Convergence Access Networks Challenge Gpon


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A Presentation introducing GPON for an Access Network resulting to the myth of Fixed Mobile Convergenc e.

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Convergence Access Networks Challenge Gpon

  1. 1. ADVANCED ACCESS NETWORK’S THE CONVERGENCE CHALLENGE (An Introduction to GPON) Qasim Y. Khan Fixed Mobile Convergence Discussion Group LinkedIN
  2. 2. Multiple technologies? High CAPEX? High OPEX? Low Band? High power consumption? Space? Spares?
  3. 3. Currently deployed telecom access network solutions are mostly TDM-based (for narrowband traffic, e.g. legacy (telephony (ATM-based (broadband traffic, e.g. ADSL The result isa gap between access network technology and service evolution trends ? When and how to upgrade AN
  4. 4. The Choices for Fiber Access • There are 2 choices for Fiber Access: – Point to Point – Point to Multi-point • Point to Point is sometimes called Active Ethernet • Point to Multi-point is called PON (passive optical network) Active PON Ethernet OLT Switch Passive Splitters ONT #1 #1 ONT ONT #1 #1 ONT ... ONT#192 ONT #1 ONU #1#1 ONT ONT #1 ... ONU#192
  5. 5. The Choices for Fiber Access PON is analogous to wireless telephony (cellular) Active Ethernet is analogous to wireline telephony Active PON Ethernet OLT Switch Passive Splitters ONT #1 #1 ONT ONT #1 #1 ONT ... ONT#192 ONT #1 ONU #1 #1 ONT ONT #1 ... ONU#192 Both CapEx and OpEx cost savings favor PON
  6. 6. ????????? Fib er Active N Ethernet PO GE FTTC / VDS L N G PO
  7. 7. Passive Optical Network • No active electronics in the access network • Shared fibre to the splitter • Shared exchange equipment (OLT line card) • Encryption prevents eavesdropping on downstream traffic Optical Telephone Splitter Network Unit Exchange 1:32 ONU Fibre Optical Line Terminal, OLT 8
  8. 8. PON A SIMPLE VIEW • In a PON system, a single fiber connects multiple customers toa single transceiver at the central office (CO). • The single fiber is split, using a passive optical splitter, to serve up to 32,64 soon 128 customers. • Not only does PON reduce the amount of fiber required, but a single transceiver serves multiple customers instead of requiring one per customer.
  9. 9. PON advantages shared infrastructure translates to lower cost per customer • minimal number of optical transceivers • feeder fiber and transceiver costs divided by N customers • greenfield per-customer cost similar to UTP passive splitters translate to lower cost • can be installed anywhere • no power needed • essentially unlimited MTBF fiber data-rates can be upgraded as technology improves • initially 155 Mbps • then 622 Mbps • now 1.25 Gbps • soon 2.5 Gbps and higher
  10. 10. Types of PON Downstream Upstream 1490 nm 1310 nm BPON Broadband PON 622 Mbit/s 155 Mbit/s EPON Ethernet PON 1 Gbit/s 1 Gbit/s GPON Gigabit PON 2.5 Gbit/s 1.25 Gbit/s 10G- 10 Gbit/s EPON 10 Gbit/s 1/10 Gbit/s EPON Due 2010 WDM- Wavelength division No standard No standard PON multiplexed PON 1 wavelength 1 wavelength per premises per premises Dedicated fibre unlimited unlimited 11
  11. 11. What are PONs, BPONs, and GPONs? • Passive Optical Networks (PONs) Attributes – Fiber Access Technology with no active elements (i.e. electronic elements that require no power) in the outside plant. – Uses Passive optical splitters to distribute traffic to the customers. – Consists of an Optical Line Terminator (OLT) located at the CO and many Optical Network Terminals (ONTs) located at the customer’s premise. • Broadband PON (BPON) Attributes – Based on mature ITU-T G.983 series standards – Provides up to 1.2Gbps Downstream and 622 Mbps Upstream capacities – Provides a separate wavelength for downstream video transmission • Gigabit Capable PON (GPON) Attributes – Based on ITU-T G.984 series standards that are in progress – Provides up to 2.5 Gbps capacities for both Downstream and Upstream – Provides more efficient transport for data traffic
  12. 12. PON standards 2006 2488 GPON 1244 EPON Downstream 622 (Mb/s) BPON 155 155 622 1244 2488 Upstream (Mb/s)
  13. 13. GPON
  14. 14. GPON Definition A Gigabit Passive Optical Network (GPON) provides direct support of TDM and Ethernet traffic in their native formats using the Giga- bit Encapsulation method (GEM.) GPON also supports all Ethernet protocols as wells as VLANs, quality and class of service, IGMP and other layer 2+ mechanisms required to accommodate various IP-based services. GPON typically uses the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) for security purposes.
