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gestalt therapy
 

gestalt therapy

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about gestalt therapy that was widely used in one of the therapy of counselling

about gestalt therapy that was widely used in one of the therapy of counselling

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    gestalt therapy gestalt therapy Presentation Transcript

    • Presented by:NUR HIDAYAH BINTI ABDUL RAZAK (D20121057613)NURHIDAIYAH BINTI JUHAN (D20121057684)NOOR ATIRAH BINTI HASHIM (D20121057687)Lecturer:ASSOC. PROF. CR. DR. ABDUL MALEK ABDUL RAHMAN
    • FREDERICK S. (FRITZ) PERLS (main) LAURA POSNER PERLS
    •  Gestalt therapy is an existential,phenomenological and process-basedapproach Individuals must be understood in thecontext of their ongoing relationship withenvironment Awareness, choice and responsibility arecornerstones of practice
    •  The initial goal-to gain awareness of whatclients are experiencing in the presentmoment Automatically change would occur throughawareness Gestalt therapy is lively & promotes directexperiencing rather than the abstractness oftalking about situations
    •  Fritz (1969) prcticed Gestalt therapypaternalistically:  client have to grown up, stand on their own feet  “deals with their life problems bythemselves” Genuine knowledge is the product of what isimmediately evident in the experience of thereceiver Individuals have capacity to self-regulatewhen they are aware of happening in andaround them
    • Principles ofGestaltTherapy(VoHN)BasicConceptTherapeuticTechniquesApplicationofTechniquesLimitation
    • • -Intertwined with thefigure-formation process•A process by whichequilibrium is “disturbed” bythe emergence of a need, asensation or an interest.•Individuals can take actionand make contacts that willrestore the equilibrium orcontribute to growth & change.•Asserts that theorganism must beseen in itsenvironment•Its context as part ofthe constantlychanging field•What is occurring atthe boundary betweenthe person and theenvironment•How the individuals organizeexperience from moment tomoment- foreground (figure) &background (ground)• tracks how some aspects of theenvironmental field emergences(back ground-> focal point)•• The dominant needs of anindividual at a given momentinfluence this process.••Gestalt (German word) – awhole or completion•Figure (aspects of individual’sexperience-the most salient at anymoment)•The ground (aspect of theclient’s presentation)1. Holism2. Figure-Formationprocess3. OrganismicSelf-regulation4. FieldTheory
    • Principles ofGestaltTherapyBasicConceptTherapeuticTechniquesApplicationofTechniquesLimitation
    • 3.Contact &Resistance toContact1.TheNow2.UnfinishedBusiness
    •  Polster & Polster (1973) developed the thesisthat “power is in the present” Focusing on the past and the future can be a way toavoid coming to terms with the present Phenomenological inquiry involves payingattention to what is occurring now
    •  Most people can stay in the present for onlya short time & are inclined to find ways ofinterrupting the flow. Clients talk about their feeling, which weredetached from their present experiencing Therapist helps the clients to aware theirexperience The past will make regular appearances inthe present moment They may focus on their past mistakes or engage inendless resolutions
    • The therapist directs clients to “bring the fantasy here”or “tell me the dream as though you were having itnow” Eg : Rather than thinking about a past childhoodtrauma with her father, a client becomes the hurtchild and talks directly to her father in fantasy or byimagining him being present in the room in an emptychild. (text book, p.198)
    • 3.Contact &Resistance toContact1.TheNow2.UnfinishedBusiness
    •  When figures emerge from the background butare not completed and resolved Unacknowledged create unnecessary emotional Feelings not fully experienced in awareness, lingerin the background and interfere with effectivecontact The therapist assists client by providing situationthat courage them to fully experience theimpasse Clients are able to get into contact with theirfrustration Preoccupation, compulsive behavior, wariness*oppressive energy and self-defeating behavior
    •  Gestalt therapy based on the notion thatindividuals Have a striving toward actualization andgrowth If they accept all aspect of themselveswithout judging these dimension they canbegin to think, feel, and act differently
    • 3.Contact &Resistance toContact1.TheNow2.UnfinishedBusiness
    •  Contact Is made by seeing, hearing, smelling, touching,and movingEFFECTIVE CONTACT Interacting with nature and with other peoplewithout losing one’s individuality BOUNDARY DISTURBANCES/ RESISTANCE TOCONTACT The defenses we develop to prevent us fromexperiencing the present fully
    •  The two function of boundaries that arenecessary to healthy functioning To connect To separate Focus on interruption, disturbances &resistances to contact The coping processes but often end uppreventing us from experiencing the present infull and real way Polster & Polster (1973) describe fivedifferent kinds of contact boundarydisturbances
    • Introjection Projection RetroflectionDeflection Confluence
    •  The tendency to uncritically accept others’belief and standards without assimilating themto make them congruent with who we are. Introjected values and behavior are imposed onself. As in all contact boundary disturbances,swallowing whole can be healthy orpathological, depending on the circumstancesand degree of awareness.
    • FIVE major channelsIntrojection Projection RetroflectionDeflection Confluence
