MORPHOLOGY
UNIVERSITY
OF GUJRAT


Morphology?



Terminologies



Classification of Morphemes

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Morphological Description


Morphology is the study of the forms and
formation of words.

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Morphology

The branch of linguistics (and one of the ...






Word:
Is a sound or sound groups
articulated that express a idea.
Morpheme :
Is the smallest meaningful unit in t...
Prefix:
Is that morpheme which is
attached to the start of a word.
Example of prefixe:
un + kind = unkind
 Suffix:
The su...
Infixes:
Bound morphemes which are inserted into other
morphemes.
Example: Fikas ------ Strong
Fumikas – To be strong
 Ro...




Free morphemes-units:
That can stand alone as words
by themselves.
Example : TREE
Bound morphemes-units:
That must b...
Open Class Morphemes:










Open Morpheme has independent
meaning.
It can stand alone.
Also known as content wor...
Closed class morphemes have listed functions…
 Definiteness
Comparison
 Quantity
 Conjoining



BOUND MORPHEME
Bound morphemes(affixes) must be attached to
the word.



They are two kinds of bound morphemes.



C...


Contractible morphemes are like;



I will  I’ll
They had  They’d
So, they are auxiliary modals such as
will, shall...


Affixes divided into 3 groups;


Prefixes



unclean



Infixes



nowadays



Suffixes



adjustment
Derivational Morphemes
Are those bound morphemes that we use in making new
words or making words of a different grammatica...
Inflectional Morphemes
Are those morphemes that are used to indicate
aspects of the grammatical function of a word.
Exampl...


1. -'s (possessive) with nouns
2. _s (plural)
3.-ing (present participle)
4. –s (3rd person singular)
5.-ed(past tense)...




what's the difference between inflectional
morpheme and derivational morpheme?
Inflectional morpheme ,never change t...
MORPHOLOGY Muhammad Qasim Department of Environmental Science University of Gujrat
MORPHOLOGY Muhammad Qasim Department of Environmental Science University of Gujrat
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MORPHOLOGY Muhammad Qasim Department of Environmental Science University of Gujrat

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The branch of linguistics (and one of the major components of grammar) that studies word structures, especially in terms of morphemes.

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MORPHOLOGY Muhammad Qasim Department of Environmental Science University of Gujrat

  1. 1. MORPHOLOGY UNIVERSITY OF GUJRAT
  2. 2.  Morphology?  Terminologies  Classification of Morphemes  Morphological Description
  3. 3.  Morphology is the study of the forms and formation of words.  Morphology The branch of linguistics (and one of the major components of grammar) that studies word structures, especially in terms of morphemes.
  4. 4.    Word: Is a sound or sound groups articulated that express a idea. Morpheme : Is the smallest meaningful unit in the grammar of a language. An affix: Is a word element, such as a prefix or suffix, that can only occur attached to a base, stem, or root.
  5. 5. Prefix: Is that morpheme which is attached to the start of a word. Example of prefixe: un + kind = unkind  Suffix: The suffix is that morpheme that is added to the end of a word. The suffix may consist of character more then a single or complete character. Example: reason + able = reasonable 
  6. 6. Infixes: Bound morphemes which are inserted into other morphemes. Example: Fikas ------ Strong Fumikas – To be strong  Root: Root words are the basic part of a word that usually carries meaning.  Stem: When a root morpheme is combined with affix morphemes. 
  7. 7.   Free morphemes-units: That can stand alone as words by themselves. Example : TREE Bound morphemes-units: That must be attached or bound to a free morpheme Example: TREES
  8. 8. Open Class Morphemes:       Open Morpheme has independent meaning. It can stand alone. Also known as content words. Closed Class Morphemes Closed Morpheme has dependent meaning. It can not stand alone. Closed Class are not re-productive.
  9. 9. Closed class morphemes have listed functions…  Definiteness Comparison  Quantity  Conjoining 
  10. 10.  BOUND MORPHEME Bound morphemes(affixes) must be attached to the word.  They are two kinds of bound morphemes.   Contractible Morphemes Affixes
  11. 11.  Contractible morphemes are like;   I will  I’ll They had  They’d So, they are auxiliary modals such as will, shall, has, have, had and would can be contracted in informal style of language.
  12. 12.  Affixes divided into 3 groups;  Prefixes  unclean  Infixes  nowadays  Suffixes  adjustment
  13. 13. Derivational Morphemes Are those bound morphemes that we use in making new words or making words of a different grammatical category from the stem. Example: good(adj.)+-ness(derivational morpheme) =goodness(noun) care(noun)+-ful(derivational morpheme) =careful(adj.) A list of derivational morphemes concludes; suffixes:-ish, -less, ly …etc. prefixes: re-,pre-, un-, ex-, mis-, co- …etc.
  14. 14. Inflectional Morphemes Are those morphemes that are used to indicate aspects of the grammatical function of a word. Example: clean+(-ed)=cleaned  tenses Inflectional morphemes are also called(inflections).
  15. 15.  1. -'s (possessive) with nouns 2. _s (plural) 3.-ing (present participle) 4. –s (3rd person singular) 5.-ed(past tense) 6. –en(past participle) 7. – est (superlative) 8. –er (comparative) *Jane's brother * pens *teaching with verbs *she likes *played *forgotten with adjectives *happiest *happier
  16. 16.   what's the difference between inflectional morpheme and derivational morpheme? Inflectional morpheme ,never change the grammatical category of a word. -Old (adj.) Older (adj.) While derivational morpheme can change the grammatical category of a word . -teach (v.) teacher (n.)

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