MID 2163 PATHOLOGY
DIVISIONS OF PATHOLOGY GENERAL  PATHOLOGY SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY CLINICAL PATHOLOGY ANATOMIC  PATHOLOGY SURGICAL PATHOLOGY PAT...
General Pathology <ul><li>Also called  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>investigative pathology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experiment...
General Pathology <ul><li>Foundation of pathology </li></ul><ul><li>Study of the mechanisms of disease – etiology & pathog...
1. INTRODUCTION TO PATHOLOGY 2. CELL INJURY & ADAPTATIONS 3. TISSUE INJURY 4. HEALING 5. HAEMODYNAMIC DISEASES 6. NEOPLASI...
INTRODUCTION TO  PATHOLOGY
What is?? -PATHOLOGY- <ul><li>“ study of disease by scientific method” </li></ul>pathos : suffering or disease ~logos : st...
Objective of Pathology <ul><li>To identify and describe the different parts of a disease process </li></ul>
Disease??? <ul><li>Abnormal variation in structure or function of any part of body </li></ul>
Pathology... <ul><li>Explain the disease by studying the 4 aspects of the disease: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Etiology </li></u...
Etiology <ul><li>aitia : cause </li></ul><ul><li>~logos : study  </li></ul>“ study of causation or origin of disease”
Etiology <ul><li>Why things occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that produce/predispose toward a certain disease or disorder ...
Etiology <ul><li>2 major etiological factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic: age, genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired...
Pathogenesis <ul><li>pathos : disease </li></ul><ul><li>genesis : creation  </li></ul>“ mechanism / development of disease”
Pathogenesis <ul><li>Process of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Starting from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of...
Pathogenesis <ul><li>Types of pathogenesis include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial infection, inflammation, malignancy & t...
Morphological Changes “ structural alterations”
Morphological Changes <ul><li>Structural alterations in cells or tissue that occur following the pathologenetic mechanisms...
Morphological Changes <ul><li>The changes can be seen with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naked eye – gross morphologic changes </l...
Functional Derangement & Clinical Significance
Functional Derangements <ul><li>Disturbance of normal function of the organ due to the morphological changes  </li></ul><u...
Clinical Significance <ul><li>Clinical manifestations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li...
Signs <ul><li>Objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the characteristic of dise...
Symptoms <ul><li>Subjective – e.g: stomachache, lower back pain, fatigue = can be sensed by the patient </li></ul><ul><li>...
Symptoms <ul><li>Asymptomatic – NO symptom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic disease condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Prognosis <ul><li>Medical term to describe the likely outcome of an illness </li></ul><ul><li>Complete prognosis include e...
Causes of Disease Can be caused by environmental factors, genetic factors or combination of the two
Environmental Factors <ul><li>Physical agents </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional dificiencies & exc...
Environmental Factors <ul><li>Physical agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply excess energy in any form to the body </li></ul>...
Environmental Factors <ul><li>Nutritional dificiencies & excesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dificiencies   </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Environmental Factors <ul><li>Infections and infestations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infected by viruses, bacteria, fungi, prot...
Environmental Factors <ul><li>Immunological factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Environmental Factors <ul><li>Psycogenic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental stress imposed by condition of life </li></u...
Genetic Factors <ul><li>Hereditary factors that are inherited genetically from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation in chrom...
Course of Disease <ul><li>“ the series of events in a disease incident in a patient” </li></ul><ul><li>The natural history...
EXPOSURE BIOLOGICAL ONSET CLINICAL ONSET PERMANENT DAMAGE DEATH
<ul><li>Exposure  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to various risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The causative agents </li></ul...
<ul><li>Incubation period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable period of time without any obvious signs or symptoms from the tim...
Clinical Death <ul><li>Occurs when heart stop beating – cardiac arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible transmission between l...
Clinical Death <ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No pulse or blood pressure = completely unresponsive to the most painfu...
