Labyrinth of Leadership - Challenges for Women in the Workplace

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This presentation discusses the Labyrinth of Leadership and the multiple dilemma's facing women in the workplace today. It is part of a leadership series Dr. Ann Beatty presented July 10, 2012.

This presentation discusses the Labyrinth of Leadership and the multiple dilemma's facing women in the workplace today. It is part of a leadership series Dr. Ann Beatty presented July 10, 2012.

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  • When women leaders were asked by researchers to describe themselves and their source of power, these were the most frequent responses. This is different than the male leaders’ responses, who frequently brought up their formal authority, position within the organization and rewards/punishment. By using their interpersonal skills and making others feel positive and involved in the work they’re doing, they can create positive results for the organization and their own power. Women may tend to take this approach to make themselves likable to others while at the same time maintaining authority. The Maxine character was first created in 1986 for Hallmark by John Wagner and was inspired by the mother, grandmother and maiden aunts who helped raised him
  • Women’s strengths as leaders aren’t confined to feminine qualities, such as communality and interpersonal skills. In a recent study focusing on the 360 evaluations of high-level male and female leaders, female leaders were rated higher on the above qualities than male qualities. This is promising because these practices are related to an organization’s success
  • Motivating others by transforming their self-interest into the goals of the organization. Transformational leadership involves interpersonally involving subordinates in the goals and leading in a way that makes followers share in the organization’s mission. Seen more from women than men. People have a positive reaction to transformational leadership and it creates positive results for organizations. The results show quantifiable reasons for career progression. They mentor and empower followers, encouraging development. Transactional leaders establish give and take relationships that appeal to subordinates’ self-interests. Clarify responsibilities Reward for meeting objectives Correct or punish for failing to meet objectives
  • Motivating others by transforming their self-interest into the goals of the organization. Transformational leadership involves interpersonally involving subordinates in the goals and leading in a way that makes followers share in the organization’s mission. Seen more from women than men. People have a positive reaction to transformational leadership and it creates positive results for organizations. The results show quantifiable reasons for career progression. They mentor and empower followers, encouraging development. Transactional leaders establish give and take relationships that appeal to subordinates’ self-interests. Clarify responsibilities Reward for meeting objectives Correct or punish for failing to meet objectives
  • Sit at the table -- reach for opportunity. Women underestimate their own abilities; don't negotiate for themselves; sit on the sidelines instead of the table; don't understand their own success 57% of men negotiate their salaries, only 7% of women2. Make your partner a real partner -- Share home duties and have their emotional support3. Don't leave before you leave -- Actions women take often lead to them leaving the workforce. Get the job you want before you take family leave so that you’re passionate about the job that you’re coming back to.“The most common way people give up their power is…by thinking they don’t have any.”-Alice Walker

