He spent his formative years growing up in France, returning to take the throne in 1042 until his death. He succeeded Harthacanute, his half brother, and was married to Edith Godwin, part of the powerful Godwin clan. A great man known for his love of French food and wine he will be sorely missed.
Learning outcome By the end of the lesson we will have Analysed the claimants for the throne
I talk to people when I need help. I can explain what needs doing and why. I know how to deal with problems. I can see what needs improving. I use different viewpoints to reach a shared solution. I can support other people in their views and beliefs. I work well with others. I listen to others’ points of view. I change my behaviour to suit the situation. I respect other people’s differences. I take responsibility. I help others by giving them useful advice. I can generate ideas and possibilities. I ask questions to find out more. I can see how ideas or pieces of information fit together. I challenge ideas and assumptions that I make or that others make. I test ideas. I change ideas when I need to. I can see what has worked well and what hasn’t worked well. I know my targets and what I have to do to meet them. As I work, I can see how well I am doing. I listen to the advice of adults and people in my class. I learn from my mistakes. I let people know how I learn best. I like a new challenge. I work to goals and commit myself to tasks. I get to lessons on time with the equipment I need. I take risks and deal with them sensibly. I plan my own time and work to deadlines. I am able to deal with change. Effective Participator Team worker Creative thinkers Reflective Learner Self-Manager I can spot questions and problems that need answering and solving. I can plan and carry out a piece of research. I can look at things from different points of view. I can think about how important or relevant some information is. I can see how decisions or events are influenced by different points of view, beliefs or circumstances. I can back up points of view using arguments and evidence. Independent Enquirer
Effective participator I talk to people when I need help. I can explain what needs doing and why. I know how to deal with problems. I see what needs to be improved. I work with others to reach solutions. I can support other people in their views and beliefs. Team worker I work well with others. I listen to others’ points of view. I know how to behave in formal and informal situations. I respect other people’s differences. I take responsibility for my role within the group. I help others by giving them useful advice. Creative Thinker I come up with ideas. I ask questions. I see how ideas or pieces of information fit together. I challenge ideas and assumptions that I make or that others make. I can and will test ideas. I change ideas when I need to. Self-Manager I like a new challenge. I work towards goals and commit myself to tasks. I get to lessons on time with the equipment I need. I am not afraid to have a go at new things. I plan my own time and work to deadlines. I am able to deal with change. Independent Enquirer I can spot questions and problems that need answering and solving. I can plan and carry out a piece of research. I can look at things from different points of view. I can think about how important or relevant some information is. I can see how decisions or events are effected by different points of view, beliefs or circumstances. I can back up points of view.
Individual graphs need finishing
Starter sheets: filling in!
Title:- Edward the Confessor [ Self-manager]
Glue sheets in
If not writing the question out....do not start with “Yes, I agree.....”
Recording what I say/write [ Nadia/Rashidi]
Missing out pages [Asaan]
Don’t fold starter sheets – they’re small for a reason. Same for A4 sheets
ADMIN. Complete graph in your book Read your feedback comments Comment Wall Merits
History Department Which candidate has got the X-Factor to become King of England?
Edward the Confessor named Harold Godwin as his successor on his deathbed in January 1066. While the Witan backed Edward’s choice, at least three other men, William of Normandy, Prince Edgar the Atheling and Harald Hardrada, believed neither Edward nor the Witan had any power to make this decision and decided to fight against it. These men felt they also had a claim to the throne.
Expert groups:- A – Harold Godwin B – Prince Edgar the Atheling C – Harald Hardrada D – William Duke of Normandy
CLAIMANT FACT FILE: WILLIAM DUKE OF NORMANDY BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Was the cousin of King Edward the Confessor. Claimed that Edward promised him the throne in 1051. Claimed that Harold of Wessex also promised him the throne. Had been a very successful as ruler of Normandy. Claimed that he could repeat the job as King of England. CLAIM: Said King Edward the Confessor promised him the throne. In the past Normandy had looked after and helped King Edward and his family. According to William, King Edward promised him the throne in 1051 to thank him for his help and to solve the succession problems. PROBLEMS WITH THE CLAIM: Norman sources say say Harold was sent by King Edward to swear an oath of support in 1064. Saxon sources say that Harold was shipwrecked off Normandy and tricked into swearing an oath.
