CHAPTER 7
RESPIRATION
Sub topics
7.1 - Understanding the respiratory
processes in energy production
7.2 - Analysing the respiratory structure an...
7.1
Understanding the respiratory
processes in energy production
What is respiration??
Refer to the process of obtaining oxygen and
delivering it to the cells for cellular respiration
and...
Respiration
External Respiration
(Breathing)
Internal Respiration
(Cellular respiration)
Aerobic
Respiration
Anaerobic
Res...
External respiration
(Breathing)
• The exchange of respiratory gases (oxygen
and carbon dioxide) between the body and
the ...
Internal respiration
( cellular respiration)
• A metabolic process which occurs in cells,
involves oxidation of organic mo...
The main substrate to
produce energy is
GLUCOSE
Aerobic respiration
• Require oxygen
• Glucose is completely oxidised to produces
36 to 38 molecules of ATP// 2898 kJ ener...
Anaerobic respiration
• Without oxygen
• Glucose is not completely broken down
to energy
• Microorganisms live in animal i...
Muscle cells (anaerobic respiration)
• Prolonged physical activity
- O2 supplied not enough
- O2 needed > O2 supplied
- mu...
• Glucose molecules break down partially
into intermediate substance – LACTIC
ACID
• Energy low because much of energy sti...
• After the activity the person need to breathe
deeply and rapidly to inhale more O2
- Oxygen is used to oxidise accumulat...
• Oxygen debt is paid off when all of lactic
acid is removed (increasing breathing
rate after vigorous activity)
Oxygen de...
C6H12O6 + O2
CO2 H2O+ + energy
In yeast
• Anaerobic respiration in yeast also
known as fermentation
C6H12O6
2CO2 + 2C2H5OH + Energy(210kJ)
ethanol
Zymase...
Why aerobic respiration
produced more energy than
anaerobic respiration???
Comparison between Aerobic Respiration
& Anaerobic Respiration
Similarities
•To form cellular respiration
• Involve the br...
Comparison between Aerobic Respiration &
Anaerobic Respiration
Aerobic Respiration Items Anaerobic
Respiration
Almost ever...
Comparison between Aerobic Respiration &
Anaerobic Respiration
Aerobic Respiration Items Anaerobic Respiration
Large amoun...
7.2
Analysing the respiratory structure and
breathing mechanism in human and anima
Adaptations of respiratory structures
(General characteristics)
• Respiratory surface is moist – easy for
gases to dissolv...
addition
• Ventilation mechanism
- move gases from respiratory medium
respiratory structures
- increase the rate of gaseou...
The larger the size
of organism, the
smaller the TSA/V
ratio
Protozoa – Unicellular Organism
Oxygen
nutrients
Carbon
dioxide
Waste
products
The respiratory surface of an unicellular o...
• Unicellular has no special
structure to absorb oxygen or to
expel carbon dioxide
• The gaseous exchange occurs
through t...
• Concentration of O2 is higher in
surrounding water compared in the cell,
so O2 diffuse into the cell through
plasma memb...
Adaptations
• Size is small, so has a large surface
area to volume ratio _ so rate of
diffusion increases
• The surroundin...
Multicellular organism
• Small, flattened, thin body
- has high TSA/V ratio, gaseous
exchange occur efficiently
- do not r...
• Complex multicellular organism
- needs specialised respiratory
stuctures for efficient
gaseous exchange
- must have larg...
The respiratory structure and
breathing mechanism of fish
The gill of fish
Operculum
The gill of fish
• Four pairs of gills (protected by operculum)
• Each gill consists of bony gill arch supporting
two rows of thin gill fil...
• Absorb dissolved oxygen from the
surrounding water
• The membrane of the gill filaments is thin –
allows the absorption ...
The structural Adaptation of the gills:
a. Thin membrane of filament to allow rapid
diffusion of respiratory gases into th...
The Mechanism of Countercurrent Exchange
(gaseous exchange efficiently)
a. The water flows over the gills in one direction...
• The efficiency of fish gills is further
increased by ventilation ( by
swimming, opening and closing the
operculum,)incre...
• Absorb dissolved oxygen from the
surrounding water
• The membrane of the gill filaments is thin –
allows the absorption ...
INHALATION
• The floor of the buccal cavity is lowered
• At the same time, the opercular cavity is
enlarge and the opercul...
EXHALATION
• When the mouth closes, the floor of the
buccal cavity is raised
• Water flows through the lamellae and gases
...