  15. 15. GPON Benefits • Supports Gigabit or above data rates on the PON • Optimizes the physical layer for – Higher data rates for BW intensive applications (e.g. IP Video) – Greater Distance - reach more customers from the CO – More Splits - Reach more customers from a single PON • Offers a more bandwidth efficient protocol for data centric services • Has the capability to support multiple services in their native formats. –ATM –Packet (e.g. Ethernet) –TDM
  16. 16. The ITU and FSAN • In the late 1990’s a “Clandestine” group of operators was formed: – Objective: “Global Domination of the Fiber Access Market” – The group called itself FSAN The FSAN Committee • FSAN stands for Full Service Access Network • Loosely affiliated with the ITU • Develops all PON standards prior to submission to the ITU • FSAN membership consists of both operators and vendors • But operators make all final decisions • Membership of vendors is tightly controlled by FSAN Operators
  17. 17. STANDARDS PON standards SETTING BODIES • FSAN - Full Service Access Network is an organization for standardizing APON, BPON, and GPON in ITU-T G.983.x – FSAN composed of major telco operators worldwide – Standards have been written and are mature – Enhancements continue to be made – Standardized products have begun to enter market • IEEE - Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) study group is currently working on standardizing EPON – Standards work is ongoing – Initial draft planned by end of 2003 – Comprised primarily of vendors with some operator participation
  18. 18. The IEEE • IEEE well known Protocols – 802.3 Ethernet – 802.11 WiFi – 802.16 WiMAX • IEEE Membership is diverse – System vendors, chip vendors, optics vendors, industry cunsultants and academia • IEEE Voting – Each member gets one vote – No limit to the number of votes from a given company • “Personality” of IEEE standards reflect interests of Vendors – Often leads to low-cost solution – Often only hits 80% of market – Often doesn’t produce migration strategy • IEEE standards don’t necessarily reflect Operator Preferences
  19. 19. The ITU • ITU well known Protocols – SDH – V 5.2 – ISDN – VoIP protocols H.248 and H.323 • ITU Membership – Membership controlled by ITU Member-Countries – Membership open to Operators, Institutions, and Vendors • ITU Voting – Voting is through consent – Each company get one vote – Companies can object (but can’t stall process) • “Personality” of ITU standards reflect interests of Operators – Addresses the operator requirements – Addresses the operator constraints – Addresses the service provider’s operational models – Not focused solely on low cost – Duration of Standardization Process relatively short
  20. 20. Standards Comparison ITU (GPON) IEEE (P-P & EPON) Mission/Objective Full Service Access Network Ethernet in the First Mile (EFM) (FSAN) Attendees Service Provider focused Enterprise and consumer market focused Committee Operating Protocol Carriers drive and approve One person- One vote vendors technical recommendations Wavelengths Specified Specified Maximum PON Speeds 2.4 Gb/s 1.25 Gb/s Bandwidth efficiency Greater than 90% Less than 75% Attenuation Range 25 dB 24 dB QoS Specified Left to vendor Network synchronization Specified Left to vendor Security Specified Left to vendor
  21. 21. Major Members Of Full Service Access Network (FSAN) FSAN Recommends Standards to the International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
  22. 22. All over the world operators go for PON - PON subscribers will dominate PTP subscribers 60.000 Subscribers (000) Worldwide fiber deployments 50.000 40.000 PON 30.000 P2P 20.000 10.000 - 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Source: Broadband trends, 10/2007
  23. 23. GPON System Architecture SFU G-Light Residential GigE IP 2.4 MDU 1.2 G-Light 10GigE GPON Splitters 1:8 1:32 GigE 1:64 TDMoP SBU GW G-Light TDM: STM E1, -1, Business TDM MTU G-Light OLT ODN ONUs/ONTs MTU – Multi Tenat Unit SBU – Small Bussiness Unit MDU – Multi-Dwelling Unit - apartment buildings SFU – Single Family Unit
  24. 24. GPON technology introduction Central Office or Fiber Passive Remote Terminal Distribution Outside Plant 20 km (12.4 mi.) AWS/WAM 7342 P-OLT Splitters 1,490 nm 2.4 Gb/s 1,310 nm 1.2 Gb/s > Voice, data and video (bi-directional) for 32 (or 64) subscribers over a single fiber > 2.4/1.2 Gb/s data rate over two wavelengths > Up to 20 km (12.4 mi.) span > GEM (packet) based encapsulation on the PON. > In band video support. > FSAN standards compliant OLT and ONT system