Biological Death <ul><li>Sure sign of death </li></ul><ul><li>Sets in after clinical death </li></ul><ul><li>Irreversible ...
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1 introduction

  1. 1. MID 2163 PATHOLOGY
  2. 2. DIVISIONS OF PATHOLOGY GENERAL PATHOLOGY SYSTEMIC PATHOLOGY CLINICAL PATHOLOGY ANATOMIC PATHOLOGY SURGICAL PATHOLOGY PATHOPHYSIOLOGY
  3. 3. General Pathology <ul><li>Also called </li></ul><ul><ul><li>investigative pathology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experimental pathology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>theoretical pathology </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. General Pathology <ul><li>Foundation of pathology </li></ul><ul><li>Study of the mechanisms of disease – etiology & pathogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>The common changes in all tissues </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1. INTRODUCTION TO PATHOLOGY 2. CELL INJURY & ADAPTATIONS 3. TISSUE INJURY 4. HEALING 5. HAEMODYNAMIC DISEASES 6. NEOPLASIA 7. INFECTIOUS & PARASITIC DISEASES
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION TO PATHOLOGY
  7. 7. What is?? -PATHOLOGY- <ul><li>“ study of disease by scientific method” </li></ul>pathos : suffering or disease ~logos : study of
  8. 8. Objective of Pathology <ul><li>To identify and describe the different parts of a disease process </li></ul>
  9. 9. Disease??? <ul><li>Abnormal variation in structure or function of any part of body </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pathology... <ul><li>Explain the disease by studying the 4 aspects of the disease: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Etiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphological changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional derangement & clinical significance </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Etiology <ul><li>aitia : cause </li></ul><ul><li>~logos : study </li></ul>“ study of causation or origin of disease”
  12. 12. Etiology <ul><li>Why things occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that produce/predispose toward a certain disease or disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Cause of disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>primary etiology: known </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>idiopathic: unknown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Help in diagnosis, understanding and treatment of disease </li></ul>
  13. 13. Etiology <ul><li>2 major etiological factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic: age, genes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acquired: infectious, environmental, nutritional etc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Etiology is followed by pathogenesis </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pathogenesis <ul><li>pathos : disease </li></ul><ul><li>genesis : creation </li></ul>“ mechanism / development of disease”
  15. 15. Pathogenesis <ul><li>Process of disease </li></ul><ul><li>Starting from the initial stimulus to the ultimate expression of disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the origin & development of disease: acute, chronic, recurrent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gross & microscopic structure, function, chemistry and molecular mechanism </li></ul>
  16. 16. Pathogenesis <ul><li>Types of pathogenesis include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbial infection, inflammation, malignancy & tissue breakdown </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most disease caused by multiple pathogenetical process together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: cancer – multiple pathogenesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathogensis leads to morphological changes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Morphological Changes “ structural alterations”
  18. 18. Morphological Changes <ul><li>Structural alterations in cells or tissue that occur following the pathologenetic mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the characteristic of disease or condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes maybe specific to a disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thus, it help the pathologist to identify & diagnose the disease </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Morphological Changes <ul><li>The changes can be seen with </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Naked eye – gross morphologic changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under microscope – microscopic changes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Morphological changes will lead to functional alteration and the clinical signs & symptoms of disease </li></ul>
  20. 20. Functional Derangement & Clinical Significance
  21. 21. Functional Derangements <ul><li>Disturbance of normal function of the organ due to the morphological changes </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the clinical features, course and prognosis of a disease </li></ul>
  22. 22. Clinical Significance <ul><li>Clinical manifestations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prognosis </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Signs <ul><li>Objective indication of some medical fact or characteristic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the characteristic of disease or condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changes maybe specific to a disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thus, it help the pathologist to identify & diagnose the disease </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Symptoms <ul><li>Subjective – e.g: stomachache, lower back pain, fatigue = can be sensed by the patient </li></ul><ul><li>3 main types of symptoms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chronic : long lasting/recurrent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relapsing : affected by symptoms again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remitting : symptoms improve & sometimes fade away completely </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Symptoms <ul><li>Asymptomatic – NO symptom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic disease condition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disease present but there ar no symptom </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g: Ca Breast </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asymptomatic infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infected person may transmit the diasease to others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cause complication that unrelatede to the infection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g: STD – AIDS, genital warts </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Prognosis <ul><li>Medical term to describe the likely outcome of an illness </li></ul><ul><li>Complete prognosis include expected time, function and description of disease course </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help to determine to attempt certain treatments or withold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certain test for prognostic indicator </li></ul><ul><li>Estimators to describe prognoses = progression-free survival , survival rate & survival time </li></ul>
