A disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a society, causing widespread human, material, or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected society to cope using only its own resources. Disasters are often classified according to their speed of onset (sudden or slow) or according to their cause (natural or man-made).
Disaster is a crisis situation that far exceeds the capabilities’
Definitions you should know
Hazard-A hazard is a rare or extreme event in the natural or man-made environment that adversely affects human life, property or activity to the extent of causing a disaster.
Risk - Risk is expected loss (lives lost, persons injured, damage to property and disruption of economic activity) due to a particular hazard. Risk is the product of hazard and vulnerability. Vulnerability - The vulnerability of a building, a population, or an entire country is measured by how susceptible it is to harm or loss in the face of a hazard .
Causes of Disasters
Poverty Changes in cultural practices Population Growth Environmental Degradation Rapid Urbanization War and Civil strife Lack of Public Awareness and Information
Why, when and where do disasters occur?
Meteorological( Drought, floods and cyclones ) Topographical ( Earthquakes, and Volcanic Eruptions) Technological (Chemical Accidents, Industrial accidents and Oil Spills)
Disaster management is the body of policy, administrative decisions and operational activities required to prepare for, mitigate, respond to, and repair the effects of natural or man-made disasters
DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
Alert, Preparedness, Response, Prevention, Mitigation and Rehabilitation
TYPES OF DISASTER
Example – earthquakes, floods, landslides, etc.
Man made disasters.
Example – war, bomb blasts, chemical leaks, etc .
VICTIMS AND SURVIVORS
Primary survivor – One who is exposed to the disaster first-hand and then survives. They are called ‘survivor victims’.
Secondary survivor – One who grieves the loss of primary victims. Example, a mother who lost her child, or a man who lost his friend.
Third level survivor – The rescue and relief personnel. These people are also affected due to the disaster as they are at the site of disaster and undergo almost the same mental trauma as the other victims.
Fourth level survivor – Reporters, Government personnel, traders, etc.
Fifth level survivor – People who read about or see the event in media reports.
THE SECOND DISASTER
THE SECOND DISASTER
The actual disaster results in a lot of damage to the population in terms of loss of life and property. This direct result can be dubbed as the ‘ first disaster’ . The impact of the first disaster sends another wave of damage triggered by chain of events relating to the first disaster by means of cause-and-effect, resulting in indirect damage to people remote from the original disaster. This can be called the ‘second disaster’
PSYCHO SOCIAL ASPECTS OF DISASTER
There is a phenomenal increase in the incidence of psychiatric disorders in the affected population. The common problems include
Acute stress disorder
Post traumatic stress disorder
Alcohol and drug abuse
Definition : Any situation that has the potential for doing damage to life, property and/or the environment