Transcript

  • 1. The Labyrinth of Leadership Presented by Ann Beatty, Ph.D. President Copyright © Psychological Associates® 2012 1.0x July 10, 2012
  • 2. The Labyrinth of LeadershipWhat is a labryinth? A labyrinth represents a journey towards your goal, where there might be unexpected turns Passage through a labyrinth is not simple or direct It requires: – Persistence – Awareness of one’s progress – Careful analysis of the puzzles that lie ahead Picture: – Formal garden with high hedge rows – Once entering, you find 3 doorways – Which one is right?A ―view from above‖, where the eye can take in the whole puzzle, is helpful 2
  • 3. The Labyrinth of LeadershipWhy a labyrinth? The Glass Ceiling and its limitations are fading But women leaders still have a labyrinth of obstacles to navigate Women’s unique leadership attributes, coupled with a supportive context, enable them to navigate these obstacles to a point of personal fulfillment 3
  • 4. Can Women Have It All? Signs of progress made and obstacles to overcome 4
  • 5. Can Women Have It All?Progress made Studies have shown that people expect women to advance in leadership roles and gain power Polls of Americans show that the majority expect a woman president or vice president within their lifetimes Broadly, the idea is that women are advancing towards equality 5
  • 6. Can Women Have It All?Progress made Since President Kennedy signed the Equal Pay Act in 1963, the pay gap has narrowed Efforts have continued with The Lily Ledbetter Fair Pay Act in 2009 and the recently formed National Equal Pay Task Force Progress is being made 6
  • 7. Can Women Have It All?Progress Made Angela Merkel, Susan Rice, 1st female Chancellor the 2nd youngest and the of Germany 1st African American woman U.S. Representative to the UN Indra Nooyi, Shirley Tilghman, CEO and chief 1st female President of executive of Pepsi Princeton University in Co since 2006 2001 7
  • 8. Can Women Have It All?Progress made More advanced degrees 2011 U.S. census figures: – Women earn 57% of all undergraduate degrees – 1.4 million more bachelor’s degrees than men – Among women 25 and older, 10.6 million master’s degrees, compared to 10.5 million degrees earned by men 8
  • 9. Can Women Have It All?Progress made More female managers 40% of managers in the U.S. are female Although not the majority, managerial positions show room for advancement to more power 9
  • 10. Can Women Have It All?Obstacles to overcome Underrepresented at CEO/Board level Although upper-middle managers are a significant portion of upper-level managers (known by some researchers as the Marzipan Layer of leadership), it does not guarantee advancement Only 6% of the Fortune 500 executives are female Only 2% of those companies have female CEOs 10
  • 11. Can Women Have It All?Obstacles to overcome Lack of sponsorship Who will advocate for a female manager’s advancement and ―go to bat‖ for her to be promoted? The sponsor is typically an older, married male Putting effort towards a young, unmarried female’s career can look like an affair Hewlett, Sylvia Ann, The Real Benefits of Finding a Sponsor 11
  • 12. Can Women Have It All?Obstacles to overcome What will the female’s promotion/advancement be attributed to? Research from the Gender and Policy program at Columbia has shown that 2/3 of top male executives are reluctant to sponsor a junior female executive, and that junior female executives are also reluctant to have that relationship Hewlett, Sylvia Ann, The Real Benefits of Finding a Sponsor 12
  • 13. Can Women Have It All?Obstacles to overcome With the narrow opportunities for women to advance, research has shown that women can feel competitive towards each other If a woman sponsors another female employee, how will that affect her career options? How will that be perceived? Hewlett, Sylvia Ann, The Real Benefits of Finding a Sponsor 13
  • 14. Can Women Have It All?Obstacles to overcome Demands of family life Women take the majority of family responsibilities, which results in – Breaks from their careers – Working part time – Working from home – Taking days off This slows career progress and reduces earnings Even in times where men share more of the family responsibilities, there’s still a trade-off between career and family ambitions 14
  • 15. Can Women Have It All?Obstacles to overcomeAs Anne-MarieSlaughter pointed out inher recent article in TheAtlantic, careerobligations can make itdifficult to be the idealparent and professional 15
  • 16. Can Women Have It All?Obstacles to overcome Unique need to balance competence and warmth: – Do people expect women to be assertive and dominant? – Do they expect their managers to be sensitive and compassionate? It can be challenging for women to be perceived as capable leaders for the highest levels of organizations, because they may not convey enough warmth or enough competence Working women have two sets of expectations to meet, one as managers and one as women (known by researchers as ―the double bind‖) Does a woman’s success imply that she is likable? 16
  • 17. Women’s Strengths as Leaders Unique, inspiring approach 17
  • 18. Women as LeadersWhat is seen as helpful to their power?When women leaders were asked by researchersto describe themselves and their source of power,these were the most frequent responses: Charisma and  Personal contacts enthusiasm  Engaged Interpersonal skills subordinates Hard work  Encouragement and support 18
  • 19. Women as LeadersWhat is seen as helpful to their power? Different than responses from male leaders, who frequently brought up their formal authority, position within the organization, and rewards/punishment By using their interpersonal skills and making others feel positive and involved in the work they’re doing, woman can create positive results for the organization and their own power Women may tend to take this approach to make themselves likable to others, while at the same time maintaining authority 19
  • 20. Women as LeadersWhat surprising qualities do women exemplify?  Women’s strengths as leaders aren’t confined to feminine qualities, such as communality and interpersonal skills.  In a recent study focusing on the 360 evaluations of high-level male and female leaders, female leaders were rated higher on these qualities than male leaders: – Seizing initiative – Communicating powerfully – Driving for results – Displaying professional expertise – Establishing goals – Taking risk  This is promising because these practices are related to an organization’s success HBR, ―Are Women Better Leaders Than Men?‖, 2012 20
  • 21. Women as LeadersTen Keys to Leadership 1. Be committed to success 2. Set proper priorities 3. Set and demand high standards of excellence 4. Be tough but fair in dealing with people 5. Concentrate on positives and possibilities 6. Develop and maintain a strong sense of urgency 7. Pay attention to detail 8. Provide for the ability to fail 9. Be personally involved10. Have fun Charles F. Knight, Performance Without Compromise, 2005 21