The respiratory structure and
breathing mechanism of
insects
• The respiratory system of insects is the
tracheal system (it consists of air tubes called
tracheae)
• Air enter the trac...
• The branching of trachea and
tracheoles increase the surface area
for gases exchange
• Certain insects have air sacs in
...
The tracheal system of an insect
Body
wall
spiracle
tracheole
Body cell
Trachea
(Reinforced with rings of chitin which
pre...
ADAPTATIONS OF TRACHEOLES
• Large number- provide large surface area for
gases exchange
• Tip of tracheoles have thin perm...
• Larger insects like grasshopper have air
sacs in their tracheal system which
speed up the movement of gases
BREATHING MECHANISM
• Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of
abdominal muscles
• The movement of abdominal muscle will
com...
• Exhales – abdominal muscles
contract
- air pressure increased, air
forced out through spiracles
Circulatory system not i...
The respiratory structure and
breathing mechanism of
amphibians
The respiratory structure in an amphibian
Skin
Lung
Adaptation of the skin for
gases exchange
1. The skin is thin
and highly
permeable
- To allow rapid
diffusion of
respirato...
Adaptation of the Lung for
gases exchange
1. The surface area
for gases
exchange is
increased by
numerous inner
partition
...
The Breathing Mechanism of Frog
INHALATION
1. During inhalation, the air is drawn into the bucco-
pharyngeal cavity throug...
The Breathing Mechanism of Frog
EXHALATION
When the lungs muscles contract, air is expelled
from the lungs (with the help ...
Respiratory Structure of Humans
1. Gases exchange in humans take place in the
lungs.
2. Air enters the lungs the lungs thr...
The human lung
Rib cage (protect the lungs)
Alveoli
Features of Alveoli and the Function In Gases
Exchange
Walls are made of a single of
cells
Large number of alveoli in the
...
Breathing Mechanism in Humans
INHALATION
1. External intercostal muscles contract
2. Internal intercostal muscle relax
3. ...
Breathing Mechanism in Humans
EXHALATION
1.External intercostal muscles relax
2.Internal intercostal muscle contract
3.The...
Breathing Mechanism in Humans
INHALATION/INSPIRATION EXHALATION/EXSPIRATION
Diaphragm
Breathing Mechanism in Humans
INHALATION/INSPIRATIONEXHALATION/EXSPIRATION
Structures Inhalation Exhalation
External intercostal
muscles
Internal intercostal
muscles
Rib cage
Diaphragm
Volume
Press...
Compare and contrast the human
respiratory system with that of other
organisms
Adaptation
Organisms
Large
surface
area
Respiratory
structure
Moisture Network of
blood
capillaries
Protozoa Small size Pl...
The gases exchange
occurs at two parts:
a. Between the surface
of alveolus – blood
capillaries
b. Between the blood
capill...
Gases exchange (alveoli-blood capillary)
High Partial
Pressure of O2
Low Partial
Pressure of O2
Gas Partial pressure Effects
Air in the
alveoli
Blood
capillaries
O2 High Low O2 diffuses
from the alveoli
into the blood
...
Oxygen
Body cells
Gases exchange (blood capillary-body cells)
High Partial
Pressure of
O2
Low Partial
Pressure of
O2
Gas Partial pressure Effects
Air in the
blood
capillaries
Body cells
O2 High Low Oxyhaemoglobin breaks
down and releases O...
Oxygen ( blood capillary- body cells)
The partial pressure of oxygen in the blood
capillary is higher than in the tissue f...
a) Transport of O2 from lungs to body cell
1. O2 in the blood that leaves the alveoli is
transported to body cells for cel...
b) Transport of CO2 from body cells to lungs
CO2 released by body cells can be
transported in 3 ways:
• Carbonic acid (7%)...
Carbon dioxide ( body cells-blood capillary)
The partial pressure of CO2 in the body cells/tissue
fluid is higher than in ...
• Small amount is taken up by haemoglobin in the
form of carbaminohaemoglobin
carbon dioxide + haemoglobin
carbaminohaemog...
• Most of CO2 combines with water to form
carbonic acid
• Carbonic acid will break down into
bicarbonate ions
• The reacti...
CO2 + Hb
Carbaminohaemoglobin
CO2 + H2O
H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
HCO3
-
(Bicarbonate ion)
H+
Blood plasma
Carbon dioxide ( blood capillary-alveoli)
The partial pressure of CO2 in the alveolus is lower than
in the blood capillary...
