Climate Change and Agriculture by Muhammad Qasim & Aroj Bashir
Effects of Agriculture on Climate
Effects of Climate Change on
Summary of the effects of
climate change on agriculture
Climate Change and Pakistan
Climate Change and Pakistan Agriculture
World population will
probably double over
the next 100 years.
Productive agriculture is
essential to feed a
growing population and
productivity remains at
the heart of modern
Climate affects agriculture
Year-to-year variations in harvest
are largely due to variations in
temperature and precipitation
Agriculture also affects climate
Forests a major terrestrial sink for
CO2, have been greatly reduced by
agricultural land clearing.
Modern agriculture depends on
fossil-fuel energy and contributes to
greenhouse gas emissions
The global flux of several
greenhouse gases is influenced by
The second largest source of CO2
emissions after fossil fuel
combustion is land clearing .
10 to 30% of net global CO2
Forests, grasslands, and soils store
large quantities of carbon.
Forests store 20 to 40 times more
carbon per unit area.
Mean estimates of carbon loss from the
conversion of terrestrial ecosystems to
agriculture range from 21 to 46%.
Some agriculture produces methane (CH4) –
the second-most important greenhouse gas.
Paddy rice cultivation is responsible for
40% of global CH4 emissions.
Livestock production is responsible for
about 15% of global CH4 emissions.
Nitrous Oxide is another GHS gas which is
realize by agriculture at the land clearing
Excess nitrogen from fertilizers is leached
into the soil and, through microbial
denitrification , converted to volatile N2O
and released into t he atmosphere.
N2O release from agricultural fertilizers
range from 0.1 to 1.5% of applied nitrogen.
N2O naturally by soils, but globally,
nitrogen fertilizers contribute about 0.14 to
2.4million tons of the 8 to 22 million tons of
total annual N2O emissions.
This problem can overcome by Crop rotation
using a legume or other nitrogen-fixing
crops can reduce the need for nitrogen
Changes in atmospheric CO2,
temperature, precipitation, and soil
moisture, individually or together,
could alter crop production.
Climate change models are linked
to crop-response models, to predict
crop yield changes in response to
First, and perhaps most important,
is the potential for farming
practices to adapt to climate change
Second, increased atmospheric CO2 could
also reduce the effects of climate change
Higher atmospheric CO2 levels could
stimulate photosynthesis and crop
production – a process called the CO2
Third, a differential day–night warming
pattern would lessen the impacts of
climate change on crops.
A significant increase in daytime
temperature maxima during the growing
season reduces photosynthesis and
increases evapotranspiration , leading to a
reduction in yield
Finally, the substitution or
increased use of warmth-tolerant
or drought-resistant crops could
mitigate the impacts of climate
change in certain areas.
decrease in water availability
would result in decreased food
The risk of crop loss in temperate
regions may increase as crop
pests move poleward with global
Climate also affects animal husbandry.
Indirect effects include climate-
induced changes in the availability
and price of feed grain and in pasture
and forage crop yields
Extreme heat can affect the health of
Climate change will have serious impacts
on world food supplies .Especially in the
less developed countries.
Global warming will probably shift
growing areas by several hundred
kilometers per degree increase in
temperature, increasing agricultural
productivity in some areas of the world,
while drastically decreasing it in others.
In the developed countries of the
Temperate Zone, climate change will
probably have little negative impact on
In many temperate regions, climate
warming and an extended growing
season could be beneficial.
In Northern Europe, climate change
could increase winter wheat production
in Southern Sweden 10 to 20% over
current levels by 2050.
In tropical and subtropical areas,
predicted impacts on agriculture are
In poorer regions of the tropics,
populations are often more directly
dependent on agricultural production
and more affected by its failure,
Low lying coastal regions, river deltas,
and islands may be subject to flooding by
sea-level rise in which case their
agriculture would be impacted.
Water-stressed and marginal agricultural
regions (e.g. in sub-Saharan Africa,
Northern Mexico, the Middle East and
Australia) may be pushed completely out
of production by climate change.
Many areas in the Middle East and arid
Asia have rapid population growth rates
and are highly dependent on grazing
animals and irrigated crop production.
Other case studies for different regions of
the world suggest the following.
a significant increase in rice production in
Increased droughts and crop stress in
Australia, Brazil, India, and parts of
Africa resulting from an intensified El
dramatic losses in farm production in the
central plains of the United States and
Canada as it returns to “dust bowl
”conditions similar to the 1930s
Increased production in temperate
countries such as Finland and the Russian
Federation if technological improvements
can take advantage of warmer conditions
For a doubling of atmospheric CO2, overall global agricultural
production seems sustainable. However, responses differ greatly
between regions. Low-latitude, low-income areas will experience the
Sub-Saharan Africa – This arid to semiarid region where 60% of the
population depends directly on farming appears most vulnerable to
South and Southeast Asia – More than 30% of the GDP comes from
agriculture and these regions may be vulnerable.
Government agricultural policies – Many present policies
discourage adaptation and technological innovation and may impede
adaptation to climate change.
Climate change is the serious most challenge
of our times.
it is well known that the developing countries
are the least responsible for climate change
Pakistan being a developing country has a
Global warming: the contribution to total
greenhouse gas emissions is as low as 0.43
Pakistan come 135th of the world average of
carbon dioxide emissions.
it is faced with severe climate changes and
has been ranked as the 12th country most
vulnerable to climate change.
Pakistan's principal natural resources
are arable land and water.
About 25% of Pakistan's total land area
is under cultivation.
watered by one of the
largest irrigation systems in the world.
21.2 GDP is given by Agriculture to
In Pakistan, the most agricultural
province is Punjab where wheat and
cotton are the most grown
Some people also have mango orchards
but due to some problems like weather,
they're not found in a big range.
50% of the land area of Pakistan is at the risk
of getting affected just because of climate
Pakistan Himalayan glaciers who feed almost
seven great Asian rivers are getting affected
by the changing climates and have also
poured light on the fact that these glaciers are
expected to completely melt down in the
coming 50 years which is a serious threat to
the economy of Pakistan,
the adverse effects and impacts of climate
change on the agricultural sector of Pakistan
Recent floods have caused a loss of 2.6
million acres of land resources.
Being a predominantly agriculture economy,
climate change is estimated to decrease crop
yields in Pakistan not only as a result of flooding
but also as a result of changing temperatures,
which in turn will affect livelihoods and
WHERE the wheat yields are estimated to
decline by 6 to 9% and have given rise to food
inflation and as the industrial sector of Pakistan
depends upon the agricultural sector so these
climate changes have a direct effect on the
economy of Pakistan.
The change in water regimes and land due to
climate change also adversely affects the
agricultural productivity that depends mainly on
the water availability.
Negative effect is due to altering
bio-physical relationships such as
changing growing periods of crops,
altered scheduling of cropping
seasons, changing irrigation water
requirements, altering soil
characteristics and rise in the risk of
pests and diseases.
In the country the risk of hunger
and food security will remain
high due to decreased yields
with the current rapid
population growth and
Climate changes have started adversely affecting the overall
quality of life in the country in the form of reduced agriculture
productivity ,increased human morbidity and stressed use of
Develop a national plan of action on climate change like China
Taking measures such as improving technological responses by
setting in place early warning systems, reducing
the vulnerability of livelihoods through infra-structural changes
Developing new and innovative farm production practices
(including new crop varieties and irrigation techniques) are
Mitigating is another way where feasible strategies
need to be identified to reduce the emission of CO2 for
limiting the magnitude of future climate change.
Another viable way could be managing forests and
soils to enhance carbon uptake.
A particular slide catching your eye?
Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.