  25. 25. The Market Opportunities for GPON • There are Numerous Market Opportunities for GPON – Lower OpEx – Greater Service Offering – Future-proof investment • The real question is When and Where does it make economic sense to deploy GPON • The quickest application appears to be the Developer Market and ‘Smart FTTH’ Communities
  26. 26. PON Fiber in the Access
  27. 27. PON Network Splits Single Fiber Link Into Individual Links to Subscribers
  28. 28. T The FTTH Access Network – OLTs In The Central Office, ONUs in CPEs h e F T T H A c c e s s N e t w o r k
  29. 29. Consumer’s BandWidth Requirements Met by FTTH Web Surfing Video Conferencing, Premises Surveillance GPON are premium for ALL services!!! SDTV VOD, Telecommuting File Sharing, Home Video Sharing/Streaming Real Time SDTV, Network PVR VDSL2 can cover even Multi-Player Gaming, Interactive Distance Learning the HDTV service ! Premises Web Hosting Telemedicine ADSL2+ can cover the Large File Sharing Triple-play service HDTV VOD bandwidth requirement. Next Hosted Applications & Storage FTTH (per sub) VDSL2 ADSL2+ Cable Modem Dial-up Upstream 150 100 25 20 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 100 150 Downstream Mbps
  30. 30. Comparison of DSL, Cable and FTTH Technology Bandwidth
  31. 31. GPON – RIGHT CHOICE FOR UAN FIXED ACCESS CORE Premise Mobile Wimax VPN CPE Houses / Villas Local Exchange IMS Flats IP/MPLS Internet IP-TV 2G / 3G BTS VoD Edge Node Flats Access Node Passive splitter Office Fiber building
  32. 32. FTTH Fixed Access Network Architecture. Fixed Access Development - Overview
  34. 34. Challenge: Conflict of Backhaul Bandwidth Requirement & Cost Mobile Broadband Backhaul • Mobile broadband developing leads to bearing bandwidth increase 50 times, and the cost of backhaul will increase 10 times. • Data service consume more bandwidth but bring less revenue per bit in mobile broadband era. Leased Line Cost R e g io n E1 • How to reduce the backhaul cost is N o r t h A m e r ic a 4 0 0 U S D /M o n t h a big challenge for mobile operator. Eu ro p e ( B T ) 7 0 0 ~ 1 9 5 0 E u r o /M J a p a n ( E m o b ile 1 1 0 0 U S D /M o n t h ) • LL cost according to distance & bandw idth • Exclude Installation fee, according to existing cable & office, charge from 700 to 60000Euro
  35. 35. GPON Backhaul Solution – Native TDM MGCF MGW ONT BSC IP CSCF BTS SDH Core OLT GMSC ONT RNC SGSN NodeB MSC • Voice and data flow offload from BTS/NodeB. • OLT forward voice flow to SDH network and data to IP network. • Clock delivered from SDH network through GPON line to BTS/NodeB. • Suitable for operators to reuse SDH network and develop IP network to carry increasing data traffic.
  36. 36. GPON Backhaul Solution – ALL IP MGCF MGW PTN BSC IP ONT BTS Metro Core CSCF Ethernet OLT GMSC PTN RNC SGSN ONT TDM Pseudowire MSC NodeB • Suitable for operators to deploy ALL IP backhaul network, and access residential / enterprise subscribers together. • TDM PWE3,Core and aggregation network is IP,GPON Native TDM mode to carry legacy service. • Smoothly upgrade from Native TDM solution (SDH) without replacing ONT
  37. 37. Synchronization for GPON Backhaul – Option 1 Offload scenario, Distribute clock through SDH network Distribute clock through CBU recover clock and deliver to NodeB/BTS Synchronous Ethernet or through E1/BITS or E1/STM-1 to Aggr GW synchronous Ethernet BSC NodeB N*E1 E1 N*E1/ OLTSTM-1 SDH ONT ATM GPON STM-1 FE RNC 10GE Reference BTS GE E1 clock IP OLT use the clock as Input clock to RNC/ OLT distribute clock system clock BSC through GPON line SDH deliver the Clock synchronization signal to OLT. Saving the investment by reuse existing SDH network. No need any change within the whole network It is the most suited clock solution currently as this is readily available in the network.
  38. 38. Synchronization for GPON Backhaul – Option 2 BITS/SDH N*E1 BTS/NB E1 BSC ONT TDM N x E1 /ch-STM-1 Fiber IP/MPLS Metro FE/GE/ BTS/NB 10GE 10GE /ATM STM-1 ONT OLT PTN RNC PE-Agg POP Gateway LTE ONT Clock D/R WIMAX  Using IEEE 1588v2 for the synchronization  This requires the whole network to support IEEE 1588v2  It will be the future option for mobile backhaul.