The composition of inhaled
and exhaled air
Content Inhaled air Exhaled air
Oxygen 21.09 % 16.4 %
Carbon
dioxide
0.03 % 4.1 %
Nitrogen 79.0 % 79.0 %
Water
vapour
Vari...
7.4
Understanding the regulatory
mechanism in respiration
• All metabolic process need energy
• The rate of cell respiration is directly related
to the energy requirement of the bo...
• During vigorous exercise, the muscle require
more O2 and glucose to release more energy
during cellular respiration. The...
• This enable more O2 and glucose to be
supplied for cellular respiration and for more
CO2 to be removed from the cells
• ...
The change in breathing
rate after completing a
vigorous exercise
Under normal condition - 15 to 20 times per
minute
After...
The change in rate of
heartbeat after completing
a vigorous exercise
Under normal condition – 60 to 70 beats per
minute
Af...
Intercoastal muscles & diaphragm
Respiratory Control Centre
( Medulla oblongata )
impulses
Also helps to
monitor CO2
level...
Active
cellular
activity
CO2 level
will
increase
Reduce the
pH level of
the blood
Detected by the central
chemoreceptor in...
In fear
• Breathing and heartbeat rates increase to
increase rate of cellular respiration in cells.
• Higher rate of cellu...
Peripheral chemoreceptor
• Aortic bodies (aortic arch) and carotid bodies
(carotid artery)
• Sensitive to both the CO2 con...
At high altitudes
• Atmospheric pressure is low, difficult to
breath
• Partial pressure of oxygen decreased, drop in
oxyge...
Sensors on the walls of aorta and carotid arteries
(neck)(peripheral chemoreceptor)
Send nerve impulses to the medulla obl...
6.5
Realising the importance of maintaining a
healthy respiratory system
Why there’s a need to maintain a
healthy respiratory system ??
• Try to avoid living in a polluted environment
- because poisonous substances from the
atmosphere could damage the lungs
...
Healthy lungs Diseased lungs
DON’T SMOKE !!!!!
7.6
Understanding respiration in plants
The energy requirement in
plants
• Plants need energy to carry out living
processes :
1. Meristems cells - cell division
2. Root hair cells – active transp...
Aerobic respiration
C6H12O6 + 6O2
6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP
Anaerobic respiration
C6H12O6
2CO2 + 2C2H5OH + 2ATP
ethanol
The intake of oxygen for
respiration
Stomata
Lower
epidermis
Upper
epidermis
Cuticle
Palisade
mesophyll
Vascular
bundle
Xylem
Phloem
Spongy
mesophyll
Air
space
stoma
O...
• Photosynthesis occurs during the day
• O2 from photosynthesis is used up during
respiration
• CO2 from respiration is us...
oxygen
Carbon
dioxide
chloroplast mitochondria
Compensation Point
The point reached in a plant
when the rate of photosynthesis
is equal to the rate of
respiration
Night
• Photosynthesis does not take place
• Only respiration take place
• Carbon dioxide is released to into the
atmosphe...
Low light Intensity
• as the light intensity increases, the rate of
photosynthesis also increases
• it will come to a cert...
High Light Intensity
• When the light intensity is higher than the c.p
, the rate of photosynthesis is higher than the
rat...