  27. 27. Causes of Disease Can be caused by environmental factors, genetic factors or combination of the two
  28. 28. Environmental Factors <ul><li>Physical agents </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Nutritional dificiencies & excesses </li></ul><ul><li>Infections and infestations </li></ul><ul><li>Immunological factors </li></ul><ul><li>Psycogenic factors </li></ul>
  29. 29. Environmental Factors <ul><li>Physical agents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apply excess energy in any form to the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g: trauma, radiation, extreme temperature, electric power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemicals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical agents = chemically induced injury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Effects = toxic to all cell (cyanide), act locally at site of application (strong acids), toxic to certain organ esp liver & kidney </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Environmental Factors <ul><li>Nutritional dificiencies & excesses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dificiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poor supply, interference of absorption, inefficient transport within the body or defective utilization – major class of food or essential elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess - obese </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Environmental Factors <ul><li>Infections and infestations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infected by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa, metazoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell destruction directly when infection happen – virus & protozoa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destruction from toxins by the infecting agent – diphteria, tetanus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General or localize effects </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Environmental Factors <ul><li>Immunological factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abnormal immune system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hypersensitivity reaction : exaggerated immune response to an antigen – bronchial asthma </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Immunodificiency : increase susceptibility to different diseases – AIDS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmunity : abnormal (exaggerated) immune reaction against self antigens - SLE </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Environmental Factors <ul><li>Psycogenic factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental stress imposed by condition of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maybe contributory factors in some group of diseases </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Genetic Factors <ul><li>Hereditary factors that are inherited genetically from parents </li></ul><ul><li>Mutation in chromosomes </li></ul>
  35. 35. Course of Disease <ul><li>“ the series of events in a disease incident in a patient” </li></ul><ul><li>The natural history of the disease </li></ul><ul><li>(if no intervention from other factors) </li></ul>
  36. 36. EXPOSURE BIOLOGICAL ONSET CLINICAL ONSET PERMANENT DAMAGE DEATH
  37. 37. <ul><li>Exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure to various risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The causative agents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latency period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period between exposure and biological onset of disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biological onset </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marks the initiation of disease process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NO sign or symptom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May remain asymptomatic or subclinical (no clinical manifestations) or may lead to overt clinical diasease </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>Incubation period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Variable period of time without any obvious signs or symptoms from the time of exposure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clinical onset of disease </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signs and symptoms become apparent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expression of disease may be variable in severity or in range of manifestations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Onset of permanent damage </li></ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clinical death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological death </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Clinical Death <ul><li>Occurs when heart stop beating – cardiac arrest </li></ul><ul><li>Reversible transmission between life and biological death </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: period of respiratory, circulatory and brain arrest during which initiation of resuscitation can lead to recovery </li></ul>
  40. 40. Clinical Death <ul><li>Signs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No pulse or blood pressure = completely unresponsive to the most painful stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pupils widely dilated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovery can occur with resuscitation </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Biological Death <ul><li>Sure sign of death </li></ul><ul><li>Sets in after clinical death </li></ul><ul><li>Irreversible state of cellular destruction </li></ul><ul><li>Manifest with irreversible cessation of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>circulatory and respiratory functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all functions of the entire brain including brainstem </li></ul></ul>
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