  39. 39. ITU-T G.984 standard for GPON reliability-Type B Enterprise A Telco site Eth Switch SBU LAN Type B Protection OLT MSTP Business Enterprise B Cloud 2 protected points LAN
  40. 40. ITU-T G.984 standard for GPON reliability-Type C Enterprise A Telco site Type C Protection Eth Switch SBU 5 protected points OLT LAN Business Enterprise B MSTP Cloud LAN
  41. 41. When required? Add more protection between splitter and SBU or MDU Also Provide dual homing to two different OLT. No big difference with Type B.
  43. 43. GPON system security solution AES AES Internet • Line encryption technology • System security AES (Advanced Encryption Standard)128 • VLAN isolation • MAC filter • ACL Security • Anti DOS • User security authentication • Anti MAC/IP/ARP/DHCP • RADIUS • Network security • SSH • User security • SNMP v3 • DHCP Option 60/82
  44. 44. GPON encryption OLT encrypts using AES-128 in counter mode Only payload is encrypted (not ATM or GEM headers) Encryption blocks aligned to GTC frame Counter is shared by OLT and all ONUs – 46b = 16b intra-frame + 30 bits inter-frame – intra-frame counter increments every 4 data bytes • reset to zero at beginning of DS GTC frame OLT and each ONU must agree on a unique symmetric key OLT asks ONU for a password (in PLOAMd) ONU sends password US in the clear (in PLOAMu) – key sent 3 times for robustness OLT informs ONU of precise time to start using new key
  45. 45. PON architecture PONs Slide 46
  46. 46. Terminology like every other field, PON technology has its own terminology • the CO head-end is called an OLT • ONUs are the CPE devices (sometimes called ONTs in ITU) • the entire fiber tree (incl. feeder, splitters, distribution fibers) is an ODN • all trees emanating from the same OLT form an OAN • downstream is from OLT to ONU (upstream is the opposite direction) downstream upstrea NNI m Optical Distribution Network Optical Network Units cor e splitter Optical Line Terminal UNI Optical Access Network Terminal Equipment PONs Slide 47
  47. 47. PON principles (almost) all PON types obey the same basic principles OLT and ONU consist of • Layer 2 (Ethernet MAC, ATM adapter, etc.) • optical transceiver using different λs for transmit and receive • optionally: Wavelength Division Multiplexer downstream transmission • OLT broadcasts data downstream to all ONUs in ODN • ONU captures data destined for its address, discards all other data • encryption needed to ensure privacy upstream transmission • ONUs share bandwidth using Time Division Multiple Access • OLT manages the ONU timeslots • ranging is performed to determine ONU-OLT propagation time additional functionality • Physical Layer OAM • Autodiscovery • Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation PONs Slide 48
  48. 48. Why a new protocol ? downstream PON has a unique architecture upstrea • (broadcast) point-to-multipoint in DS direction m • (multiple access) multipoint-to-point in US direction contrast that with, for example • Ethernet - multipoint-to-multipoint • ATM - point-to-point This means that existing protocols do not provide all the needed functionality e.g. receive filtering, ranging, security, BW allocation PONs Slide 49
  49. 49. Advantages of Gpon • Speed • Flexibility • Responsivness • Interoperability
  50. 50. Interoperability
  52. 52. COMPARISON OF PON WITH OTHER BROAD BAND ACCESS TECHOLOGIES (DSL,VDSL, cable/modem) ADVANTAGES • These include a long-term life expectancy of the fiber infrastructure, • lower operating costs through the reduction of “active components, support for greater distances between equipment nodes • most importantly, much greater bandwidth. DSL-certain megabits per sec, FTTH pon 1 to 2.5Gbps
  53. 53. • Since Pon uses only passive components it has low power requirements less no of technicians cost savings up 40 t0 60% Savings mainly result from lower customer contacts associated with service orders and trouble reporting, outside plant operations, central office operations, and network operations. • It provides high bandwidth for high-speed Internet access, video on demand,IPTV and voice over IP (VoIP) .
  54. 54. An illustration of an Ideal Access Network for Convergence Fixed / Mobile Applications
  55. 55. CLOSING REMARKS ICT Infrastructures are best delivered with GPON FTTH technologies Increasing Bandwidth Demand required Platforms with Long Term Readiness and can deliver higher bandwidth today. Convergence will remain a myth without Interoperable lower OPEX Access Platforms. GPON offers more services over a single Access Network with lower Fiber Cost and Long Term Readiness. Incumbents are upgrading on GPON and new Carriers are evaluation more diverse revenue opportunities from GPON.