    •  The reverse of introjection a confusion of self and other that resultsfrom attributing to the outside somethingthat is truly self. We refuse to acknowledge in our selves, weavoid taking responsibility for our own feeling Tend to feel that we are the victims ofcircumstances
    • FIVE major channelsIntrojection Projection RetroflectionDeflection Confluence
    •  Retroflection is a split within the self, aresisting of aspects of the self by the self This substitutes self for environment, as in doing to self what one wants to do tosomeone else doing for self what one wants someone elseto do for self Typically involve a fair amount of anxiety
    •  Gestalt Therapy help us discover a self-regulatory system so that we can dealrealistically with the world The example of retroflection is illusion ofself-sufficiency it substitutes self for environment. Althoughone can do ones own breathing and chewing,the air and food must come from theenvironment
    • FIVE major channelsIntrojection Projection RetroflectionDeflection Confluence
    •  Deflection is the process of distraction orveering off, in the latter case, the person usuallyfeels "untouched" avoidance of contact or of awareness by turningaside, as when one is polite instead of direct Deflection can be accomplished by notexpressing directly or by not receiving. We attempt to diffuse or defuse contact throughoveruse of humour, abstract generalization andquestion rather than statement
    • FIVE major channelsIntrojection Projection RetroflectionDeflection Confluence
    •  Involves blurring the differentiation betweenthe self and the environment In confluence (fusion), the separation anddistinction between self and other becomesso unclear that the boundary is lost. A belief that all parties experience the samefeelings thoughts we do In isolation, the boundary becomes soimpermeable that connectedness is lost, i.e.,the importance of others for the self is lostfrom awareness.
    • Principles ofGestaltTherapyBasicConceptTherapeuticTechniquesApplicationofTechniquesLimitation
    •  Increase clients’ awareness - Pay attention to the present moment - Pay attention to clients’ body language,nonverbal language, and inconsistencebetween verbal and nonverbal message(e.g., anger and smile) - “I” message
    •  Gestalt approach focuses on overt speakinghabits as away to increase clients’ awareness ofthemselves. Language can both describe and conceal,byfocusing on language, clients are able toincrease their awareness of what they areexperiencing in the present moment and of howthey avoiding coming into contact with thisexperience. Some examples of “I” message languange : - It’s hard for me to spill my guts - I don’t have a leg to stand on - I feel like a have a hole in my soul - I feel ripped to shreds
    •  Therapists are responsible for the quality of theirpresence, for knowing themselves and the client, and forremaining open to the client. Therapists must allow themselves to be affected by theclient so that they can actively shared their ownperceptions and experience as they encounter clients inhere and now. Therapists also not allowing their clients to be who theyare but also remain themselves and not do not get lost inrole. The main thing here is to develop an awareness inside theclients so that they would understand what was actuallyhappening inside them. Gestalt Therapy clients can free themselves to move pastpain, fear, anxiety, depression or low self-esteem. Theycan then discover who they really are, and allowthemselves to develop in the ways appropriate for them.
    •  Present-centered awareness Pay attention on verbal and nonverbal cures Bring conflicts or struggles to actually experiencetheir conflict and struggles Focus on growth and enhancement See each aspect of a dream as a projection ofthemselves Increase awareness of “what is” Empirical validation for the effectiveness
    • Principles ofGestaltTherapyBasicConceptTherapeuticTechniquesApplicationofTechniquesLimitation
    •  The experiment in Gestalt Therapy Internal dialogue exercise Making the rounds Rehearsal exercise Reversal technique Exaggeration exercise Staying with the feeling Dream work
    •  Is fundamental to contemporary Gestalttherapy Gestalt therapists invite clients to engage inexperiments that lead to fresh emotionalexperiencing and new insights Bring struggles to life by inviting clients toenact them in the present Crucial that experiments be tailored to eachindividual & used in timely manner Also must be carried out in a context thatoffers a balance between support and risk
    • The "Top Dog" and the "Under DogGo to each person in thegroup and talk towards them.
    • Counselor exaggeratesmannerism of client or asksclient to exaggeratemannerism in order to makeclient aware of true feelings.
    •  So that you can work through thefears. Urge clients to stay with the feelingand encourage them to go deeperinto the feeling or behavior theywish to avoid
    •  Suggested format: – Making a list of all the details of dream. – Remembering each person, event, & moodin it. – Then becoming each of these parts bytransforming oneself, acting as fully aspossible & inventing dialogue.
    • According to Perls, the dream is themost spontaneous.Expression of the existence of thehuman being. Dream represents an unfinishedsituation.Also contains an existential messageregarding oneself & one’s currentstruggle.
    • Principles ofGestaltTherapyBasicConceptTherapeuticTechniquesApplicationofTechniquesLimitation
    •  Too much focus on emotion may pose limitationsfor clients who have been culturally conditionedto be reserved This therapy may not effective for clients whohave difficulty abstracting and imagining The therapist may abuse power by usingpowerful techniques without proper training Overpowering for some clients because itemphasize on therapist authenticity and self-disclosure