Watershed Managment by Muhammad Qasim & Aroj Bashir


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Watershed Managment by Muhammad Qasim & Aroj Bashir

  2. 2.  Importance of Water  Importance of Water in Pakistan  Overview of Watershed  Types of Watersheds  Key Features of a Watershed  Human Impacts on Watersheds  Watershed Management  Improving Sub-Watershed Management and Environmental Awareness in the Ayubia National Park Objectives
  3. 3.  Future wars may be fought over water but that doesn`t mean they will be without precedent  Control over this vital resource is an age-old issue with the earliest water- related conflicts dating back to at least 2,500 BC  Today it is estimated that over 50 countries in five continents could soon be in conflict if they do not agree on a framework for sharing rivers, aquifers and other sources of water. Importance of Water
  4. 4.  In South Asia Pakistan is crying foul over India`s construction of dams which have drastically reduced flows downstream  And then there is the history of conflict between the two countries  Add climate change and shifting weather patterns to the mix and we are faced with a particularly bleak scenario if mitigating measures are not taken at the earliest  , Pakistan, India and other South Asian countries that depend on Himalayan waters must set aside political disputes and at least begin discussions on joint watershed management.
  5. 5.  Reasons of nationalism and past or current disputes must not prevail over the future of a region already beset by poverty  Our current profligacy coupled with the growing pollution of watercourses and aquifers is simply not sustainable  The effects of acute water scarcity are already visible across the land and a concerted effort is required to meet the greater challenges that lie ahead
  6. 6.  A watershed, also called a "drainage basin“  It is an area in which all water flowing into it goes to a common outlet, such as the same estuary or reservoir  It is consist of all surface water and include lakes, streams, reservoirs and wetlands, as well as all groundwater and aquifers  The water in a watershed originates via precipitation that is collected on the surface and groundwater  At the boundaries of watersheds there are drainage divides usually in the form of ridges or hills.
  7. 7.  Three different classifications used to describe watersheds  1st Continental Divide: Water on each side of these flows into different oceans  2nd Drainage Divide: It is a major type of watersheds. In this situation, waters on each side of the boundaries do not meet via the same river or stream, but they do reach the same ocean
  8. 8.  For example, there is a drainage divide between the Yellow River (Huang He) basin and the Yangtze River in China but both have the same outlet.  3rd Minor Drainage Divide: In this, waters separate at the divide but later rejoin  An example of this situation is shown with the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers
  9. 9.  Several key features that are important when studying watersheds.  1st Size: watersheds vary in size but larger watersheds have different characteristics than smaller ones because they drain a bigger area.  2nd Drainage Divide or Watershed Boundary: such as a mountain range This plays a role because it helps in determining whether the water in the watershed is flowing toward or away from an area
  10. 10.  3rd Topography or Terrain of the Watershed's Land:  4th Physical Landscape is its Soil Type: If the area is steep, the water there is likely to flow quickly and cause flooding and erosion, whereas flat watersheds have often have slower flowing rivers Sandy soils for example absorb water quickly, while hard, clay soils are less permeable. Both of these have implications for runoff, erosion and ground water.
  11. 11.  Everyday human activities impact watersheds like pollution of watersheds  Watershed pollution occurs in Point Source Non point source  In Pakistan the major problems of the watershed areas are over- population, over-grazing, illegal tree cutting and cultivation of land without considering the soil conservation principles
  12. 12.  Watershed management is the organization and planning of human activities on a watershed and recognizes the links between these activities and the watershed's health  The monitoring of pollution and regulations to reduce pollution  Watershed management is very important in Pakistan as the country has 2 large reservoirs (Terbela & Mangla) and several small ones like Warsak,Rawal and Khanpur dams etc  These dams have vast catchment areas in north of the country that drains water into these dams for irrigation and power generation
  13. 13.  Background ANP is one of the most popular tourist hill resorts in Pakistan with approximately 250,000 tourists visiting annually. The Project will focus on the following 3 areas: 1. Sub-watershed management 2. Awareness raising and capacity building 3. Community development through introduction of alternate sources of energy, rainwater harvesting, crop diversification, habitat restoration and water Improving Sub-Watershed Management and Environmental Awareness in the Ayubia National Park
  14. 14.  Sub-watershed management The Project will also contribute to sustainable flow of water for a sub- watershed area through different techniques such as plantation and loose stone check-damming of the streams at different points. Rainwater harvesting will be tested at the hamlet to provide the residents with a direct supply of water. Solid waste management activities will be carried out for segregation of the waste (for composting of organic material) and its collection  An Environmental Education and Awareness Strategy will be developed and implemented for the area.  WWF Pakistan will engage students, and others interested groups in cleaning up activities at Saif ul Maluk Lake and exposure visits to ANP. The lake is at an altitude of 3,224m above sea level in NWFP, Pakistan
  15. 15.  Objectives Contribute to sustainable water flows through watershed management in Ayubia National Park and enhance environmental conservation through awareness raising  Solution 1. Water availability to the communities has been improved through watershed management. 2. One hamlet, Kundla, tested to reduce the dependence on ANP resources. 3. Tourists educated about nature conservation. 4. Liaison established with schools near ANP to organise environmental conservation education programme. 5. Schools and interested groups engaged to improve cleanliness of Lake Saif ul Maluk
  16. 16. 1- http://geography.about.com/od/physicalgeography/a/watersheds.htm 2- http://archives.dawn.com/archives/32603 3- http://www.cssforum.com.pk/css-optional-subjects/group-b/forestry/33450- watershed-management.html 4- http://wwf.panda.org/who_we_are/wwf_offices/pakistan/index.cfm?uProjectI D=PK0115