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
Chapter 7 : respiration
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Chapter 7 : respiration

  1. 1. CHAPTER 7 RESPIRATION
  2. 2. Sub topics 7.1 - Understanding the respiratory processes in energy production 7.2 - Analysing the respiratory structure and breathing mechanism in human and animal 7.3 - Understanding the concept of gaseous exchange across the respiratory surfaces and transport of gaseous in human 7.4 - Understanding the regulatory mechanism in respiration 7.5 - Realising the importance of maintaining a healthy respiratory system 7.6 - Understanding respiration in plants
  3. 3. 7.1 Understanding the respiratory processes in energy production
  4. 4. What is respiration?? Refer to the process of obtaining oxygen and delivering it to the cells for cellular respiration and removing carbon dioxide produced by cells
  5. 5. Respiration External Respiration (Breathing) Internal Respiration (Cellular respiration) Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration 2 stages 2 types
  6. 6. External respiration (Breathing) • The exchange of respiratory gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between the body and the environment
  7. 7. Internal respiration ( cellular respiration) • A metabolic process which occurs in cells, involves oxidation of organic molecules to produce energy (in the form of ATP) • Controlled by enzymes • Two types : 1. Aerobic respiration 2. Anaerobic respiration
  8. 8. The main substrate to produce energy is GLUCOSE
  9. 9. Aerobic respiration • Require oxygen • Glucose is completely oxidised to produces 36 to 38 molecules of ATP// 2898 kJ energy (high energy) • Takes place in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of cells C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + Energy (2898 kJ)
  10. 10. Anaerobic respiration • Without oxygen • Glucose is not completely broken down to energy • Microorganisms live in animal intestine, in soil or sediment underlying lakes, an active contracting muscle • Releases only 2 ATP (low energy) • Takes place in the cytoplasm
  11. 11. Muscle cells (anaerobic respiration) • Prolonged physical activity - O2 supplied not enough - O2 needed > O2 supplied - muscle cells undergo anaerobic respiration • Muscles in state of O2 deficiency, O2 debt occurred • Oxygen debt : muscle cells produce ATP without oxygen
  12. 12. • Glucose molecules break down partially into intermediate substance – LACTIC ACID • Energy low because much of energy still trapped within molecules of lactic acid. • High concentration of lactic acid may cause muscular cramp and fatigue, tiredness C6H12O6 2C3H6O3 + Energy (150kJ) lactic acid
  13. 13. • After the activity the person need to breathe deeply and rapidly to inhale more O2 - Oxygen is used to oxidise accumulated lactic acid to form carbon dioxide and water (occur mainly in liver) Lactic acid + Oxygen CO2 + water + energy Remaining lactic acid converted into glycogen and stored in muscle cells
  14. 14. • Oxygen debt is paid off when all of lactic acid is removed (increasing breathing rate after vigorous activity) Oxygen debt – Amount of oxygen needed to remove lactic acid from muscle cells
  15. 15. C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 H2O+ + energy
  16. 16. In yeast • Anaerobic respiration in yeast also known as fermentation C6H12O6 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH + Energy(210kJ) ethanol Zymase • Ethanol can be used in wine & beer production • CO2 released causes the dough to rise (to make bread)
  17. 17. Why aerobic respiration produced more energy than anaerobic respiration???
  18. 18. Comparison between Aerobic Respiration & Anaerobic Respiration Similarities •To form cellular respiration • Involve the breakdown of glucose • Produces energy • Are catalyzed by enzymes • Occurs in animal and plants
  19. 19. Comparison between Aerobic Respiration & Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration Items Anaerobic Respiration Almost every living cells Work by Certain plant, yeast, bacteria and muscle Required Oxygen requirement Not required Complete oxidation Oxidation of glucose Incomplete oxidation CO2, Water and Energy Product Yeast CO2, Ethanol and Energy Muscle Lactic acid and Energy
  20. 20. Comparison between Aerobic Respiration & Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration Items Anaerobic Respiration Large amount Energy released Small amount Mitochondria and cytoplasm Site Cytoplasm C6H12O6 + 6O2 Glucose ↓ 6CO2 + H20 + 2898 kJ Energy Chemical Equation In Yeast: C6H12O6 Glucose ↓ 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH + 210 kJ Ethanol Energy In Muscle cells: C6H12O6 Glucose ↓ 2C3H6O3 + 150kJ Lactic acid Energy 38 molecules Number of ATP molecules produced 2 molecules
  21. 21. 7.2 Analysing the respiratory structure and breathing mechanism in human and anima
  22. 22. Adaptations of respiratory structures (General characteristics) • Respiratory surface is moist – easy for gases to dissolve before diffuse • Cells lining the respiratory surface are thin – allow rapid diffusion of gases • Respiratory structure has large surface area – efficient gaseous exchange