  • 22. Women as LeadersReflections on leadership approach “Sweeping action may be gratifying and may create the aura of strong leadership, but its unintended consequences may lead to costs that are too high to bear . . . Being an incrementalist does not mean that I lack vision.” — Teresa Sullivan, President, University of Virginia, 2012 22
  • 23. Women as LeadersReflections on leadership approach  Teresa Sullivan has been president at UVA for two years, and during that time, felt the financial crunch that many universities share in this economy  The central disagreement between Ms. Sullivan and the Board was not whether change in an of itself was necessary, but rather, at what pace and what degree  Her standpoint on her leadership style is unique, and shows that it may not be the typical approach, but could be effective in the long term 23
  • 24. Navigating the LabyrinthContributions fromindividuals, organizations, and society How can individuals anticipate the turns in the labyrinth? What can organizations do to support female leaders? How does society need to transform? 24
  • 25. Navigating the LabyrinthWhat can women do as individuals? Practice engaging,  Transformational interactive leadership involves transformational interpersonally leadership involving subordinates Motivate others by in the goals and transforming their self- leading in a way that interest into the goals makes followers share of the organization in the organization’s mission  It’s seen more from women than men HBR, ―Women and the Labyrinth of Leadership‖, 2007 25
  • 26. Navigating the LabyrinthWhat can women do as individuals? People have a positive reaction to transformational leadership, and it creates positive results for organizations The results show quantifiable reasons for career progression They mentor and empower followers, encouraging development Transactional leaders establish give-and-take relationships that appeal to subordinates’ self-interests – Clarify responsibilities – Reward for meeting objectives – Correct or punish for failing to meet objectives HBR, ―Women and the Labyrinth of Leadership‖, 2007 26
  • 27. Navigating the LabyrinthWhat can women do as individuals?Practice engaging, interactive transformational leadership Setting goals Empowering Positive, qua and others to ntitative ROI developing a reach their for plan to potential organizations achieve them HBR, ―Women and the Labyrinth of Leadership‖, 2007 27
  • 28. Navigating the LabyrinthWhat can women do as individuals? Sit at the table: Advocate for your career’s progress Women underestimate their own abilities; dont negotiate for themselves; sit on the Sheryl Sandberg sidelines instead of the table; Chief Operating Officer, First Female Board dont understand their own Member, success Facebook 57% of men negotiate their salaries; only 7% of women TEDWomen – Sheryl Sandberg - 2010 do so 28
  • 29. Navigating the LabyrinthWhat can women do as individuals? Make sure your partner is a real partner – Share in responsibilities – Support one another’s goals Don’t leave before you leave – Focus on career goals, even when anticipating personal goals “The most common way people give up their power is . . . by thinking they don’t have any.” — Alice Walker 29
  • 30. Navigating the LabyrinthHow can organizations help? Establish mentoring programs to guide novice employees towards advancement Evaluate employees using explicit performance evaluation criteria to ensure fairness and prevent gender bias Use open recruiting tools rather than relying only on referrals to be more inclusive towards women and new points of view Implement family-friendly policies for both male and female employees to help retain high performers HBR, ―Women and the Labyrinth of Leadership‖, 2007 30
  • 31. Navigating the Labyrinth How can organizations help? Prevent tokenism:  Create teams consisting of more than one woman to reduce the ―value threat‖  Give line responsibility as a developmental experience to women  Emphasize the visibility of women in high- level leadership positionsDuguid, ―Female Tokens in High-Prestige Work Groups: Catalysts or Inhibitors of Group Diversification‖, 2012 31
  • 32. Navigating the LabyrinthHow can society transform?  Does American society help women have it all?  Schedule control and work flexibility can make the difference  Being able to integrate work and family life could allow for more fulfillment Slaughter, Anne-Marie, The Atlantic, 2012 32
  • 33. Navigating the LabyrinthHow can society transform? It’s not that women aren’t committed or don’t have leadership capabilities, it’s the way American society views work Slaughter was able to control her schedule as a high-level university professor/dean, but not in the State Department, and that put a strain on the time she could devote to parenting Today’s workplace is not set up to have work and family life complement each other; instead, they’re at odds If family obligations were valued more and seen more positively, it could allow for more fulfillment of career goals without having to abandon family obligations Slaughter, Anne-Marie, The Atlantic, 2012 33
  • 34. Navigating the LabyrinthHow can society transform?  What if valuing both family and professional success were the new norm?  What if family could be the higher priority?  More support for the Anne-Marie Slaughter, Ph.D., people who make this Professor of Politics and choice — for both International Affairs at Princeton University women and men Slaughter, Anne-Marie, The Atlantic, 2012 34
  • 35. Navigating the LabyrinthHow can society transform? If work and family values complemented each other better, how we define work and family obligations would be transformed Discipline, endurance and hard work are not commonly seen as what the working parent has, but if society valued working parents as an advantage to the organization, it could Supporting the people who have family obligations would create structures and policies that support those values For instance, would long hours have to be spent at the office? Could family obligations be visible to colleagues on the shared work calendar? Slaughter, Anne-Marie, The Atlantic, 2012 35
  • 36. Navigating the Labyrinth?? It is really up to each of us 36
  • 37. Going Forward“Our deepest fear is not that we are inadequate.Our deepest fear is that we are powerful beyond measure. It is our light, not our darkness, that frightens us. We ask ourselves, who am I to be: brilliant, gorgeous, talented, and fabulous? Actually, who are you not to be?” — Marianne Williamson 37
  • 38. For more information on this topic, please contact:Psychological Associates rjackson@q4solutions.com The Labyrinth of Leadership Presented by Ann Beatty, Ph.D. President Copyright © Psychological Associates® 2012 1.0x