Morphology is the study of the forms and
formation of words.
The branch of linguistics (and one of the major
components of grammar) that studies word
structures, especially in terms of morphemes.
Is a sound or sound groups
articulated that express a idea.
Is the smallest meaningful unit in the
grammar of a language.
Is a word element, such as a prefix or
suffix, that can only occur attached to a
base, stem, or root.
Is that morpheme which is
attached to the start of a word.
Example of prefixe:
un + kind = unkind
The suffix is that morpheme that is added to
the end of a word. The suffix may consist of
character more then a single or complete
character. Example: reason + able = reasonable
Bound morphemes which are inserted into other
Example: Fikas ------ Strong
Fumikas – To be strong
Root words are the basic part of a word that
usually carries meaning.
When a root morpheme is combined with affix
That can stand alone as words
Example : TREE
That must be attached or
bound to a free morpheme
Open Class Morphemes:
Open Morpheme has independent
It can stand alone.
Also known as content words.
Closed Class Morphemes
Closed Morpheme has dependent
It can not stand alone.
Closed Class are not re-productive.
Closed class morphemes have listed functions…
Bound morphemes(affixes) must be attached to
They are two kinds of bound morphemes.
Contractible morphemes are like;
I will I’ll
They had They’d
So, they are auxiliary modals such as
will, shall, has, have, had and would can be
contracted in informal style of language.
Are those bound morphemes that we use in making new
words or making words of a different grammatical category
from the stem.
good(adj.)+-ness(derivational morpheme) =goodness(noun)
care(noun)+-ful(derivational morpheme) =careful(adj.)
A list of derivational morphemes concludes;
suffixes:-ish, -less, ly …etc.
prefixes: re-,pre-, un-, ex-, mis-, co- …etc.
Are those morphemes that are used to indicate
aspects of the grammatical function of a word.
Inflectional morphemes are also
1. -'s (possessive) with nouns
2. _s (plural)
3.-ing (present participle)
4. –s (3rd person singular)
6. –en(past participle)
7. – est (superlative)
8. –er (comparative)
with verbs *she likes
with adjectives *happiest
what's the difference between inflectional
morpheme and derivational morpheme?
Inflectional morpheme ,never change the
grammatical category of a word.
While derivational morpheme can change
the grammatical category of a word .