  23. 23. addition • Ventilation mechanism - move gases from respiratory medium respiratory structures - increase the rate of gaseous exchange, maintain high level of oxygen and low level of c.dioxide at respiratory surfaces • Respiratory structures covered by a network of blood capillaries – efficient exchange and transport of respiratory gases
  24. 24. The larger the size of organism, the smaller the TSA/V ratio
  25. 25. Protozoa – Unicellular Organism Oxygen nutrients Carbon dioxide Waste products The respiratory surface of an unicellular organism is through plasma membrane
  26. 26. • Unicellular has no special structure to absorb oxygen or to expel carbon dioxide • The gaseous exchange occurs through the entire plasma membrane by simple diffusion
  27. 27. • Concentration of O2 is higher in surrounding water compared in the cell, so O2 diffuse into the cell through plasma membrane by simple diffusion • Concentration of CO2 is higher in the cell compared to surrounding water, so CO2 diffuse out of the cell through plasma membrane by simple diffusion
  28. 28. Adaptations • Size is small, so has a large surface area to volume ratio _ so rate of diffusion increases • The surrounding is wet , plasma membrane constantly moist, so gases easily dissolve and diffuse across respiratory surface. • Thin plasma membrane, rapid diffusion of gases
  29. 29. Multicellular organism • Small, flattened, thin body - has high TSA/V ratio, gaseous exchange occur efficiently - do not require specialised gaseous exchange system, diffuse through the body
  30. 30. • Complex multicellular organism - needs specialised respiratory stuctures for efficient gaseous exchange - must have large TSA/V ratio
  31. 31. The respiratory structure and breathing mechanism of fish
  32. 32. The gill of fish Operculum
  33. 33. The gill of fish
  34. 34. • Four pairs of gills (protected by operculum) • Each gill consists of bony gill arch supporting two rows of thin gill filament • Each gill filament is composed of numerous thin-walled lamellae • Lamellae - arranged parallel to each other - rich with blood capillaries • Lamellae and filament provide a large surface area for gaseous exchange
  35. 35. • Absorb dissolved oxygen from the surrounding water • The membrane of the gill filaments is thin – allows the absorption of respiratory gases into the blood capillaries rapidly • The filaments are supplied with blood capillaries – for efficient exchange and transport of respiratory gases
  36. 36. The structural Adaptation of the gills: a. Thin membrane of filament to allow rapid diffusion of respiratory gases into the blood capillaries b. Rich of blood capillaries for efficient exchange and transport of respiratory gases c. Surrounded by water which enable respiratory gases to be dissolved d. Large surface area of filaments and lamellae for efficient gases exchange
  37. 37. The Mechanism of Countercurrent Exchange (gaseous exchange efficiently) a. The water flows over the gills in one direction b. The blood flows in the opposite direction through blood capillaries in the lamellae c. As deoxygenated blood enters the blood capillaries, it encounters water with a higher oxygen content d. Along the blood capillaries, the concentration gradient allow the transfer of O2 into the blood e. However, the concentration of CO2 is higher than in water, makes the CO2 diffused from blood into water
  38. 38. • The efficiency of fish gills is further increased by ventilation ( by swimming, opening and closing the operculum,)increase in flow of water over respiratory surface  Draws freshwater into mouth, then passes over gills.
  39. 39. • Absorb dissolved oxygen from the surrounding water • The membrane of the gill filaments is thin – allows the absorption of respiratory gases into the blood capillaries • The filaments are supplied with blood capillaries – for efficient exchange and transport of respiratory gases INHALATION EXHALATION
  40. 40. INHALATION • The floor of the buccal cavity is lowered • At the same time, the opercular cavity is enlarge and the operculum closes • This lowers the pressure in the buccal cavity • Water with dissolved oxygen is drawn into the mouth
  41. 41. EXHALATION • When the mouth closes, the floor of the buccal cavity is raised • Water flows through the lamellae and gases exchange between the blood capillaries and water occurs • The pressure in buccal cavity is higher than the pressure outside • The higher water pressure forces the operculum to open and water to flow out through the operculum
  42. 42. The respiratory structure and breathing mechanism of insects
  43. 43. • The respiratory system of insects is the tracheal system (it consists of air tubes called tracheae) • Air enter the trachea through spiracles which are located at the thorax and abdomen • Spiracles have valve which allow air go in and out of the body • Tracheae reinforced with rings of chitin – prevent from collapsing
  44. 44. • The branching of trachea and tracheoles increase the surface area for gases exchange • Certain insects have air sacs in tracheal system • Contain air that speeds up movement of gases to and from tissues during vigorous body movement.