CLAIMANT FACT FILE: HAROLD GODWINSON BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Brother of King Edward the Confessor's wife. Son of Earl Godwinson, the most powerful noble in England. Had the support of the Witan. Claimed to have been made King by Edward. Was English and popular with many of the people. Had been involved in running the country for years. Had experience of government and control of an army . CLAIM: Harold Godwinson had a great deal of power by 1066. His father had died, so he was now head of the powerful Godwin family. When King Edward the Confessor lay dying in early January 1066, his wife Edith and Harold Godwinson were at his bedside. According to Harold, King Edward's dying words were: " I commend my wife and all my kingdom to your care " If this was true, Harold had a rightful claim as he was carrying out the King's last wish. PROBLEMS WITH THE CLAIM: Did the words really mean King Edward wanted Harold to become King? Was Edward just asking Harold to look after his wife? Why did Edward suddenly change his mind? Do we believe Harold? His only proper witness was his sister! There were probably others there, but nobody who would have been prepared to go against Harold. Harold was crowned King very quickly after King Edward's death. Usually there would be a period of mourning. Was Harold trying to rush because he was covering something up? If King Edward's dying wish was for Harold to become King, then Harold had the rightful claim. A King's dying wish replaced all previous promises or plans.
CLAIMANT FACT FILE: HARALD HARDRADA BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Was the King of Norway. A descendant of King Canute of England. Claimed his family was promised it could rule England. Was frequently at war and usually won. Collected lots of taxes from his people to pay for wars. Very unpopular, but powerful. CLAIM: Harald claimed that he had a right to the English throne. He was related to King Canute, the King of England from 1016-1032. Harald said this gave him every right to invade England. PROBLEMS WITH THE CLAIM: Harald's claim was pretty weak. He didn't really care - this was a man who used violence to make his point. He relied on his Viking reputation of being fierce. He was a tremendous warrior, and had travelled across and beyond Europe. Harold Hardrada was a true Viking, and wanted to take England by force.
CLAIMANT FACT FILE: EDGAR AETHELING BRIEF DESCRIPTION: Distant relative to King Edward He and his father had a strong claim to the throne. Was Edward the Confessor's closest living relative. Needed support of others to become King. CLAIM: In 1054, Edgar Aetheling and his father returned to England from Hungary. They were distant relatives of King Edward the Confessor. They both had a claim to the throne as blood relatives. Edgar's father died in suspicious circumstances in 1054. This left Edgar alone. In 1066 he was the closest blood relative to King Edward the Confessor. PROBLEMS WITH THE CLAIM: Despite having the closest blood relation to Edward the Confessor, Edgar was too young and powerless to enforce his claim. He did have the support of some nobles, but his age was the major problem - he was too young!
Background - England in Turmoil
England had been in a power struggle for approximately two hundred years
England had been formed of many small kingdoms including Wessex, Mercia, Northumbria and Cornwall. The Saxons saw themselves as several different countries ruled by one English King - Edward the Confessor (in preference to any foreign kings such as King Canute who was also the King of Denmark)
The Relationship between Normandy and England
Normandy had close ties of friendship with Wessex dating back to 988
In 988 a formal treaty was arranged between Wessex and Normandy by the Pope
The treaty signed by Normandy and Wessex agreed not to harbour the other’s enemies, namely, the Vikings!
Normandy was the closest land opposite Wessex separated by the channel and they were natural trading partners
The rulers of the House of Wessex had used Normandy as their refuge in times of trouble
Edward the Confessor had lived in Normandy and had many friends there. He even brought Norman advisors to his court in England
In 1051 Edward the announced that a Norman should succeed him and become King of England
Duke William’s Claim to the English Throne
Duke William justified his claim through his blood relationship with Edward the Confessor (they were distant cousins)
William strengthened this claim by stating that Edward the Confessor had designated him as his successor
William claimed Harold Godwinson had sworn a sacred oath of allegiance to him and to his right to the throne
When Harold broke the oath William received religious and political backing from Rome to start a Holy Crusade against Harold who the Pope had excommunicated!
Background to the Viking claim of Harald Hardrada
In 1016 the Viking King Canute became King of England, Denmark and Norway.
He ruled until 1035
King Canute was succeeded by Hardicanute who ruled England until 1042
King Hardicanute had no heir and promised the English throne to King Magnus of Norway
The Saxon, Edward the Confessor, seized the English throne in 1042
King Magnus of Norway was too old to battle Edward the Confessor for the English throne
Magnus's son and heir was Hardrada
The Viking Hardrada's claim to the English throne
Hardrada asserted that he, as Magnus's son and heir, was the rightful ruler of England due to the agreement between his father and Hardicanute the Danish ruler of England
Background to the Harold Godwinson claim
Harold Gowinson's claim to the throne of England was not based on a strong blood tie
He had just a kinship to Edward the Confessor, who had married Harold's sister, Edith
But he was the Earl of Wessex, one of the most powerful Nobles in England
He had been an advisor to Edward the Confessor
He had proved himself to be a good leader and fighter
His father and family had dominated the Witan ( the English council of ruling elders) who advised the king
He was the richest man in England
Edward the Confessor considered the Normans as friends, had employed Normans as advisors and even designated a Norman should succeed him to the English throne
The Anglo Saxons resented Edward the Confessor's close ties with the Normans and Harold Godwinson applied so much pressure on Edward the Confessor that his Norman advisors were sent back to Normandy.