  45. 45. The tracheal system of an insect Body wall spiracle tracheole Body cell Trachea (Reinforced with rings of chitin which prevent from collapsing) AIR
  46. 46. ADAPTATIONS OF TRACHEOLES • Large number- provide large surface area for gases exchange • Tip of tracheoles have thin permeable wall – allow rapid diffusion of respiratory gases • Tips of tracheoles have fluid-allow respiratory gases to dissolve • Direct contact with tissues and organs,o2 directly diffuse into the cells, and co2 directly diffuse out of the cells (no need blood to transport)
  47. 47. • Larger insects like grasshopper have air sacs in their tracheal system which speed up the movement of gases
  48. 48. BREATHING MECHANISM • Rhythmic contraction and relaxation of abdominal muscles • The movement of abdominal muscle will compress and expand the trachea to speed up the diffusion of gases into the cell • Inhales – abdominal muscles relax, spiracles open - air pressure inside tracheae lowered, air drawn in
  49. 49. • Exhales – abdominal muscles contract - air pressure increased, air forced out through spiracles Circulatory system not involved in transporting O2 and CO2
  50. 50. The respiratory structure and breathing mechanism of amphibians
  51. 51. The respiratory structure in an amphibian Skin Lung
  52. 52. Adaptation of the skin for gases exchange 1. The skin is thin and highly permeable - To allow rapid diffusion of respiratory gases into the blood capillaries 2. Beneath the skin is a network of blood capillaries - To transport respiratory gases to and from body cells 3. The skin is kept moist by the secretion of mucus by glands found on the outer surface of the body - Facilitate rapid and efficient exchange of gases between the skin and the environment
  53. 53. Adaptation of the Lung for gases exchange 1. The surface area for gases exchange is increased by numerous inner partition - To increase the surface area for gases exchange 2. Covered with a rich network of blood capillary - To transport respiratory gases to and from body cells 3. The membrane of the lungs thin and moist - Facilitate the efficient diffusion of respiratory gases in and out rapidly
  54. 54. The Breathing Mechanism of Frog INHALATION 1. During inhalation, the air is drawn into the bucco- pharyngeal cavity through a nostril 2. The glottis is closed and the stale air remains in the lungs 3. When the glottis open, the nostrils are closed 4. The increased air pressure forces air into the lungs 5. The lungs expand when air is pushed into them from bucco-pharyngeal cavity 6. The rapid movements of bucco-pharyngeal floor, this will accumulate fresh air for ventilation
  55. 55. The Breathing Mechanism of Frog EXHALATION When the lungs muscles contract, air is expelled from the lungs (with the help of abdominal pressure and elasticity of the lungs) Some air escapes through the nostrils while the rest of the air mixes with that in the bucco- pharyngeal cavity
  56. 56. Respiratory Structure of Humans 1. Gases exchange in humans take place in the lungs. 2. Air enters the lungs the lungs through: Trachea →Bronchi → Bronchioles → Alveoli 3. Trachea is supported by cartilage which keep it from collapse during inhalation
  57. 57. The human lung
  58. 58. Rib cage (protect the lungs)
  59. 59. Alveoli
  60. 60. Features of Alveoli and the Function In Gases Exchange Walls are made of a single of cells Large number of alveoli in the lungs Walls secrete a thin lining of moisture Surrounded by a network of blood capillaries Increased surface area for gases exchange Gases can diffuse rapidly across the thin walls Gases can dissolve in moisture and diffuse easily across walls Can transport oxygen and CO2 efficiently
  61. 61. Breathing Mechanism in Humans INHALATION 1. External intercostal muscles contract 2. Internal intercostal muscle relax 3. The rib cage move upwards and outwards 4. The diaphragm muscle contracts and flattens 5. Volume of the thoracic cavity increase resulting in reduced air pressure in alveoli 6. Higher atmospheric pressure outside causes the air to rush in
  62. 62. Breathing Mechanism in Humans EXHALATION 1.External intercostal muscles relax 2.Internal intercostal muscle contract 3.The rib cage mobe downwards and inwards 4.The diaphragm relaxes and returns to dome-shaped 5.Volume of thoracic cavity decrease resulting in higher air pressure in alveoli 6.Air is forced out of lungs
  63. 63. Breathing Mechanism in Humans INHALATION/INSPIRATION EXHALATION/EXSPIRATION Diaphragm
  64. 64. Breathing Mechanism in Humans INHALATION/INSPIRATIONEXHALATION/EXSPIRATION
  65. 65. Structures Inhalation Exhalation External intercostal muscles Internal intercostal muscles Rib cage Diaphragm Volume Pressure Air flow