Harold and his family had established alliances with all the major nobles of England
Harold deposed his brother Tostig as Earl of Northumbia and replaced him with Morcar
Edwin the Earl of Mercia and Morcar the Earl of Northumbria, previous enemies of Godwinson, had pledged to support Harold Godwinson
Harold's claim to the English throne
Harold Godwinson asserted that he had been chosen by Edward the Confessor to be the next King of England
When King Edward the Confessor lay dying his wife Edith and Harold Godwinson were at his bedside. According to Harold, King Edward's dying words were: "I commend my wife and all my kingdom to your care"
Harold insisted that he had been tricked into taking the sacred oath of allegiance he had made to Duke William. And that he was not told that he was swearing the pledge on sacred religious relics - in his view he had been duped and owed the Norman Duke no allegiance and refuted his claim to the English throne
The rightful heir to the throne of England was Edgar the Aetheling, the grandson of Edmund Ironside but he was only a ten year old boy and deemed too young to control the turbulent English realm
Harold Godwinson had forced Edward the Confessor's Norman advisors back to Normandy
The Witan (a council consisting of 60 of England's most powerful nobles) offered the crown to Harold in preference to all other contenders
Background to the Edgar the Aetheling Claim
Edgar the Aetheling's claim to the throne of England was based on a strong blood tie with the Anglo Saxon Kings of England
He was the grandson of Edmund Ironside
He was a direct descendent of Alfred the Great - the most respected of all Anglo-Saxon Kings
Edgar the Aetheling's claim to the English throne
Edgar the Aetheling was the rightful heir to Edward the Confessor and should have been crowned King of England
But he was only ten years old when Edward the Confessor died
He did not have the wealth, power or strength of Harold Godwinson
He did not have the support of the Witan (the English council which consisted of 60 of the most powerful nobles in England)
Edgar the Aetheling was not considered strong enough to hold the throne and defend the realm from the Normans and the Vikings
He did not stand a chance against the might of Harold Godwinson
It’s not the same as……
S.W.O.T. : Mr Lee
SWOT analysis on your chosen contender.
Big groups around the room SWOT
SWOT analysis on your chosen contender. Explain your case to your group 1 min 30 on each character using the Timer!
You can’t vote for the one you presented. Your group must decide which one of the 4 has the most VALID claim... 3 minutes
EXPERT GROUPS Using sugar paper you have to prepare a script for a TV show from the time and what each candidate would do to impress the judges. You will have to prepare a speech that will be 1-2 mins in length – talking about your right to the throne.
R eflective Learner I can see what has worked well and what hasn’t worked well. I know my targets and what I have to do to meet them. As I work, I can see how well I am doing. I listen to the advice of adults and people in my class. I learn from my mistakes. I share what I have learnt in different ways for different people. Self-Manager I like a new challenge. I work towards goals and commit myself to tasks. I get to lessons on time with the equipment I need. I am not afraid to have a go at new things. I plan my own time and work to deadlines. I am able to deal with change. Independent Enquirer I can spot questions and problems that need answering and solving. I can plan and carry out a piece of research. I can look at things from different points of view. I can think about how important or relevant some information is. I can see how decisions or events are effected by different points of view, beliefs or circumstances. I can back up points of view.
H/W W.I.L.F. (Blue book) Pick the claimant you feel has the best case, and you have to script a conversation between them and a judge of your choice who has chosen to become a ‘mentor’ to your candidate to become King of England. They must give you words of advice, encouragement and any other hints and tips to claim the throne. It must be not under 100 words, and no more than 250 words. Remember to include details from the SWOT analysis you’ve completed today and also anything from the script. It can be a two way conversation or just a ‘pep’ talk.
H/W SC, “You have the skill, and the money as well as the charisma in order to become King of England, William Duke of Normandy. Edward surely owes you something for all his care and attention to him in his formative years growing up in Normandy. It is beyond belief to believe that Edward would have promised to give the throne to Harold Godwin – he invited you in 1051 to go to London and named you as his successor. Moreover, in 1064, Harold swore an oath over the Bible that he would support your claims to the throne. With my money, and contacts, I can help you assume the role of King of England as long as you promise to lavish me with fine gifts for my mentoring advice!