  66. 66. Compare and contrast the human respiratory system with that of other organisms
  67. 67. Adaptation Organisms Large surface area Respiratory structure Moisture Network of blood capillaries Protozoa Small size Plasma membrane Dissolved gases None Insects Numerous tracheoles Tracheoles Tip of tracheoles None Fish Numerous filaments and lamellae filaments and lamellae Dissolved gases Available Amphibians Lungs skin Lungs and skin Wet skin Available Humans Numerous alveolus alveoli Moist surface Available
  68. 68. The gases exchange occurs at two parts: a. Between the surface of alveolus – blood capillaries b. Between the blood capillaries – body cells
  69. 69. Gases exchange (alveoli-blood capillary) High Partial Pressure of O2 Low Partial Pressure of O2
  70. 70. Gas Partial pressure Effects Air in the alveoli Blood capillaries O2 High Low O2 diffuses from the alveoli into the blood capillaries CO2 Low High CO2 diffuses from the blood capillaries into the alveoli The differences between the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in the air of the alveoli and in the blood capillaries
  71. 71. Oxygen Body cells Gases exchange (blood capillary-body cells) High Partial Pressure of O2 Low Partial Pressure of O2
  72. 72. Gas Partial pressure Effects Air in the blood capillaries Body cells O2 High Low Oxyhaemoglobin breaks down and releases O2 which then diffuses through the capillaries walls into the body cells CO2 Low High CO2 produces from cellular respiration diffuses from the body cells into the blood capillaries The differences between the partial pressure of O2 and CO2 in the air in the blood capillaries and body cells
  73. 73. Oxygen ( blood capillary- body cells) The partial pressure of oxygen in the blood capillary is higher than in the tissue fluid Oxyhaemoglobin breaks up into oxygen and haemoglobin Oxygen diffuses out of the blood capillary into the tissue fluid and then to the tissues
  74. 74. a) Transport of O2 from lungs to body cell 1. O2 in the blood that leaves the alveoli is transported to body cells for cellular respiration 2. O2 is combines with a pigment called haemoglobin which is contained in the red blood cells 3. A haemoglobin molecule consists of 4 units, each with a heme group that has a ferum atom at its centre 4. O2 is carried in the form of oxyhaemoglobin to all parts of the body: The Transport of Respiratory Gases in Humans Haemoglobin + O2 → Oxyhaemoglobin
  75. 75. b) Transport of CO2 from body cells to lungs CO2 released by body cells can be transported in 3 ways: • Carbonic acid (7%) - CO2 dissolve in water in the blood plasma • Carbaminohaemoglobin (23%) - CO2 combines with haemoglobin • Bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) (70%) –Form from the breakdown of carbonic acid The Transport of Respiratory Gases in Humans
  76. 76. Carbon dioxide ( body cells-blood capillary) The partial pressure of CO2 in the body cells/tissue fluid is higher than in the blood capillary CO2 diffuses into the blood capillary
  77. 77. • Small amount is taken up by haemoglobin in the form of carbaminohaemoglobin carbon dioxide + haemoglobin carbaminohaemoglobin
  78. 78. • Most of CO2 combines with water to form carbonic acid • Carbonic acid will break down into bicarbonate ions • The reaction is catalysed by carbonic anhydrase enzyme in the red blood cell
  79. 79. CO2 + Hb Carbaminohaemoglobin CO2 + H2O H2CO3 (carbonic acid) HCO3 - (Bicarbonate ion) H+ Blood plasma
  80. 80. Carbon dioxide ( blood capillary-alveoli) The partial pressure of CO2 in the alveolus is lower than in the blood capillary Bicarbonate ions diffuses from the blood plasma into the red blood cell to form carbonic acid Carbonic acid breaks down to CO2 and water CO2 diffuses from the blood capillary to the alveoli
  81. 81. The composition of inhaled and exhaled air
  82. 82. Content Inhaled air Exhaled air Oxygen 21.09 % 16.4 % Carbon dioxide 0.03 % 4.1 % Nitrogen 79.0 % 79.0 % Water vapour Varies Never saturated Saturated Temperature Room Temperature Body temperature
  83. 83. 7.4 Understanding the regulatory mechanism in respiration
  84. 84. • All metabolic process need energy • The rate of cell respiration is directly related to the energy requirement of the body • An increase in activity will increase the rate of ventilation
  85. 85. • During vigorous exercise, the muscle require more O2 and glucose to release more energy during cellular respiration. Therefore, the rate of respiration increases • In order to supply more O2, the rate and depth of breathing increases • This means the breathing rate increases (no. of breath per minute) • At the same time, the heartbeat rate increases to pump more blood into circulation Correlate the rate of respiration with the rate of heart beat
  86. 86. • This enable more O2 and glucose to be supplied for cellular respiration and for more CO2 to be removed from the cells • The ventilation rate also increases • Rate of ventilation is the rate of gases exchange between the alveoli and blood capillaries Correlate the rate of respiration with the rate of heart beat
  87. 87. The change in breathing rate after completing a vigorous exercise Under normal condition - 15 to 20 times per minute After vigorous exercise – 30 to 35 times per minute
  88. 88. The change in rate of heartbeat after completing a vigorous exercise Under normal condition – 60 to 70 beats per minute After vigorous exercise – 120 beats per minute
  89. 89. Intercoastal muscles & diaphragm Respiratory Control Centre ( Medulla oblongata ) impulses Also helps to monitor CO2 level & regulating the amount of CO2 released during exhalation Control the respiration rate
  90. 90. Active cellular activity CO2 level will increase Reduce the pH level of the blood Detected by the central chemoreceptor in medulla oblongata Increase the rate of breathing and ventilation Diaphragm and intercoastal muscles (contract and relax faster) Normal concentration of CO2 and pH value
  91. 91. In fear • Breathing and heartbeat rates increase to increase rate of cellular respiration in cells. • Higher rate of cellular respiration needed to generate more energy, so can cope better in distress or in fear • Adrenal glands secretes hormone adrenaline, increases heartbeat and breathing rates (more glucose and oxygen supplied to muscles) • Prepares the person to respond to dangerous situation
  92. 92. Peripheral chemoreceptor • Aortic bodies (aortic arch) and carotid bodies (carotid artery) • Sensitive to both the CO2 content and pH of blood. • If level of oxygen is severely low (high altitudes), peripheral chemoreceptor stimulated and send nerve impulse to respiratory centre
  93. 93. At high altitudes • Atmospheric pressure is low, difficult to breath • Partial pressure of oxygen decreased, drop in oxygen level of blood • Will experience headaches, nausea, dizziness • After few days, the body will become acclimatised to the condition as haemoglobin’s affinity for oxygen is reduced and more oxygen released to body tissues.
  94. 94. Sensors on the walls of aorta and carotid arteries (neck)(peripheral chemoreceptor) Send nerve impulses to the medulla oblongata The rate of breathing and ventilation increases ( to obtain more O2) , concentration of O2 back to normal The respiratory centre usually does not respond directly to O2 level
  95. 95. 6.5 Realising the importance of maintaining a healthy respiratory system
  96. 96. Why there’s a need to maintain a healthy respiratory system ??
  97. 97. • Try to avoid living in a polluted environment - because poisonous substances from the atmosphere could damage the lungs • Wear mask • Do Not SMOKING !!!!
  98. 98. Healthy lungs Diseased lungs
  99. 99. DON’T SMOKE !!!!!
  100. 100. 7.6 Understanding respiration in plants
  101. 101. The energy requirement in plants
  102. 102. • Plants need energy to carry out living processes : 1. Meristems cells - cell division 2. Root hair cells – active transport 3. Growth 4. Reproduction
  103. 103. Aerobic respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP
  104. 104. Anaerobic respiration C6H12O6 2CO2 + 2C2H5OH + 2ATP ethanol
  105. 105. The intake of oxygen for respiration
  106. 106. Stomata
  107. 107. Lower epidermis Upper epidermis Cuticle Palisade mesophyll Vascular bundle Xylem Phloem Spongy mesophyll Air space stoma O2 CO2
  108. 108. • Photosynthesis occurs during the day • O2 from photosynthesis is used up during respiration • CO2 from respiration is used in photosynthesis • If photosynthesis rate is higher the excess O2 is removed out • Gaseous exchange also occur through lenticel (the pores on the surface of root and stem
  109. 109. oxygen Carbon dioxide chloroplast mitochondria
  110. 110. Compensation Point The point reached in a plant when the rate of photosynthesis is equal to the rate of respiration
  111. 111. Night • Photosynthesis does not take place • Only respiration take place • Carbon dioxide is released to into the atmosphere
  112. 112. Low light Intensity • as the light intensity increases, the rate of photosynthesis also increases • it will come to a certain stage where all the carbon dioxide released during respiration is used up in photosynthesis ( p/s = r ) • at this point there is no accumulation of sugar and oxygen
  113. 113. High Light Intensity • When the light intensity is higher than the c.p , the rate of photosynthesis is higher than the rate of respiration • Carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere • There is an accumulation of sugar and oxygen
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